Project description:OBJECTIVE:Autoimmune disease is an emerging condition among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC). Components of the dust cloud resulting from the collapse of the WTC have been associated with development of a systemic autoimmune disease, as has posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We undertook this study to determine whether dust exposure and PTSD were associated with an increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease in a 9/11-exposed cohort. METHODS:Among 43,133 WTC Health Registry enrollees, 2,786 self-reported having a post-9/11 systemic autoimmune disease. We obtained informed consent to review medical records to validate systemic autoimmune disease diagnoses for 1,041 enrollees. Diagnoses of systemic autoimmune diseases were confirmed by classification criteria, rheumatologist diagnosis, or having been prescribed systemic autoimmune disease medication. Controls were enrollees who denied having an autoimmune disease diagnosis (n = 37,017). We used multivariable log-binomial regression to examine the association between multiple 9/11 exposures and risk of post-9/11 systemic autoimmune disease, stratifying by responders (rescue, recovery, and clean-up workers) and community members (e.g., residents, area workers). RESULTS:We identified 118 persons with systemic autoimmune disease. Rheumatoid arthritis was most frequent (n = 71), followed by Sj?gren's syndrome (n = 22), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 20), myositis (n = 9), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 7), and scleroderma (n = 4). Among 9/11 responders, those with intense dust cloud exposure had almost twice the risk of systemic autoimmune disease (adjusted risk ratio 1.86 [95% confidence interval 1.02-3.40]). Community members with PTSD had a nearly 3-fold increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION:Intense dust cloud exposure among responders and PTSD among community members were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of new-onset systemic autoimmune disease. Clinicians treating 9/11 survivors should be aware of the potential increased risk of systemic autoimmune disease in this population.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center collapse created an enormous urban disaster site with high levels of airborne pollutants. First responders, rescue and recovery workers, and residents have since reported respiratory symptoms and developed pulmonary function abnormalities.<h4>Objectives</h4>To quantify respiratory health effects of World Trade Center exposure in the New York City Fire Department.<h4>Measurements</h4>Longitudinal study of pulmonary function in 12,079 New York City Fire Department rescue workers employed on or before 09/11/2001. Between 01/01/1997 and 09/11/2002, 31,994 spirometries were obtained and the FEV(1) and FVC were analyzed for differences according to estimated World Trade Center exposure intensity. Adjusted average FEV(1) during the first year after 09/11/2001 was compared with the 5 yr before 09/11/2001. Median time between 09/11/2001 and a worker's first spirometry afterwards was 3 mo; 90% were assessed within 5 mo.<h4>Main results</h4>World Trade Center-exposed workers experienced a substantial reduction in adjusted average FEV(1) during the year after 09/11/2001 (372 ml; 95% confidence interval, 364-381 ml; p < 0.001) This exposure-related FEV(1) decrement equaled 12 yr of aging-related FEV(1) decline. Moreover, exposure intensity assessed by initial arrival time at the World Trade Center site correlated linearly with FEV(1) reduction in an exposure intensity-response gradient (p = 0.048). Respiratory symptoms also predicted a further FEV(1) decrease (p < 0.001). Similar findings were observed for adjusted average FVC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>World Trade Center exposure produced a substantial reduction in pulmonary function in New York City Fire Department rescue workers during the first year after 09/11/2001.
