Project description:Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities are a major risk factor for relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We determined the impact of the recently established 5-group cytogenetic classification of MDS on outcome after HCT. Results were compared with the impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) 3 cytogenetic risk groups, and the additional effect of a monosomal karyotype was assessed. The study included data on 1007 patients, 1-75 years old (median 45 years), transplanted from related (n = 547) or unrelated (n = 460) donors. Various conditioning regimens were used, and marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood served as stem cell source. Both IPSS and 5-group cytogenetic risk classifications were significantly associated with post-HCT relapse and mortality, but the 5-group classification discriminated more clearly among the lowest- and highest-risk patients. A monosomal karyotype tended to further increase the rates of relapse and mortality, even after considering the IPSS or 5-group classifications. In addition, the pathologic disease category correlated with both relapse and mortality. Mortality was also impacted by patient age, donor type, conditioning regimen, platelet count, and etiology of MDS. Although mortality declined significantly in recent years, novel strategies are needed to overcome the barrier of high-risk cytogenetics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: NKG2D, an activating and co-stimulatory receptor expressed on natural killer cells and T cells, plays pivotal roles in immunity to microbial infections as well as in cancer immunosurveillance. This study examined the impact of donor and recipient polymorphisms in the NKG2D gene on the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing allogeneic T-cell-replete myeloablative bone marrow transplantation using an HLA-matched unrelated donor. DESIGN AND METHODS: The NKG2D polymorphism was retrospectively analyzed in a total 145 recipients with hematologic malignancies and their unrelated donors. The patients underwent transplantation following myeloablative conditioning; the recipients and donors were matched through the Japan Marrow Donor Program. RESULTS: In patients with standard-risk disease, the donor NKG2D-HNK1 haplotype, a haplotype expected to induce greater natural killer cell activity, was associated with significantly improved overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.85; p=0.01) as well as transplant related mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.86; p=0.02), but had no impact on disease relapse or the development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease. The NKG2D polymorphism did not significantly influence the transplant outcomes in patients with high-risk disease. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest an association between the donor HNK1 haplotype and better clinical outcome among recipients, with standard-risk disease, of bone marrow transplants from HLA-matched unrelated donors.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) produces similar survival for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Whether these results can be extended to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is unknown. Therefore, analysis of post-HCT outcomes for MDS was performed. Outcomes of 701 adult MDS patients who underwent HCT between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed (MRD [n = 176], 8 of 8 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele matched MUD [n = 413], 7 of 8 MUD [ n = 112]). Median age was 53 years (range, 22-78 years). In multivariate analyses, MRD HCT recipients had similar disease free survival (DFS) and survival rates compared with 8 of 8 MUD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.42] and 1.24 [95% CI 0.98-1.56], respectively), and both MRD and 8 of 8 MUD had superior DFS (RR 1.47 [95% CI 1.10-1.96] and 1.29 [95% CI 1.00-1.66], respectively) and survival (RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21-2.17] and 1.30 [95% CI 1.01-1.68], respectively) compared with 7 of 8 MUD HCT recipients. In patients with MDS, MRD remains the best stem cell source followed by 8 of 8 MUD. Transplantation from 7 of 8 MUD is associated with significantly poorer outcomes.
Project description:Since the first successful allogeneic transplants performed in Seattle 50 years ago, the field of transplantation has evolved considerably, with improvements in human leukocyte antigen typing, patient selection, reduced intensity regimens, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. A major breakthrough has been the availability of more donor options, first via the National Marrow Donor Program-Be the Match [Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008;14:2-7]. Then, in the 1990s, unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation became available, first for children and then for adults [New Engl J Med 1996;35:157-166]. More recently mismatched unrelated transplants and haploidentical donor options became available [Blood 2011;118:282-288]. In 2017, there is a donor for almost every patient who needs a transplant. In this review, we will discuss the state of the science (and art) of cord blood transplant, focusing on successes, challenges, and future directions. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1312-1315.
Project description:Genetic alterations, including mutations and copy-number alterations, are central to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes and related diseases (myelodysplasia), but their roles in allogeneic stem cell transplantation have not fully been studied in a large cohort of patients. We enrolled 797 patients who had been diagnosed with myelodysplasia at initial presentation and received transplantation via the Japan Marrow Donor Program. Targeted-capture sequencing was performed to identify mutations in 69 genes, together with copy-number alterations, whose effects on transplantation outcomes were investigated. We identified 1776 mutations and 927 abnormal copy segments among 617 patients (77.4%). In multivariate modeling using Cox proportional-hazards regression, genetic factors explained 30% of the total hazards for overall survival; clinical characteristics accounted for 70% of risk. TP53 and RAS-pathway mutations, together with complex karyotype (CK) as detected by conventional cytogenetics and/or sequencing-based analysis, negatively affected posttransplant survival independently of clinical factors. Regardless of disease subtype, TP53-mutated patients with CK were characterized by unique genetic features and associated with an extremely poor survival with frequent early relapse, whereas outcomes were substantially better in TP53-mutated patients without CK. By contrast, the effects of RAS-pathway mutations depended on disease subtype and were confined to myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPNs). Our results suggest that TP53 and RAS-pathway mutations predicted a dismal prognosis, when associated with CK and MDS/MPNs, respectively. However, for patients with mutated TP53 or CK alone, long-term survival could be obtained with transplantation. Clinical sequencing provides vital information for accurate prognostication in transplantation.
