WGS/RNA-seq pair of an inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma (IHCA)
ABSTRACT: A 49 years old female patient consulted for diarrhea, rectal bleeding and lower limbs edema and was diagnosed with systemic AA amyloidosis.
An inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma was further identified and resected, resulting in the improvement of amyloidosis-related symptoms. Molecular analyses of the tumor tissue revealed a somatic chromosome rearrangement responsible for interleukin-6 mRNA stabilization leading to an inflammatory acute response with serum amyloid A protein production by both neoplastic and normal hepatocytes.
Project description:Evidence remains inconclusive about the association of systemic inflammatory markers with colorectal neoplasia. We investigated whether circulating inflammatory markers were associated with risk of advanced colorectal adenoma. We measured plasma macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), and soluble TNF receptor 2 (sTNFR-2) in blood samples drawn from 32,826 women in 1989 to 1990 in the Nurses' Health Study. Through 2008, we documented 757 cases of advanced colorectal adenomas (?1 cm or any size with advanced histology); each case was matched by age and time of blood draw with one control randomly selected from participants who underwent lower endoscopy and did not have neoplasia. Plasma MIC-1 was associated with higher risk of advanced adenoma (Ptrend = 0.04), with an OR of 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.32) comparing extreme quintiles of MIC-1 after adjusting for colorectal cancer-risk factors and other inflammatory markers. Among cases, MIC-1 level was positively associated with the number of adenomas (P < 0.001) and gradually increased from adenomas located in the rectum, distal colon, and up to the proximal colon. There was a strong positive association between MIC-1 and risk of adenomas with multiplicity, ?1 cm size and location in the proximal colon (all Ptrend < 0.05). CRP, IL6, or sTNFR-2 was not associated with adenoma risk. In conclusion, plasma MIC-1 was associated with higher risk of colorectal adenoma, especially multiple, large, and proximal adenomas. Our results provide further support for a role for MIC-1 in carcinogenesis and the potential for MIC-1 as an adjunctive biomarker for detection of advanced colorectal adenoma.
Project description:Inflammatory processes, including, specifically, the inflammatory conditions Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) predispose to colorectal cancer. Interleukin-23 is involved in pro-inflammatory signaling; genetic variation in the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) has been consistently associated with CD and UC risk. In three case-control studies of colorectal adenoma (n=485 cases/578 controls), colon cancer (n=1424 cases/1780 controls) and rectal cancer (n=583 cases/775 controls), we investigated associations with 18 candidate and tagSNPs in IL23R. The three studies used an identical Illumina GoldenGate assay, allowing thorough investigation across stages and locations of colorectal neoplasia. We further explored associations with molecular cancer subtypes (MSI+, CIMP+, KRAS2mut, TP53mut). In this comprehensive study of genetic variability in IL23R across the spectrum of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as within colon and rectal tumor molecular subtypes, we observed associations between SNPs in IL23R and risk of rectal cancer: the 88413 C>A (rs10889675) and 69450 C>A (rs7542081) polymorphisms were associated with decreased rectal cancer risk overall (p-trend=0.04 and 0.05 respectively), and specifically with rectal tumors bearing a TP53 mutation (88413 CA/AA vs. CC OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-94; 69450 CA/AA vs. CC OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37-0.98). However, none of associations remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. These data provide some evidence that genetic variability in IL23R may contribute to rectal cancer risk and should be evaluated in additional studies.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 is overexpressed in the majority of colorectal tumours leading to elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promoting many hallmarks of cancer. Importantly, PGE2 is reported to enhance Wnt/?-catenin signalling in colorectal carcinoma cells and in normal haematopoietic stem cells where it promotes stem cell function. Although Wnt signalling plays a crucial role in intestinal stem cells, the relationship between PGE2 and intestinal stem cells is unclear. Given that the key intestinal cancer stem cell marker LGR5 (leucine-rich G-protein coupled receptor 5) is a Wnt target and PGE2 enhances Wnt signalling, the focus of this study was to investigate whether PGE2 regulated LGR5 expression in colorectal adenoma cells and whether LGR5 was important for tumour cell survival. PGE2 upregulated LGR5 protein in adenoma (RG/C2) and carcinoma (DLD-1) cell lines. LGR5 knockdown induced cell death in RG/C2 and AA/C1 adenoma cells, suggesting that LGR5 has an important survival-promoting role in adenoma cells. Indeed, we detected LGR5 protein expression in 4 of 4 human adenoma cell lines. Furthermore, LGR5 small interfering RNA inhibited the survival-promoting effects of PGE2 in RG/C2, suggesting that PGE2 promotes adenoma cell survival, at least in part, by increasing LGR5 expression. These studies, therefore, show the first link between PGE2 and LGR5 in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells and demonstrate a survival-promoting role of LGR5. As non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause adenomas to regress in FAP patients, these studies could have important implications for the mechanism by which NSAIDs are chemopreventive, as lowering PGE2 levels could reduce LGR5 expression and survival of LGR5(+) adenoma stem cells.
