PIMT/NcoA6IP deletion in the mouse heart causes delayed cardiomyopathy attributable to perturbation in energy metabolism
ABSTRACT: Global gene expression analysis reveals that PIMT regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, calcium signaling, and oxidative phosphorylation in myocardium. Overall design: RNA samples were prepared from hearts of 5 control PIMT floxed mice (PIMTfl/fl) and 5 Cre-loxP-mediated cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/-) mice. RNA were pooled and subjected to RNA-seq analysis.
Project description:Global gene expression analysis reveals that Med1 regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, calcium signaling, and oxidative phosphorylation in myocardium. Overall design: RNA samples were prepared from hearts of 5 controls Med1 floxed mice (Med1fl/fl) and 5 Cre-loxP-mediated cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 (csMed1-/-) mice. RNA were pooled and subjected to RNA-seq analysis.
Project description:PIMT/NCOA6IP, a transcriptional coactivator PRIP/NCOA6 binding protein, enhances nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. Germline disruption of PIMT results in early embryonic lethality due to impairment of development around blastocyst and uterine implantation stages. We now generated mice with Cre-mediated cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/-) in adult mice. These mice manifest enlargement of heart, with nearly 100% mortality by 7.5 months of age due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant reductions in the expression of genes (i) pertaining to mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to IV; (ii) calcium cycling cardiac muscle contraction (Atp2a1, Atp2a2, Ryr2); and (iii) nuclear receptor PPAR- regulated genes involved in glucose and fatty acid energy metabolism were found in csPIMT-/- mouse heart. Elevated levels of Nppa and Nppb mRNAs were noted in csPIMT-/- heart indicative of myocardial damage. These hearts revealed increased reparative fibrosis associated with enhanced expression of Tgf?2 and Ctgf. Furthermore, cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT in adult mice, using tamoxifen-inducible Cre-approach (TmcsPIMT-/-), results in the development of cardiomyopathy. Thus, cumulative evidence suggests that PIMT functions in cardiac energy metabolism by interacting with nuclear receptor coactivators and this property could be useful in the management of heart failure.
Project description:Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in cardiac pathogenesis. Understanding how cardiac UPS function is regulated will facilitate delineating the pathophysiological significance of UPS dysfunction and developing new therapeutic strategies. The COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenesis mutant 9) signalosome (CSN) may regulate the UPS, but this has not been tested in a critical vertebrate organ. Moreover, the role of CSN in a postmitotic organ and the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS dysfunction on the heart have not been reported.We sought to determine the role of CSN-mediated deneddylation in UPS function and postnatal cardiac development and function.Cardiomyocyte-restricted Csn8 gene knockout (CR-Csn8KO) in mice was achieved using a Cre-LoxP system. CR-Csn8KO impaired CSN holocomplex formation and cullin deneddylation and resulted in decreases in F-box proteins. Probing with a surrogate misfolded protein revealed severe impairment of UPS function in CR-Csn8KO hearts. Consequently, CR-Csn8KO mice developed cardiac hypertrophy, which rapidly progressed to heart failure and premature death. Massive cardiomyocyte necrosis rather than apoptosis appears to be the primary cause of the heart failure. This is because (1) massive necrotic cell death and increased infiltration of leukocytes were observed before increased apoptosis; (2) increased apoptosis was not detectable until overt heart failure was observed; and (3) cardiac overexpression of Bcl2 failed to ameliorate CR-Csn8KO mouse premature death.Csn8/CSN plays an essential role in cullin deneddylation, UPS-mediated degradation of a subset of proteins, and the survival of cardiomyocytes and, therefore, is indispensable in postnatal development and function of the heart. Cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS malfunction can cause heart failure.
Project description:The generation of conditional knockout mice using the Cre-loxP system is advantageous for the functional analysis of genes. Flanked by two loxP sites (floxed) mice can be directly obtained from fertilized eggs by the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. We previously reported that sequential knock-in (KI) of each loxP site by electroporation (EP) at the 1- and 2-cell embryonic stages increases the number of mice with floxed alleles compared with simultaneous KI. However, EP at the 2-cell stage frequently induced blastomere fusion. These fused embryos cannot develop to term because they are tetraploidized. In this study, we examined the following three conditions to inhibit blastomere fusion by EP at the 2-cell stage: (1) hypertonic treatment, (2) Calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>)-free treatment, and (3) actin polymerization inhibition. Hypertonic treatment of 2-cell stage embryos prevented blastomere fusion and facilitated blastocyst development; however, KI efficiency was decreased. Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free treatment and actin polymerization inhibition by cytochalasin B (CB) reduced fusion rate, and did not have negative effects on development and KI efficiency. These results suggest that Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free and CB treatment at the 2-cell stage is effective to generate floxed mice in combination with a sequential EP method.
Project description:The response to hypoxia in tissues is regulated by the heterodimeric transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1).We have created a strain of mice with inducible cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a mutated, oxygen-stable, form of HIF-1alpha. Cardiac function steadily decreased with transgene expression, but recovered after the transgene was turned off. Using long-oligo microarrays, we identified 162 transcripts more than 3-fold dysregulated in these hearts after transgene expression. Among the down-regulated genes the transcript for SERCA was reduced 46% and the protein 92%. This led us to an evaluation of calcium flux that showed diminished reuptake of cytoplasmic calcium in myocytes from these hearts, suggesting a mechanism for cardiac dysfunction.These results provide a deeper understanding of transcriptional activity of HIF in the heart, and show that enhanced HIF-1 activity is sufficient to cause contractile dysfunction in the adult heart. HIF is stabilized in the myocardium of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, and our results suggest that HIF could be contributing directly to the contractile dysfunction in this disease.
