BCR heavy and light chain repertoire sequencing of pertitoneal cavity B-1a cells from wild-type and Igll1 knockout mice
ABSTRACT: We report that B-1a cells develop in a surrogate light chain independent context. As a consequence, the precursor B-1a cell population avoids a pre-BCR positive selection stage. To confirm that the B-1a cells generated in this manner repersent a bonafide B-1a cell compartment, we did NGS on BCR rearrangements to assess the repertoire diversity. We find that as a whoile, B-1a cell repertoire that develop in Igll1 kncokout mice are similar compared to wild-type. This supports our findings that B-1a cells develop properly in the absence of surrogate light chain. Overall design: Peritoneal cavity B-1a cells were sorted from 6-8 week old mice, DNA was extracted and rearranged heavy chains were amplified by PCR. These PCR products were then process to form DNA libraries that were compatible with Illumina NGS.
Project description:A unique type of combinatorial protein libraries has been constructed. These libraries are based on the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR). The pre-BCR is a protein that is produced during normal development of the antibody repertoire. Unlike that of canonical antibodies, the pre-BCR subunit is a trimer that is composed of an antibody heavy chain paired with two surrogate light chain (SLC) components. Combinatorial libraries based on these pre-BCR proteins in which diverse heavy chains are paired with a fixed SLC were expressed in mammalian, Escherichia coli, and phagemid systems. These libraries contain members that have nanomolar affinity for antigen. We term this type of antigen-binding protein a "surrobody" to distinguish it from the canonical antibody molecule.
Project description:One of the defining characteristics of the B cell receptor (BCR) is the extensive diversity in the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes that make up the BCR, resulting in broad range of specificity. Gammaherpesviruses are B lymphotropic viruses that establish life-long infection in B cells, and although the B cell receptor plays a central role in B cell biology, very little is known about the immunoglobulin repertoire of gammaherpesvirus infected cells. To begin to characterize the Ig genes expressed by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infected cells, we utilized single cell sorting to sequence and clone the Ig variable regions of infected germinal center (GC) B cells and plasma cells. We show that MHV68 infection is biased towards cells that express the Ig? light chain along with a single heavy chain variable gene, IGHV10-1*01. This population arises through clonal expansion but is not viral antigen specific. Furthermore, we show that class-switching in MHV68 infected cells differs from that of uninfected cells. Fewer infected GC B cells are class-switched compared to uninfected GC B cells, while more infected plasma cells are class-switched compared to uninfected plasma cells. Additionally, although they are germinal center derived, the majority of class switched plasma cells display no somatic hypermutation regardless of infection status. Taken together, these data indicate that selection of infected B cells with a specific BCR, as well as virus mediated manipulation of class switching and somatic hypermutation, are critical aspects in establishing life-long gammaherpesvirus infection.
Project description:Innate-like B-1a cells provide a first line of defense against pathogens, yet little is known about their transcriptional control. Here we identified an essential role for the transcription factor Bhlhe41, with a lesser contribution by Bhlhe40, in controlling B-1a cell differentiation. Bhlhe41-/-Bhlhe40-/- B-1a cells were present at much lower abundance than were their wild-type counterparts. Mutant B-1a cells exhibited an abnormal cell-surface phenotype and altered B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire exemplified by loss of the phosphatidylcholine-specific VH12Vκ4 BCR. Expression of a pre-rearranged VH12Vκ4 BCR failed to 'rescue' the mutant phenotype and revealed enhanced proliferation accompanied by increased cell death. Bhlhe41 directly repressed the expression of cell-cycle regulators and inhibitors of BCR signaling while enabling pro-survival cytokine signaling. Thus, Bhlhe41 controls the development, BCR repertoire and self-renewal of B-1a cells.
Project description:The pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) is an immature form of the BCR critical for early B lymphocyte development. It is composed of the membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain, surrogate light chain components, and the signaling subunits Igα and Igβ. We developed monovalent quantum dot (QD)-labeled probes specific for Igβ to study the behavior of pre-BCRs engaged in autonomous, ligand-independent signaling in live B cells. Single-particle tracking revealed that QD-labeled pre-BCRs engaged in transient, but frequent, homotypic interactions. Receptor motion was correlated at short separation distances, consistent with the formation of dimers and higher-order oligomers. Repeated encounters between diffusing pre-BCRs appeared to reflect transient co-confinement in plasma membrane domains. In human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells, we showed that frequent, short-lived, homotypic pre-BCR interactions stimulated survival signals, including expression of BCL6, which encodes a transcriptional repressor. These survival signals were blocked by inhibitory monovalent antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fabs) specific for the surrogate light chain components of the pre-BCR or by inhibitors of the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk. For comparison, we evaluated pre-BCR aggregation mediated by dimeric galectin-1, which has binding sites for carbohydrate and for the surrogate light chain λ5 component. Galectin-1 binding resulted in the formation of large, highly immobile pre-BCR aggregates, which was partially relieved by the addition of lactose to prevent the cross-linking of galectin-BCR complexes to other glycosylated membrane components. Analysis of the pre-BCR and its signaling partners suggested that they could be potential targets for combination therapy in BCP-ALL.