Project description:World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York firefighters lost, on average, 10% of lung function after September 11, 2011, and >10% developed new obstructive airways disease. There was little recovery (on average) over the first 6 years. Follow-up into the next decade allowed us to determine the longer-term exposure effects and the roles of cigarette smoking and cessation on lung function trajectories.We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from March 11, 2000, to September 10, 2014, among 10,641 WTC-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York firefighters with known smoking and body weight histories.The median number of FEV1 measurements during follow-up was 9; 15% of firefighters arrived at the WTC during the morning of September 11, 2001; and 65% never smoked. Firefighters arriving the morning of September 11, 2001 averaged lower lung function than did lesser exposed firefighters; this difference remained significant during most of follow-up (P < .05). Never smokers had significantly better lung function than current smokers; former smokers fell in between, depending upon their cessation date. Those arriving the morning of September 11, 2001 were more likely to have an FEV1 < lower limits of normal compared with those arriving between September 13, 2001, and September 24, 2001 (OR = 1.70, P < .01). Current smokers were more likely to have an FEV1 < lower limits of normal compared with never smokers (OR = 2.06, P < .01), former smokers who quit before September 11, 2001 (OR = 1.96, P < .01), or those who quit between September 11, 2001 and March 10, 2008 (OR = 1.49, P < .01).Thirteen years after September 11, 2001, most firefighters continued to show a lack of lung function recovery, with the trajectory of decline differing by WTC exposure and smoking status. Unlike the immutable effect of WTC exposure, we demonstrated the benefit on lung function of smoking cessation in this unique occupational/environmental cohort.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers were exposed to a complex mix of pollutants and carcinogens.<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate cancer incidence in responders during the first 7 years after 11 September 2001.<h4>Methods</h4>Cancers among 20,984 consented participants in the WTC Health Program were identified through linkage to state tumor registries in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare cancers diagnosed in responders to predicted numbers for the general population. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate associations with degree of exposure.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 575 cancers were diagnosed in 552 individuals. Increases above registry-based expectations were noted for all cancer sites combined (SIR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25), thyroid cancer (SIR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.70, 3.27), prostate cancer (SIR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.44), combined hematopoietic and lymphoid cancers (SIR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71), and soft tissue cancers (SIR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.05). When restricted to 302 cancers diagnosed ? 6 months after enrollment, the SIR for all cancers decreased to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.18), but thyroid and prostate cancer diagnoses remained greater than expected. All cancers combined were increased in very highly exposed responders and among those exposed to significant amounts of dust, compared with responders who reported lower levels of exposure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Estimates should be interpreted with caution given the short follow-up and long latency period for most cancers, the intensive medical surveillance of this cohort, and the small numbers of cancers at specific sites. However, our findings highlight the need for continued follow-up and surveillance of WTC responders.
Project description:Particulate matter (PM) exposure and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) coexist in both industrialized and developing nations. PM and MetSyn are strong risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. After the World Trade Center collapse in 9/11/2001, PM-exposed individuals from the Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) developed a progressively lung disease. This nested case-cohort study is composed of never smoking, WTC exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March 2008. Representative cohort controls with serum drawn within six months of 9/11 (n=100). FEV1 at subspecialty exam defined cases: susceptible World Trade Center Lung Injury (WTC-LI) cases (n=50) had FEV1< lower limit of normal (LLN) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ≥107% predicted (n=50). This study will determine the metabolomics profile that differentiates firefighters with WTC-LI, firefighters resistant to WTC-LI, and similarly exposed cohort controls.
Project description:The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on September 11, 2001, created an unprecedented environmental exposure to known and suspected carcinogens suggested to increase the risk of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by the precursor states of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and light-chain MGUS, detectable in peripheral blood.To characterize WTC-exposed firefighters with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma and to conduct a screening study for MGUS and light-chain MGUS.Case series of multiple myeloma in firefighters diagnosed between September 11, 2001, and July 1, 2017, together with a seroprevalence study of MGUS in serum samples collected from Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) firefighters between December 2013 and October 2015. Participants included all WTC-exposed FDNY white, male firefighters with a confirmed physician diagnosis of multiple myeloma (n?=?16) and WTC-exposed FDNY white male firefighters older than 50 years with available serum samples (n?=?781).WTC exposure defined as rescue and/or recovery work at the WTC site between September 11, 2001, and July 25, 2002.Multiple myeloma case information, and age-adjusted and age-specific prevalence rates for overall MGUS (ie, MGUS and light-chain MGUS), MGUS, and light-chain MGUS.Sixteen WTC-exposed white male firefighters received a diagnosis of multiple myeloma after September 11, 2001; median age at diagnosis was 57 years (interquartile range, 50-68 years). Serum/urine monoclonal protein isotype/free light-chain data were available for 14 cases; 7 (50%) had light-chain multiple myeloma. In a subset of 7 patients, myeloma cells were assessed for CD20 expression; 5 (71%) were CD20 positive. In the screening study, we assayed peripheral blood from 781 WTC-exposed firefighters. The age-standardized prevalence rate of MGUS and light-chain MGUS combined was 7.63 per 100 persons (95% CI, 5.45-9.81), 1.8-fold higher than rates from the Olmsted County, Minnesota, white male reference population (relative rate, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.34-2.29). The age-standardized prevalence rate of light-chain MGUS was more than 3-fold higher than in the same reference population (relative rate, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.99-4.93).Environmental exposure to the WTC disaster site is associated with myeloma precursor disease (MGUS and light-chain MGUS) and may be a risk factor for the development of multiple myeloma at an earlier age, particularly the light-chain subtype.
