The chronological changes of transcriptomic profiles of hepatic macrophages after partial portal vein ligation
ABSTRACT: We compared transcriptomic profiles of hepatic macrophages between sham operated rats, rats 3 days and 10 days after partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) surgery (n=3). The number of genes with a significant change was most numerous in Sham vs 3 days, followed by Sham vs 10 days and 3 days vs 10 days. Overall design: Transcriptomic profile in hepatic macrophages from three male Sprague–Dawley rats three or ten days after partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) surgery and from the three sham rats.
INSTRUMENT(S): [RaGene-2_0-st] Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 ST Array [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:BACKGROUND:Portal hypertension is characterized by exaggerated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. Natriuretic peptide system plays a counter-regulatory role, which is modulated by neprilysin. LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) is a dual angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibitor. This study evaluated the effect of LCZ696 on portal hypertensive rats. METHODS:Portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL) in rats. LCZ696, valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker), or normal saline (control) was administered in PVL rats for 10 days. Then, hemodynamic and biochemistry data were obtained. The hepatic histology and protein expressions were surveyed. On the parallel groups, the portal-systemic shunting degrees were determined. RESULTS:LCZ696 and valsartan reduced mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. LCZ696, but not valsartan, reduced portal pressure in portal hypertensive rats (control vs. valsartan vs. LCZ696: 15.4 ± 1.6 vs. 14.0 ± 2.3 vs. 12.0 ± 2.0 mmHg, control vs. LCZ696: P < 0.05). LCZ696 and valsartan improved liver biochemistry data and reduced intrahepatic Cluster of Differentiation 68 (CD68)-stained macrophages infiltration. Hepatic endothelin-1 (ET-1) protein expression was downregulated by LCZ696. The portal-systemic shunting was not affected by LCZ696 and valsartan. CONCLUSION:LCZ696 and valsartan reduced mean arterial pressure through peripheral vasodilation. Furthermore, LCZ696 significantly reduced portal pressure in PVL rats via hepatic ET-1 downregulation.
Project description:Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this experiment, a partial portal vein ligadure (PVL) was carried out in 12 rats, the other 12 rats were sham-operated. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) samples were sequentially obtained from 2 rats from the PVL and sham groups at 1, 6, and 24 hours, and 3, 5 and 14 days after portal vein ligation or sham procedure. Each PVL sample was paired with its corresponding sham sample using a dye swap experiment design (technical replicates) resulting in 12 arrays (6 time points x 2 dye swap).
Project description:Splenomegaly is caused by several pathological conditions, including portal hypertension, which is most frequently caused by chronic liver disease (e.g., liver cirrhosis). The detailed mechanisms through which portal pressure induces splenomegaly and the precise pathophysiological conditions in portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly remain to be fully elucidated. We used microarrays to identify the differential gene expression underlying the portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly. Overall design: Transcriptomic profile of whole spleen tissues from three male Sprague–Dawley rats with partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) as well as from the three sham rats as controls.
Project description:Splenomegaly is caused by several pathological conditions, including portal hypertension, which is most frequently caused by chronic liver disease (e.g., liver cirrhosis). The detailed mechanisms through which portal pressure induces splenomegaly and the precise pathophysiological conditions in portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly remain to be fully elucidated. We used microarrays to identify the differential microRNA expression underlying the portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly. Overall design: Transcriptomic profile of microRNAs in whole spleen tissues from three male Sprague–Dawley rats with partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) as well as from the three sham rats without PPVL as controls.
Project description:Liver cirrhosis but also portal vein obstruction cause portal hypertension (PHT) and angiogenesis. This study investigated the differences of angiogenesis in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic PHT with special emphasis on the canonical (Shh/Gli) and non-canonical (Shh/RhoA) hedgehog pathway. Cirrhotic (bile duct ligation/BDL; CCl4 intoxication) and non-cirrhotic (partial portal vein ligation/PPVL) rats received either atorvastatin (15 mg/kg; 7d) or control chow before sacrifice. Invasive hemodynamic measurement and Matrigel implantation assessed angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis in vitro was analysed using migration and tube formation assay. In liver and vessel samples from animals and humans, transcript expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and protein expression using Western blot. Atorvastatin decreased portal pressure, shunt flow and angiogenesis in cirrhosis, whereas atorvastatin increased these parameters in PPVL rats. Non-canonical Hh was upregulated in experimental and human liver cirrhosis and was blunted by atorvastatin. Moreover, atorvastatin blocked the non-canonical Hh-pathway RhoA dependently in activated hepatic steallate cells (HSCs). Interestingly, hepatic and extrahepatic Hh-pathway was enhanced in PPVL rats, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. In summary, statins caused contrary effects in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Atorvastatin inhibited the non-canonical Hh-pathway and angiogenesis in cirrhosis. In portal vein obstruction, statins enhanced the canonical Hh-pathway and aggravated PHT and angiogenesis.
Project description:The spleen plays an important role in the immune and hematopoietic systems. Splenomegaly is a frequent consequence of portal hypertension, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have performed a whole-genome microarray analysis combined with histological examination in enlarged spleens isolated from rats with partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) surgery to provide comprehensive profiles of microRNAs and their target mRNAs with a focus on their potential biological functions. A total of 964 mRNAs and 30 microRNAs showed significant differential expression in the spleens of PPVL rats compared to rats undergoing a sham procedure. Twenty-two down-regulated microRNAs were associated with significantly increased genes highly involved in fibrogenic activity and cell proliferation/migration (e.g., Ctgf, Serpine1, Col1a1). Consistently, histological analyses demonstrated increased splenic fibrosis and cell proliferation in the spleens of PPVL rats. Eight up-regulated microRNAs were associated with suppression of genes that are related to interferon-mediated antiviral activity in innate immune responses (e.g., Irf7, Dhx58). In conclusion, we determined a specific microRNA-mRNA network potentially implicated in the tissue fibrosis and cell proliferation in portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms for regulation of spleen structure and function.