Project description:Although preB cell-receptor (pre-BCR) formation and cell-surface expression is essential for B cell development, pre-BCR generation of signal transduction remains elusive. Here, we report that recombinant pre-BCRs and the surrogate light chain bind specifically to the bone marrow stromal cell galectin-1 (GAL1), an S-type lectin. The surrogate light chain/GAL1 association is a direct protein-protein interaction (K(a) = 2 x 10(6) M(-1)), and the NH(2) extra loop of lambda-like is the major binding element. Pre-BCR binding to stromal cells depends upon GAL1 anchoring to glycosylated counter-receptors, and these complexes completely relocalize to form a synapse at the contact zone between preB and stromal cells. This immune developmental synapse is accompanied by the initiation of intracellular tyrosine kinase activity and signal transduction from the pre-BCR.
Project description:Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P < 0.05). In addition to substitutions at amino acid (AA) residue positions NO.49/50/52 between VH and VHH clones, we also observed other substitutions at the positions NO.40/54/57/96/101 that could lead to additional structural alterations. We also found that VH-derived VHH clones, referred to as non-classical VHH clones in this study, accounted for about 8% of all clones. Further, only 5%-10% clones had the Trp > Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data.
Project description:B-lymphocyte development involves sequential DNA rearrangements of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (mu) and light (kappa, lambda) chain loci and is dependent on transient expression of mu containing pre-antigen receptor complexes (pre-BCR). To date, genetic analysis has not identified transcription factors that coordinate the pre-B-to-B transition. We demonstrate that the related interferon regulatory factors IRF-4 (Pip) and IRF-8 (ICSBP) are required for Ig light but not heavy-chain gene rearrangement. In the absence of these transcription factors, B-cell development is arrested at the cycling pre-B-cell stage and the mutant cells fail to down-regulate the pre-BCR. On the basis of molecular analysis, we propose that IRF-4,8 function as a genetic switch to down-regulate surrogate light-chain gene expression and induce conventional light-chain gene transcription and rearrangement.
Project description:B-1a cells play an important role in mediating tissue homeostasis and protecting against infections. They are the main producers of 'natural' IgM, spontaneously secreted serum antibodies predominately reactive to self antigens, like phosphatidylcholine (PtC), or antigens expressed by the intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms that regulate the B-1a immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire and their antibody secretion remain poorly understood. Here, we use a novel reporter mouse to demonstrate that production of self- and microbiota-reactive antibodies is linked to BCR signaling in B-1a cells. Moreover, we show that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical for shaping the Ig repertoire of B-1a cells as well as regulating their antibody production. Strikingly, we find that both the colonization of a microbiota as well as microbial-sensing TLRs are required for anti-microbiota B-1a responses, whereas nucleic-acid sensing TLRs are required for anti-PtC responses, demonstrating that linked activation of BCR and TLRs controls steady state B-1a responses to both self and microbiota-derived antigens.
Project description:Pre-B lymphocytes consist of 2 distinct cell populations: large pre-B and small pre-B. The large pre-B cells are newly generated pre-B cells that express pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) on the surface and are highly proliferative; small pre-B cells are derived from large pre-B cells that have down-regulated pre-BCR and withdrawn from cell cycle. The molecular events that mediate the transition from cycling pre-B to small, resting pre-B have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 (IRF4,8) suppress surrogate light chain expression and down-regulate pre-BCR in pre-B cells. Our studies further reveal that IRF4,8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos in pre-B cells, and reconstitution of expression of either one is sufficient to suppress surrogate light chain expression and down-regulate pre-BCR in pre-B cells lacking IRF4,8. Interestingly, our results also indicate that pre-B cells undergo growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest in the presence of IRF4,8. Moreover, we provide evidence that Ikaros and Aiolos are indispensable for the down-regulation of pre-BCR and the cell-cycle withdrawal mediated by IRF4,8. Thus, IRF4,8 orchestrate the transition from large pre-B to small pre-B cells by inducing the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos.