Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to act as important cell biological regulators including cell fate decisions but are often ignored in human genetics. Combining differential lncRNA expression during neuronal lineage induction with copy number variation morbidity maps of a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder/intellectual disability versus healthy controls revealed focal genomic mutations affecting several lncRNA candidate loci. Here we find that a t(5:12) chromosomal translocation in a family manifesting neurodevelopmental symptoms disrupts specifically lnc-NR2F1. We further show that lnc-NR2F1 is an evolutionarily conserved lncRNA functionally enhances induced neuronal cell maturation and directly occupies and regulates transcription of neuronal genes including autism-associated genes. Thus, integrating human genetics and functional testing in neuronal lineage induction is a promising approach for discovering candidate lncRNAs involved in neurodevelopmental diseases.
Project description:The goal is to examine the global transcriptomic changes upon lnc-Nr2f1 overexpression in human neuroblastoma cells Overall design: Examination of global transcriptional changes and genome wide binding events of lnc-Nr2f1
Project description:The goal is to examine the global transcriptomic changes upon lnc-Nr2f1 overexpression in both Control and lnc-Nr2f1 KO ES cells. Overall design: Examination of global transcriptional changes and genome wide binding events of lnc-Nr2f1
Project description:Recent studies have revealed an essential role for embryonic cortical development in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we generate mutant human embryonic stem cell lines (Mut hESCs) carrying an NR2F1-R112K mutation that has been identified in a patient with ASD features, and investigate their neurodevelopmental alterations. Mut hESCs overproduce ventral telencephalic neuron progenitors (ventral NPCs) and inhibitory neurons, and underproduce dorsal NPCs and excitatory neurons. These alterations can be mainly attributed to the aberrantly activated Hedgehog signaling pathway. Moreover, the corresponding Nr2f1 point mutant mice display a similar excitatory/inhibitory neuron imbalance and abnormal behaviors. Antagonizing the increased inhibitory synaptic transmission partially alleviates their behavioral deficits. Together, our results suggest that the NR2F1-dependent imbalance of excitatory/inhibitory neuron differentiation caused by the activated Hedgehog pathway is one precursor of neurodevelopmental disorders and may enlighten the therapeutic approaches. Overall design: WT and Mut human NPCs were subjected into transcriptome analysis with two biological replicates. ChIP-Seq was done by over-expressing an equal amount of pcDNA3.1-WT/Mut-NR2F1-Flag plasmids into WT hESC-derived neuron progenitors with two biological replicates, and the DNA-protein complex was precipitated by Flag beads.
Project description:Post-translational histone modifications regulate chromatin compaction and gene expression to control many aspects of development. Mutations in genes encoding regulators of H3K4 methylation are causally associated with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by intellectual disability and deficits in motor functions. However, it remains unclear how H3K4 methylation influences nervous system development and contributes to the aetiology of disease. Here, we show that the catalytic activity of set-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of the H3K4 methyltransferase KMT2F/G (SETD1A/B) genes, controls embryonic transcription of neuronal genes and is required for establishing proper axon guidance, and for neuronal functions related to locomotion and learning. Moreover, we uncover a striking correlation between components of the H3K4 regulatory machinery mutated in neurodevelopmental disorders and the process of axon guidance in C. elegans Thus, our study supports an epigenetic-based model for the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, based on an aberrant axon guidance process originating from deregulated H3K4 methylation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rare denovo variants represent a significant cause of neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). METHODS:Exome sequencing was performed on 4351 patients with global developmental delay, seizures, microcephaly, macrocephaly, motor delay, delayed speech and language development, or ID according to Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. All patients had previously undergone whole exome sequencing as part of diagnostic genetic testing with a focus on variants in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders up to January 2017. This resulted in a genetic diagnosis in 1336 of the patients. In this study, we specifically searched for variants in 14 recently implicated novel neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) genes. RESULTS:We identified 65 rare, protein-changing variants in 11 of these 14 novel candidate genes. Fourteen variants in CDK13, CHD4, KCNQ3, KMT5B, TCF20, and ZBTB18 were scored pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Of note, two of these patients had a previously identified cause of their disease, and thus, multiple molecular diagnoses were made including pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in FOXG1 and CDK13 or in TMEM237 and KMT5B. CONCLUSIONS:Looking for pathogenic variants in newly identified NDD genes enabled us to provide a molecular diagnosis to 14 patients and their close relatives and caregivers. This underlines the relevance of re-evaluation of existing exome data on a regular basis to improve the diagnostic yield and serve the needs of our patients.
Project description:A new subseries of substituted piperidines as p53-HDM2 inhibitors exemplified by 21 has been developed from the initial lead 1. Research focused on optimization of a crucial HDM2 Trp23-ligand interaction led to the identification of 2-(trifluoromethyl)thiophene as the preferred moiety. Further investigation of the Leu26 pocket resulted in potent, novel substituted piperidine inhibitors of the HDM2-p53 interaction that demonstrated tumor regression in several human cancer xenograft models in mice. The structure of HDM2 in complex with inhibitors 3, 10, and 21 is described.
Project description:Trend analysis techniques to detect glaucomatous progression typically assume a constant rate of change. This study uses data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether this assumption decreases sensitivity to changes in progression rate, by including earlier periods of stability.Series of visual fields (mean 24 per eye) completed at 6-month intervals from participants randomized initially to observation were split into subseries before and after the initiation of treatment (the "split-point"). The mean deviation rate of change (MDR) was derived using these entire subseries, and using only the window length (W) tests nearest the split-point, for different window lengths of W tests. A generalized estimating equation model was used to detect changes in MDR occurring at the split-point.Using shortened subseries with W = 7 tests, the MDR slowed by 0.142 dB/y upon initiation of treatment (P < 0.001), and the proportion of eyes showing "rapid deterioration" (MDR <-0.5 dB/y with P < 5%) decreased from 11.8% to 6.5% (P < 0.001). Using the entire sequence, no significant change in MDR was detected (P = 0.796), and there was no change in the proportion of eyes progressing (P = 0.084). Window lengths 6 ? W ? 9 produced similar benefits.Event analysis revealed a beneficial treatment effect in this dataset. This effect was not detected by linear trend analysis applied to entire series, but was detected when using shorter subseries of length between six and nine fields. Using linear trend analysis on the entire field sequence may not be optimal for detecting and monitoring progression. Nonlinear analyses may be needed for long series of fields. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000125.).