Project description:We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV 1 ) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset.The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the fi rst year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV 1 was assessed at the fi rst post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV 1 , WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery.A total of 4,368 fi refighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, fi rst post-September 11,2001, concurrent, and difference between fi rst post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV 1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both fi rst post-September 11, 2001, FEV 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV 1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV 1 , with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73;95% CI, 0.58-0.92).Higher FEV 1 and improvement in FEV 1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment.
Project description:The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess feasibility of studies among local community members to address the hypothesis that complex exposures to the World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes resulted in long-term epigenetic changes. We enrolled 18 WTC-exposed cancer-free women from the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) who agreed to donate blood samples during their standard clinical visits. As a reference WTC unexposed group, we randomly selected 24 age-matched cancer-free women from an existing prospective cohort who donated blood samples before 11 September 2001. The global DNA methylation analyses were performed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEpic arrays. Statistical analyses were performed using R Bioconductor package. Functional genomic analyses were done by mapping the top 5000 differentially expressed CpG sites to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway database. Among cancer-free subjects, we observed substantial methylation differences between WTC-exposed and unexposed women. The top 15 differentially methylated gene probes included BCAS2, OSGIN1, BMI1, EEF1A2, SPTBN5, CHD8, CDCA7L, AIDA, DDN, SNORD45C, ZFAND6, ARHGEF7, UBXN8, USF1, and USP12. Several cancer-related pathways were enriched in the WTC-exposed subjects, including endocytosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), viral carcinogenesis, as well as Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The study provides preliminary data on substantial differences in DNA methylation between WTC-exposed and unexposed populations that require validation in further studies.
Project description:Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being.Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit.In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life.This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.
Project description:Descriptive epidemiological information on myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and myelodysplastic (MDS)/MPNs is largely derived from single institution and European population-based studies. Data obtained following adoption of the World Health Organization classification of haematopoietic neoplasms and JAK2 V617F mutation testing are sparse. Using population-based data, we comprehensively assessed subtype-specific MPN and MDS/MPN incidence rates (IRs), IR ratios (IRRs) and relative survival (RS) in the United States (2001-12). IRs were highest for polycythaemia vera (PV) (IR = 10·9) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET) (IR = 9·6). Except for ET and mastocytosis, overall IRs were significantly higher among males (IRRs = 1·4-2·3). All evaluable MPNs were associated with lower IRs among Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), with the exception of BCR-ABL1-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia. Except for CEL, Asians/Pacific Islanders had significantly lower MPN IRs than NHWs. ET, MPN-unclassifiable and CEL IRs were 18%, 19% and 60% higher, respectively, among blacks than NHWs. Five-year RS was more favourable for younger (<60 years) than older individuals and for women compared with men, except for PV at older ages. RS was highest (>90%) for younger PV and ET patients and lowest (<20%) for older chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and atypical BCR-ABL1-negative CML patients. Varying MPN and MDS/MPN incidence patterns by subtype support distinct aetiologies and/or susceptible populations. Decreased survival rates as compared to that expected in the general population were associated with every MPN subtype, highlighting the need for new treatments, particularly among older individuals.