TET1 KO affects Sox9 function [growth plate tissue]
ABSTRACT: We report that TET1 mediated 5hmC deposition is necessary for Sox9 function in embryonic cartilage development Overall design: We examine the transcriptional changes after TET1 KO in E17.5 mouse chondrocytes
Project description:We report that TET1 mediated 5hmC deposition is necessary for Sox9 function in embryonic cartilage development. Overall design: 5hmC and 5mC was profiled in progenitor, intermediate and mature ATDC5 differentiation.
Project description:The transcription factor Sox9 is necessary for early chondrogenesis, but its subsequent roles in the cartilage growth plate, a highly specialized structure that drives skeletal growth and endochondral ossification, remain unclear. Using a doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene and Sox9 conditional null alleles in the mouse, we show that Sox9 is required to maintain chondrocyte columnar proliferation and generate cell hypertrophy, two key features of functional growth plates. Sox9 keeps Runx2 expression and ?-catenin signaling in check and thereby inhibits not only progression from proliferation to prehypertrophy, but also subsequent acquisition of an osteoblastic phenotype. Sox9 protein outlives Sox9 RNA in upper hypertrophic chondrocytes, where it contributes with Mef2c to directly activate the major marker of these cells, Col10a1. These findings thus reveal that Sox9 remains a central determinant of the lineage fate and multistep differentiation program of growth plate chondrocytes and thereby illuminate our understanding of key molecular mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis.
Project description:To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes. Stat3 expression is predominant in tissues of mesodermal origin, and its conditional ablation using mesoderm-specific TCre, in vivo, causes dwarfism and skeletal defects characteristic of CD. Specifically, Stat3 loss results in the expansion of growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes and deregulation of normal endochondral ossification in all bones examined. Conditional deletion of Stat3 with a Sox9Cre driver produces palate and tracheal irregularities similar to those described in Sox9+/- mice. Furthermore, mesodermal deletion of Stat3 causes global embryonic down regulation of Sox9 expression and function in vivo. Mechanistic experiments ex vivo suggest Stat3 can directly activate the expression of Sox9 by binding to its proximal promoter following activation. These findings illuminate a novel role for Stat3 in chondrocytes during skeletal development through modulation of a critical factor, Sox9. Importantly, they further provide the first evidence for the modulation of a gene product other than Sox9 itself which is capable of modeling pathological aspects of CD and underscore a potentially valuable therapeutic target for patients with the disorder.
Project description:Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression as chondrocytes progress through phases of differentiation, but how this is achieved is not clear. Here, we have identified a regulatory element upstream of Col10a1 that enhances its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo. In immature chondrocytes, where Col10a1 is not expressed, SOX9 interacts with a conserved sequence within this element that is analogous to that within the intronic enhancer of the collagen II gene Col2a1, the known transactivation target of SOX9. By analysing a series of Col10a1 reporter genes in transgenic mice, we show that the SOX9 binding consensus in this element is required to repress expression of the transgene in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. Forced ectopic Sox9 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vitro and in mice resulted in down-regulation of Col10a1. Mutation of a binding consensus motif for GLI transcription factors, which are the effectors of Indian hedgehog signaling, close to the SOX9 site in the Col10a1 regulatory element, also derepressed transgene expression in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. GLI2 and GLI3 bound to the Col10a1 regulatory element but not to the enhancer of Col2a1. In addition to Col10a1, paired SOX9-GLI binding motifs are present in the conserved non-coding regions of several genes that are preferentially expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and the occurrence of pairing is unlikely to be by chance. We propose a regulatory paradigm whereby direct concomitant positive and negative transcriptional control by SOX9 ensures differentiation phase-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. Discrimination between these opposing modes of transcriptional control by SOX9 may be mediated by cooperation with different partners such as GLI factors.
Project description:The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter. The effect of TWIST1 on expression of TET family (TET1, 2 and 3) was measured in stable TWIST1 transfected TC28 cells, and TET1 expression was up-regulated. TWIST1 dependent upregulation of Mmp3 expression was suppressed in Tet triple KO fibroblast derived from mouse ES cells. Increased TWIST1 expression is a feature of OA-affected cartilage. We identified a novel mechanism of catabolic reaction where TWIST1 up-regulates MMP3 expression by enriching 5hmC levels at the MMP3 promoter via TET1 induction. These findings implicate TWIST1 as an important factor regulating OA related gene expression. Clarifying epigenetic mechanisms of 5hmC induced by TWIST1 is a critical molecule to understanding OA pathogenesis.
Project description:TAK1 is a MAP3K that mediates non-canonical TGF-? and BMP signaling. During the embryonic period, TAK1 is essential for cartilage and joint development as deletion of Tak1 in chondro-osteo progenitor cells leads to severe chondrodysplasia with defects in both chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. We have investigated the role of TAK1 in committed chondrocytes during early postnatal development. Using the Col2a1-CreER(T2); Tak1(f/f) mouse model, we induced deletion of Tak1 at postnatal day 7 and characterized the skeletal phenotypes of these mice at 1 and 3 months of age. Mice with chondrocyte-specific Tak1 deletion exhibited severe growth retardation and reduced proteoglycan and type II collagen content in the extracellular matrix of the articular cartilage. We found reduced Col2a1 and Acan expression, but increased Mmp13 and Adamts5 expression, in Tak1-deficient chondrocytes along with reduced expression of the SOX trio of transcription factors, SOX9, SOX5 and SOX6. In vitro, BMP2 stimulated Sox9 gene expression and Sox9 promoter activity. These effects were reduced; however, following Tak1 deletion or treatment with a TAK1 kinase inhibitor. TAK1 affects both canonical and non-canonical BMP signal transduction and we found that both of these pathways contribute to BMP2-mediated Sox9 promoter activation. Additionally, we found that ATF2 directly binds the Sox9 promoter in response to BMP signaling and that this effect is dependent upon TAK1 kinase activity. These novel findings establish that TAK1 contributes to BMP2-mediated Sox9 gene expression and is essential for the postnatal development of normal growth plate and articular cartilages.
Project description:Changes in the content of aggrecan, an essential proteoglycan of articular cartilage, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent age-related, degenerative joint disease. Here, we examined the effect of SOX9 acetylation on ACAN transactivation in the context of osteoarthritis. Primary chondrocytes freshly isolated from degenerated OA cartilage displayed lower levels of ACAN mRNA and higher levels of acetylated SOX9 compared with cells from intact regions of OA cartilage. Degenerated OA cartilage presented chondrocyte clusters bearing diffused immunostaining for SOX9 compared with intact cartilage regions. Primary human chondrocytes freshly isolated from OA knee joints were cultured in monolayer or in three-dimensional alginate microbeads (3D). SOX9 was hypo-acetylated in 3D cultures and displayed enhanced binding to a -10 kb ACAN enhancer, a result consistent with higher ACAN mRNA levels than in monolayer cultures. It also co-immunoprecipitated with SIRT1, a major deacetylase responsible for SOX9 deacetylation. Finally, immunofluorescence assays revealed increased nuclear localization of SOX9 in primary chondrocytes treated with the NAD SIRT1 cofactor, than in cells treated with a SIRT1 inhibitor. Inhibition of importin ? by importazole maintained SOX9 in the cytoplasm, even in the presence of NAD. Based on these data, we conclude that deacetylation promotes SOX9 nuclear translocation and hence its ability to activate ACAN.