Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC)- sensitive cells are killed by receptor (GR)-filling concentrations of GC for a sufficient time. We used 3 closely related clones (2 sensitive, 1 resistant) from the CEM line of ALL cells to test the hypothesis that over time, a distinct set of regulated genes would be found in sensitive clones, with cross-talk to other significant pathways Overall design: CEM C1-15(resistant), CEM C1-6 (spontaneous revertant to sensitive) are subclones of resistant clone CEM C1. CEM C7-14 is a subclone of sensitive clone CEM C7. C1 and C7 were cloned from the original CEM ALL line. Samples were obtained 2, 8, 12 an 20 hr after addition of 10E-6 M dexamethasone (Dex) to triplicate cultures, RNA extracted and analyzed for transcript expression levels **Please note that the submitter was unable to locate the raw data CEL files. Thus raw data is not included in the current records.**
Project description:Gene expression responses to glucocorticoid (GC) in the hours preceding onset of apoptosis were compared in three clones of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells. Between 2 and 20h, all three clones showed increasing numbers of responding genes. Each clone had many unique responses, but the two responsive clones showed a group of responding genes in common, different from the resistant clone. MYC levels and the balance of activities between the three major groups of MAPKs are known important regulators of glucocorticoid-driven apoptosis in several lymphoid cell systems. Common to the two sensitive clones were changed transcript levels from genes that decrease amounts or activity of anti-apoptotic ERK/MAPK1 and JNK2/MAPK9, or of genes that increase activity of pro-apoptotic p38/MAPK14. Down-regulation of MYC and several MYC-regulated genes relevant to MAPKs also occurred in both sensitive clones. Transcriptomine comparisons revealed probable NOTCH-GC crosstalk in these cells.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC)- sensitive cells are killed by receptor (GR)-filling concentrations of GC for a sufficient time. We used 2 closely related clones ( sensitive, 1 resistant) from the CEM line of ALL cells to test the hypothesis that at this early pre-apoptosis time, a distinct set of regulated genes would be found in the sensitive clones, with cross-talk to other significant pathways Overall design: CEM C1-15(resistant) is a subclone of resistant clone CEM C1. CEM C7-14 is a subclone of sensitive clone CEM C7. C1 and C7 were cloned from the original CEM ALL line. Samples were obtained 3 hr after addition of 10E-6 M dexamethasone (Dex) to triplicate cultures, RNA extracted and analyzed for transcript expression levels **Please note that the submitter was unable to locate the raw data CEL files. Thus raw data is not included in the current records.**
Project description:Synthetic GCs serve as therapeutic agents for some lymphoid leukemias because of their ability to induce transcriptional changes via the GC receptor (GR) and trigger apoptosis. Upregulation of the BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins, Bim, has been shown to be essential for GC-evoked apoptosis of leukemic lymphoblasts. Using human T cell leukemic sister clones CEM-C7-14 and CEM-C1-15, we have previously shown that the bZIP transcriptional repressor, E4BP4, is preferentially upregulated by GCs in CEM-C7-14 cells that are susceptible to GC-evoked apoptosis, but not in refractory CEM-C1-15 cells. E4BP4 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the PAR family of bZIP transcription factors related to the C. elegans death specification gene ces2.Mouse E4BP4 was ectopically expressed in CEM-C1-15 cells, resulting in sensitization to GC-evoked apoptosis in correlation with restoration of E4BP4 and Bim upregulation. shRNA mediated modest knockdown of E4BP4 in CEM-C7-14 cells resulted in concomitant reduction in Bim expression, although GC-evoked fold-induction and sensitivity to apoptosis was similar to parental cells.Data presented here suggest that GC-mediated upregulation of E4BP4 facilitates Bim upregulation and apoptosis of CEM cells. Since the Bim promoter does not contain any consensus GRE or EBPRE sequences, induction of Bim may be a secondary response.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC)-evoked apoptosis of T-lymphoid cells is preceded by increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which may contribute to apoptosis. This report demonstrates that GC-mediated upregulation of the bZIP transcriptional repressor gene, E4BP4, is dependent on [Ca2+]i levels, and correlates with GC-evoked apoptosis of GC-sensitive CEM-C7-14 cells. Calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA reduced [Ca2+]i levels and protected CEM-C7-14 cells from Dex-evoked E4BP4 upregulation as well as apoptosis. In the GC-resistant sister clone, CEM-C1-15, Dex treatment did not induce [Ca2+]i levels, E4BP4 expression or apoptosis, however, the calcium ionophore A23187 restored Dex-evoked E4BP4 upregulation and apoptosis. CEM-C7-14 cells were more sensitive to GC-independent increases in [Ca2+]i levels by thapsigargin, and a corresponding increase in E4BP4 expression and cell death, compared to CEM-C1-15 cells, suggesting a direct correlation between [Ca2+]i levels, E4BP4 expression, and apoptosis.
Project description:Three closely related clones of leukemic lymphoid CEM cells were compared for their gene expression responses to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). All three contained receptors for Dex, but only two responded by undergoing apoptosis. After a time of exposure to Dex that ended late in the interval preceding onset of apoptosis, gene microarray analyses were carried out. The results indicate that the expression of a limited, distinctive set of genes was altered in the two apoptosis-prone clones, not in the resistant clone. That clone showed altered expression of different sets of genes, suggesting that a molecular switch converted patterns of gene expression between the two phenotypes: apoptosis-prone and apoptosis-resistant. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that altered expression of a distinctive network of genes after glucocorticoid administration ultimately triggers apoptosis of leukemic lymphoid cells. The altered genes identified provide new foci for study of their role in cell death.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) is a major therapeutic agent for the treatment of leukemia because of its ability to induce apoptosis in lymphoid cells. The mechanism causing apoptosis, however, is still controversial. Since the glucocorticoid receptor is a transcription factor, some of its target genes are expected to be implicated in apoptosis. In this study, using a GC-sensitive human pre-B leukemia cell line, Nalm-6, the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) genes were disrupted by homologous recombination, since the expression of both is up-regulated by GC in GC-sensitive but not in GC-resistant leukemic cell lines. While the disruption of FKBP5 had a marginal effect on GC-induced apoptosis, that of RCAN1 resulted in marked resistance to GC. In addition, overexpression of RCAN1 rendered cells more sensitive to DEX. In RCAN1-disrupted cells, levels of some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins were decreased and increased, respectively. Finally, phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and up-regulation of CREB target genes by GC were inhibited by RCAN1 disruption, and treatment with a cAMP-inducing agent, forskolin, restored the sensitivity to GC in RCAN1-disrupted Nalm-6 cells. These findings suggest that up-regulation of RCAN1 expression followed by activation of the CREB pathway is required in GC-induced apoptosis.