Project description:Serum cytokine concentrations may reflect inflammatory processes occurring during the development of colorectal neoplasms. Flavonols, bioactive compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, may inhibit colorectal neoplasms partly by attenuating inflammation.Using logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to investigate the association between serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) ?, 2, 8, 10, 12p70, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interferon-?, and tumour necrosis factor-?, measured over time, flavonol intake, estimated from a flavonol database used in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire, and adenoma recurrence in 872 participants from the intervention arm of the Polyp Prevention Trial.Decreased IL-2 concentration during the trial increased the risk of any adenoma recurrence (4th vs 1st quartile, OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.13-2.49), whereas decreased IL-1? or IL-10 reduced the risk of advanced adenoma recurrence (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15-0.94; OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.15-0.98, respectively). Individuals with flavonol intake above the median (29.7 mg per day) and decreased cytokine concentrations had the lowest risk of advanced adenoma recurrence.Overall, no consistent associations were observed between serum cytokine profile and colorectal adenoma recurrence; however, decreased cytokine concentrations during high flavonol consumption may indicate prevention of colorectal neoplasms.
Project description:The ornithine decarboxylase-1 (ODC1) polymorphism at position +316 affects binding by transcriptional activators and repressors and modulates the risk of metachronous colorectal adenomas, particularly in association with aspirin use. We investigated the effects of ODC1 after treatment with difluoromethylornithine (eflornithine)/sulindac or placebo. Two hundred twenty-eight colorectal adenoma patients in a randomized phase III trial were genotyped for ODC1. We used Wilcoxon rank sums tests on non-normally distributed continuous variables across two genotype groups, ?(2) or Fisher exact test to assess the association between baseline categorical variables and genotype group, and log binomial regression for the primary (adenoma recurrence) and secondary outcomes (tissue polyamine response, cardiovascular toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and ototoxicity). All statistical tests were two-sided. In binomial regression models with variables age, sex, race, aspirin use, treatment, and ODC1 genotype, treatment was the only statistically significant factor associated with differences in adenoma recurrence or tissue polyamine response. A statistically significant interaction was detected between ODC1 genotype and treatment with respect to adenoma recurrence (placebo group: GG, 50%, AA/GA: 34%; treatment group: GG, 11%, AA/GA, 21%; P(interaction) = .038). Excess ototoxicity was observed among ODC1 AA patients receiving treatment, but the interaction of genotype and treatment on ototoxicity was not statistically significant (P = .45).
Project description:We developed a diet and lifestyle score based on high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and investigated its association with odds of adenoma. We performed stepwise linear regression to develop the predicted hsCRP score among 23,330 participants in the Health Examinee Study and examined its association with colorectal adenoma among 1,711 participants in a cross-sectional study of colorectal adenoma. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal adenoma using logistic regression models. Variances in hsCRP explained by body mass index were 61.1% in men and 64.5% in women in the prediction model. The increasing predicted hsCRP score was positively associated with colorectal adenoma (ORquartile 4 VS quartile 1 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12-2.62; Ptrend?=?0.011 in men; ORquartile 4 VS quartile 1 2.86, 95% CI: 1.26-6.49; Ptrend?=?0.019 in women). In subgroups, the associations differed by age and menopausal status among women, with stronger associations among women aged less than 50 years (OR?median VS <median 3.74, 95% CI: 1.77-7.90, p for interaction 0.014) or premenopausal women (OR?median vs <median 4.21, 95% CI: 2.12-8.36, p for interaction <0.001). The associations were more pronounced in the advanced or distal colon/rectum in men and in the advanced or proximal colon in women. The associations were attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index. In conclusion, we found that the predicted hsCRP score was positively associated with colorectal adenoma, suggesting that diet and lifestyle lowering inflammation may be a strategy to prevent colorectal neoplasia.