Project description:Cell transplantation improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. Therefore, the goals of this study were to determine if neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transplanted into adult rat hearts 1 week after infarction would, after 8-10 weeks: 1) improve global myocardial function, 2) contract in a Ca2+ dependent manner, 3) influence mechanical properties of remote uninjured myocardium and 4) alter passive mechanical properties of infarct regions. The cardiomyocytes formed small grafts of ultrastructurally maturing myocardium that enhanced fractional shortening compared to non-treated infarcted hearts. Chemically demembranated tissue strips of cardiomyocyte grafts produced force when activated by Ca2+, whereas scar tissue did not. Furthermore, the Ca2+ sensitivity of force was greater in cardiomyocyte grafts compared to control myocardium. Surprisingly, cardiomyocytes grafts isolated in the infarct zone increased Ca2+ sensitivity of remote uninjured myocardium to levels greater than either remote myocardium from non-treated infarcted hearts or sham-operated controls. Enhanced calcium sensitivity was associated with decreased phosphorylation of cTnT, tropomyosin and MLC2, but not changes in myosin or troponin isoforms. Passive compliance of grafts resembled normal myocardium, while infarct tissue distant from grafts had compliance typical of scar. Thus, cardiomyocyte grafts are contractile, improve local tissue compliance and enhance calcium sensitivity of remote myocardium. Because the volume of remote myocardium greatly exceeds that of the grafts, this enhanced calcium sensitivity may be a major contributor to global improvements in ventricular function after cell transplantation.
Project description:Coordinated cardiomyocyte growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis are essential for heart formation. We demonstrate that the bHLH transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 play critical regulatory roles for left ventricle (LV) cardiomyocyte proliferation and morphogenesis. Using an LV-specific Cre allele (Hand1LV-Cre), we ablate Hand1-lineage cardiomyocytes, revealing that DTA-mediated cardiomyocyte death results in a hypoplastic LV by E10.5. Once Hand1-linage cells are removed from the LV, and Hand1 expression is switched off, embryonic hearts recover by E16.5. In contrast, conditional LV loss-of-function of both Hand1 and Hand2 results in aberrant trabeculation and thickened compact zone myocardium resulting from enhanced proliferation and a breakdown of compact zone/trabecular/ventricular septal identity. Surviving Hand1;Hand2 mutants display diminished cardiac function that is rescued by concurrent ablation of Hand-null cardiomyocytes. Collectively, we conclude that, within a mixed cardiomyocyte population, removal of defective myocardium and replacement with healthy endogenous cardiomyocytes may provide an effective strategy for cardiac repair.
Project description:Mice lacking the intermediate filament protein desmin demonstrate abnormal mitochondria behavior, disruption of muscle architecture, and myocardial degeneration with extensive calcium deposits and fibrosis. These abnormalities are associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac chamber dilation and eventually with heart failure. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to the observed pathogenesis, we have analyzed gene expression changes in cardiac tissue using differential display polymerase chain reaction and cDNA atlas array methods. The most substantial changes were found in genes coding the small extracellular matrix proteins osteopontin and decorin that are dramatically induced in the desmin-null myocardium. We further analyzed their expression pattern both at the RNA and protein levels and we compared their spatial expression with the onset of calcification. Extensive osteopontin localization is observed by immunohistochemistry in the desmin-null myocardium in areas with massive myocyte death, as well as in hypercellular regions with variable degrees of calcification and fibrosis. Osteopontin is consistently co-localized with calcified deposits, which progressively are transformed to psammoma bodies surrounded by decorin, especially in the right ventricle. These data together with the observed up-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme, could explain the extensive fibrosis and dystrophic calcification observed in the heart of desmin-null mice, potentially crucial events leading to heart failure.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by dilatation and dysfunction of the left ventricle, is an important cause of heart failure. Many mutations in various genes, including cytoskeletal protein genes and contractile protein genes, have been identified in DCM patients, but the mechanisms of how such mutations lead to DCM remain unknown.We established the mouse model of DCM by expressing a mutated cardiac alpha-actin gene, which has been reported in patients with DCM, in the heart (mActin-Tg). mActin-Tg mice showed gradual dilatation and dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting in death by heart failure. The number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and protein levels of p53 were increased in the hearts of mActin-Tg mice. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or downregulation of p53 decreased the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and improved cardiac function. This mouse model showed a decrease in myofilament calcium sensitivity and activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta (CaMKIIdelta). The inhibition of CaMKIIdelta prevented the increase in p53 and apoptotic cardiomyocytes and ameliorated cardiac function.CaMKIIdelta plays a critical role in the development of heart failure in part by accumulation of p53 and induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the DCM mouse model.
Project description:ATBF1 is a large nuclear protein that contains multiple zinc-finger motifs and four homeodomains. In mammals, ATBF1 regulates differentiation, and its mutation and/or downregulation is involved in tumorigenesis in several organs. To gain more insight into the physiological functions of ATBF1, we generated and validated a conditional allele of mouse Atbf1 in which exons 7 and 8 were flanked by loxP sites (Atbf1(flox) ). Germline deletion of a single Atbf1 allele was achieved by breeding to EIIa-cre transgenic mice, and Atbf1 heterozygous mice displayed reduced body weight, preweaning mortality, increased cell proliferation, and attenuated cytokeratin 18 expression, indicating haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. Floxed Atbf1 mice will help us understand such biological processes as neuronal differentiation and tumorigenesis.