Project description:An international expert panel, active within the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European LeukemiaNet, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trial Group, and the International Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation developed recommendations for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Disease risks scored according to the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) and presence of comorbidity graded according to the HCT Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were recognized as relevant clinical variables for HSCT eligibility. Fit patients with higher-risk IPSS-R and those with lower-risk IPSS-R with poor-risk genetic features, profound cytopenias, and high transfusion burden are candidates for HSCT. Patients with a very high MDS transplantation risk score, based on combination of advanced age, high HCT-CI, very poor-risk cytogenetic and molecular features, and high IPSS-R score have a low chance of cure with standard HSCT and consideration should be given to treating these patients in investigational studies. Cytoreductive therapy prior to HSCT is advised for patients with ≥10% bone marrow myeloblasts. Evidence from prospective randomized clinical trials does not provide support for specific recommendations on the optimal high intensity conditioning regimen. For patients with contraindications to high-intensity preparative regimens, reduced intensity conditioning should be considered. Optimal timing of HSCT requires careful evaluation of the available effective nontransplant strategies. Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) strategies are recommended in patients at high risk of relapse after HSCT. Immune modulation by DLI strategies or second HSCT is advised if relapse occurs beyond 6 months after HSCT.
Project description:The Toll-like receptor family mediates the innate immune system through recognizing the molecular patterns of microorganisms and self-components and leading the synthesis of the inflammatory mediators. We retrospectively examined whether or not genetic variations in toll-like receptor 1 (rs5743551, -7202GQ>A), toll-like receptor 2 (rs7656411, 22215G>T), and toll-like receptor 4 (rs11536889, +3725G>C) affected transplant outcomes in a cohort of 365 patients who underwent unrelated HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (for hematologic malignancies through the Japan Marrow Donor Program. Only donor toll-like receptor 4 variation significantly improved the survival outcomes. A multivariate analysis showed that the donor toll-like receptor 4 +3725G/G genotype was significantly associated with a better 5-year progression-free survival and a lower 5-year transplant-related mortality than other variations. Furthermore, the donor toll-like receptor 4 +3725G/G genotype was associated with a significantly lower incidence of fatal infections than other variations. The validation study of 502 patients confirmed that the donor toll-like receptor 4 +3725G/G genotype was associated with better survival outcomes. Toll-like receptor4 genotyping in transplant donors may therefore be a useful tool for optimizing donor selection and evaluating pretransplantation risks.
Project description:Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide, exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects against endothelial cell injury. The HO-1 promoter gene has one important single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2071746 (-413A>T) that is functional, and the A allele has been reported to be associated with higher HO-1 expression levels than the T allele. We investigated the influence of the HO-1 rs2071746 SNP on the transplant outcomes in 593 patients with hematological malignancies undergoing unrelated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, T-cell-replete bone marrow transplantation (BMT) through the Japan Donor Marrow Program. In patients with high-risk diseases, the donor A/A or A/T genotype was associated with better 5 year overall survival (35% vs. 25%; p = 0.03) and 5 year disease-free survival (35% vs. 22%; p = 0.0072), compared to the donor T/T genotype. These effects were not observed in patients with low-risk diseases. The current findings therefore indicate that HO-1 rs2071746 genotyping could be useful for selecting donors and tailoring transplant strategies for patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.
Project description:Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations are common in acute myeloid leukemia and are associated with high remission rates and prolonged survival with intensive chemotherapy. NPM1 mutations are rare in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), and the clinical outcomes of these patients, when treated with intensive chemotherapy, are unknown. We retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics and the impact of therapy in 31 patients with MDS or MDS/MPN and NPM1 mutations. Next-generation sequencing was performed at diagnosis in 22 patients. Median age was 62 years (range, 19-86). Twenty-four patients (77%) had normal karyotype, and all had multilineage dysplasia. Most patients could be classified as MDS with excess blasts (19/31, 61%). NPM1 mutations were detected at a median allele frequency of 0.38 (range, 0.09-0.49). Mutation burden did not correlate with bone marrow blast frequency, and its clearance seemed to be associated with decreased morphologic dysplasia. Ten of the 31 patients (32%) received cytotoxic chemotherapy, 20 (65%) hypomethylating agents, and 1 (4%) lenalidomide. Sequential sequencing was available in 16 (52%) patients, and mutation burden correlated with disease status and response to therapy. Patients treated with chemotherapy had higher complete response rates (90% vs 28%, P = .004), longer median progression-free survival (not reached vs 7.5 months, P = .023), and overall survival (not reached vs 16 months, P = .047). Intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with NPM1-mutated MDS or MDS/MPN who are candidates for this form of therapy.