Project description:Portal vein ligation (PVL) induces atrophy/hypertrophy complex (AHC). We hypothesised that simultaneous bile duct and portal vein ligation (BPL) might induce proper bile acid (BA) retention to enhance AHC by activating BA-mediated FXR signalling in the intact liver and promoting apoptosis in the ligated liver. We established rat models of 90% BPL and 90% PVL and found that BPL was well-tolerated and significantly accelerated AHC. The enhanced BA retention in the intact liver promoted hepatocyte proliferation by promoting the activation of FXR signalling, while that in the ligated liver intensified caspase3-mediated apoptosis. Decreasing the BA pools in the rats that underwent BPL could compromise these effects, whereas increasing the bile acid pools of rats that underwent PVL could induce similar effects. Second-stage resection of posterior-caudate-lobe-spearing hepatectomy was performed 5 days after BPL (B-Hx), PVL (V-Hx) or sham (S-SHx), as well as whole-caudate-lobe-spearing hepatectomy 5 days after sham (S-Hx). The B-Hx group had the most favourable survival rate (93.3%, the S-SHx group 0%, the S-Hx group 26.7%, the V-Hx group 56.7%, P < 0.01) and the most sustained regeneration. We conclude that BPL is a safe and effective method, and the acceleration of AHC was bile acid-dependent.
Project description:Hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is of primary concern during liver surgery. We propose a new approach for preserving low liver blood perfusion during hepatectomy either by occlusion of the portal vein (OPV) while preserving hepatic artery flow or occlusion of the hepatic artery while limiting portal vein (LPV) flow to reduce I/R injury. The effects of this approach on liver I/R injury were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: sham operation, occlusion of the portal triad (OPT), OPV and LPV. The 7-day survival rate was significantly improved in the OPV and LPV groups compared with the OPT group. Microcirculatory liver blood flow recovered rapidly after reperfusion in the OPV and LPV groups but decreased further in the OPT group. The OPV and LPV groups also showed much lower ALT and AST levels, Suzuki scores, inflammatory gene expression levels, and parenchymal necrosis compared with the OPT group. An imbalance between the expression of vasoconstriction and vasodilation genes was observed in the OPT group but not in the OPV or LPV group. Therefore, preserving low liver blood perfusion by either the OPV or LPV methods during liver surgery is very effective for preventing hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction and hepatocyte injury.
Project description:The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor.Systemic glucose and hormone responses to portal stimulation were measured. In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, post-prandial state was simulated by infusing glucose into the portal vein. The SGLT3 agonist, alpha-methyl-glucopyranoside (?MG), was then added to further stimulate the portal sensor. To elucidate the neural pathway, vagotomy or portal denervation was followed by ?MG+glucose co-infusion. The therapeutic potential of portal glucose sensor stimulation was investigated by ?MG-only infusion (vs. saline) in SD and Zucker-Diabetic-Fatty (ZDF) rats. Hepatic mRNA expression was also measured.?MG+glucose co-infusion reduced peak systemic glucose (vs. glucose alone), and lowered hepatic G6Pase expression. Portal denervation, but not vagotomy, abolished this effect. ?MG-only infusion lowered systemic glucose levels. This glucose-lowering effect was more pronounced in ZDF rats, where portal ?MG infusion increased insulin, C-peptide and GIP levels compared to saline infusions.The portal vein is capable of sensing its glucose levels, and responds by altering hepatic glucose handling. The enhanced effect in T2D, mediated through increased GIP and insulin, highlights a therapeutic target that could be amenable to pharmacological modulation or minimally-invasive surgery.
Project description:Recent studies have indicated that the Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is closely involved in liver fibrosis and other fibrotic diseases. However, whether targeting the AMPK pathway can rescue liver fibrosis and its complications, such as portal hypertension, is unknown. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic value of AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside), an agonist of the AMPK pathway, on liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. In vitro experiments showed that the gene expression levels of TGF-b, a-SMA, and collagen 1 in primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were significantly decreased after AICAR treatment. The p-eNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were increased by AICAR administration in sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). For in vivo animal studies, AICAR acutely decreased portal pressure in the BDL and CCL4 fibrotic rats, but not in the partial portal vein ligation (PVL) rats, without changes in systemic hemodynamics. It was also observed by using intravital fluorescence microscopy that AICAR led to sinusoidal vasodilation in situ experiment. We propose that the relevant mechanisms may be related to the activation of the AMPK/NO pathway in SECs and that this activation promoted NO production in the liver, thereby promoting hepatic sinusoid microcirculation and decreased intrahepatic resistance. The results were verified using the NO inhibitor L-NAME. Chronic AICAR treatment also showed profound beneficial effects on the BDL model rats. The hemodynamic condition was greatly improved, but the positive effect could be partially blocked by L-NAME. Moreover, AICAR also decreased hepatic fibrogenesis in the BDL rats. KEY MESSAGES: Acute and chronic use of AICAR could alleviate portal pressure without changing systemic hemodynamics. AICAR induced sinusoidal vasodilation by improving NO bioavailability and ameliorating endothelial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. AICAR could alleviate liver cirrhosis in the BDL model rats.