Project description:We previously investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to obesity and inflammation and colorectal cancer in the CLUE II cohort. However, the relationships between these SNPs and colorectal adenomas have not been well evaluated. In a nested case-control study of 135 incident adenoma cases and 269 matched controls in the CLUE II cohort (1989-2000), we genotyped 17 candidate SNPs in 12 genes (PPARG, TCF7L2, ADIPOQ, LEP, IL10, CRP, TLR4, IL6, IL1B, IL8, TNF, RNASEL) and 19 tagSNPs in three genes (IL10, CRP, and TLR4). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for adenomas (overall and by size, histology, location, number). Polymorphisms in the inflammatory-related genes CRP, ADIPOQ, IL6, and TLR4 were observed to be associated with adenoma risk. At rs1205 in CRP, T (minor allele) carriers had a higher risk (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.07-2.60; reference: CC) of adenomas overall and adenomas with aggressive characteristics. At rs1201299 in ADIPOQ, the AC genotype had a higher risk (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.00-2.49) of adenomas, while the minor AA genotype had a borderline inverse association (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.18-1.08; reference: CC). At rs1800797 in IL6, the AA genotype had a borderline inverse association (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0.27-1.05; reference: GG). Three TLR4 tagSNPs (rs10116253, rs1927911, rs7873784) were associated with adenomas among obese participants. None of these SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer in our prior study in CLUE II, possibly suggesting a different genetic etiology for early colorectal neoplasia.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.
Project description:Prostaglandins are important inflammatory mediators; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the predominant prostaglandin in colorectal neoplasia and affects colorectal carcinogenesis. Prostaglandins are metabolites of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; their biosynthesis is the primary target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), which reduce colorectal neoplasia risk.We investigated candidate and tagSNPs in PGE2 synthase (PGES), PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4), and prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) in a case-control study of adenomas (n = 483) versus polyp-free controls (n = 582) and examined interactions with NSAID use or fish intake, a source of omega-3 fatty acids.A 30% adenoma risk reduction was observed for EP2 4950G>A (intron 1; OR(GA/AA vs. GG), 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99). For the candidate polymorphism EP4 Val294Ile, increasing fish intake was associated with increased adenoma risk among those with variant genotypes, but not among those with the Val/Val genotype (P(interaction) = 0.02). An interaction with fish intake was also observed for PGES -664A>T (5' untranslated region; P(interaction) = 0.01). Decreased risk with increasing fish intake was only seen among those with the AT or TT genotypes (OR(>2 t/wk vs. <1 t/wk), 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-1.13). We also detected interactions between NSAIDs and EP2 9814C>A (intron 1) and PGDH 343C>A (intron 1). However, none of the observed associations was statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. We investigated potential gene-gene interactions using the Chatterjee 1 degree of freedom Tukey test and logic regression; neither method detected significant interactions.These data provide little support for associations between adenoma risk and genetic variability related to PGE(2), yet suggest gene-environment interactions with anti-inflammatory exposures.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), two important inflammatory cytokines, have been inconsistently associated with risk of colon neoplasia in epidemiological studies. However, research to date has not adequately assessed whether race-specific differences may exist in associations between biomarkers and genetic variants of these cytokines and colorectal adenoma - the precursor lesions of colorectal cancer. We sought to determine whether circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-?, or genetic polymorphisms in IL-6and TNF-? were associated with colon adenoma and if so, whether that association differed by race. METHODS:We analyzed the associations of circulating levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 and TNF-? with risk of colon adenomas in a colonoscopy -based case-control study of 401 incident adenoma cases and 1,050 controls. We used multivariate unconditional logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for levels or genotypes (log additive models) of IL-6 and TNF-?. RESULTS:Compared to the bottom tertile of IL-6, the adjusted ORs were: 1.06 (0.75-1.44), 1.01 (0.72-1.40), respectively for the 2nd and 3rd tertiles (ptrend = 0.10); the corresponding ORs for TNF-? were: 0.85 (0.63-1.15) and 1.01 (0.75-1.36), respectively (ptrend = 0.39). Race-stratified analyses did not reveal any significant association. There were also no statistically significant associations between IL-6 and TNF-? SNPs and colon adenoma. CONCLUSIONS:Our results do not support pre-diagnostic levels of IL-6, TNF-? or their genetic variants as significant risk factors for the development of colon adenoma.