Interferon tau-dependent and independent effects of the bovine conceptus on the endometrial transcriptome: effect of conceptus origin and sex
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify bovine conceptus-induced modifications to the endometrial transcriptome both dependent and independent of interferon tau (IFNT), dependent on conceptus origin [in vitro fertilization (IVF) or artifical insemination (AI) derived blastocysts] and dependent on conceptus sex. Major findings include identification of genes differentially expressed in endometrium in response to the conceptus but independent of IFNT and genes differentially expressed in endometrium in response to AI vs. IVF and male vs. female conceptuses. Overall design: Bovine uteri were collected during the mid luteal phase of the estrous cycle and utilized to produce endometrial explants. The explants were treated for 6 h with RPMI media only (Control, n=6), media containing 100ng/mL of ovine IFNT (IFNT, n=6) or with a Day in vitro (IVF, n=7) or Day 15 in vivo (AI, n=4) derived conceptus in media. Following treatment, conceptuses were identified as either male (Male, n=6) or female (Female, n=5). Total RNA was extracted from the treated endometrium and RNA samples (23) were submitted for RNA-seq analysis. Comparisons include Control vs. IFNT, Control vs. AI, Control vs. IVF, Control vs. Male, Control vs. Female, AI vs. IVF and Male vs. Female treatments.
Project description:This study investigated bovine conceptus-induced modifications to the endometrial transcriptome related to effects of interferon tau (IFNT), conceptus origin (in vivo vs. in vitro), and conceptus sex. In vitro (IVF) or in vivo (superovulation and artificial insemination, AI) produced blastocysts were transferred into recipient heifers on day 7 of the estrous cycle. On day 15, IVF- or AI-derived conceptuses were obtained by uterine flushing and individually placed on endometrial explants in media for 6 h. Explants were also cultured with media alone as a control or media containing 100 ng/mL IFNT. Total explant RNA was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Incubation of endometrium with IFNT or IVF- or AI-derived conceptuses changed (P ? 0.001) expression of 491, 498, and 576 transcripts, respectively, compared to the control. Further, 369 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were common between explants exposed to IFNT or a conceptus. A total of 240 DEGs were uniquely altered by conceptuses (IVF- and AI-derived) but not IFNT. Of these transcripts, 46 were shared between the IVF and AI groups, while 61 and 133 were specific to IVF and AI conceptuses, respectively. Five genes [melanophilin (MLPH), prominin-2 (PROM2), myeloid associated differentiation marker (MYADM), vomeronasal 1 receptor 4 like (VN1R4L) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A)] were more abundant in endometrium exposed to female compared to male conceptuses (P < 0.001). A single gene [ADP-ribosylation factor like GTPase 4C (ARL4C)] was more abundant in response to male conceptuses (P < 0.001) than female conceptuses. These data support the hypothesis that conceptus regulation of gene expression in the endometrium is complex and involves factors other than IFNT that may have a biological role in pregnancy establishment.
Project description:This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques, and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (control), 100 ng/mL recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long day 15 conceptus, or a short day 15 conceptus. Transcriptional profiling of the endometrial explants found that exposure of endometrium to IFNT, long conceptuses, or short conceptuses altered (P < 0.05) expression of 491, 498, and 230 transcripts, respectively, compared to the control. Further analysis revealed three categories of differentially expressed genes (DEG): (i) commonly responsive to exposure to IFNT and conceptuses, irrespective of size (n = 223); (ii) commonly responsive to IFNT and long conceptuses only (n = 168); and genes induced by the presence of a conceptus but independent of IFNT (n = 108). Of those 108 genes, 101 were exclusively induced by long conceptuses and functional analysis revealed that regulation of molecular function, magnesium-ion transmembrane transport, and clathrin coat assembly were the principal gene ontologies associated with these DEG. In conclusion, bovine endometrium responds differently to age-matched conceptuses of varying size in both an IFNT-dependent and -independent manner, which may be reflective of the likelihood of successful pregnancy establishment.
Project description:In cattle, maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs on Day 16 via secretion of interferon tau (IFNT) by the conceptus. The endometrium can distinguish between embryos with different developmental competencies. In eutherian mammals, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is required to ensure an equal transcriptional level of most X-linked genes for both male and female embryos in adult tissues, but this process is markedly different in cattle than mice. We examined how sexual dimorphism affected conceptus transcript abundance and amino acid composition as well as the endometrial transcriptome during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Of the 5132 genes that were differentially expressed on Day 19 in male compared to female conceptuses, 2.7% were located on the X chromosome. Concentrations of specific amino acids were higher in the uterine luminal fluid of male compared to female conceptuses, while female conceptuses had higher transcript abundance of specific amino acid transporters (SLC6A19 and SLC1A35). Of note, the endometrial transcriptome was not different in cattle gestating a male or a female conceptus. These data support the hypothesis that, far from being a blastocyst-specific phenomenon, XCI is incomplete before and during implantation in cattle. Despite differences in transcript abundance and amino acid utilization in male versus female conceptuses, the sex of the conceptus itself does not elicit a different transcriptomic response in the endometrium.
Project description:In cattle, the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida on days 8-9 and then forms a conceptus that grows and elongates into an ovoid and then filamentous shape between days 9 and 16. The growing conceptus synthesizes and secretes prostaglandins (PGs) and interferon ? (IFNT). Our hypothesis was that the ovoid conceptus exerts a local effect on the endometrium prior to maternal recognition of pregnancy on day 16 in cattle. In study one, synchronized cyclic heifers received no blastocysts or 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts on day 7 and their uteri were collected on day 13. IFNT was not detected by RIA in the uterine flushing samples of pregnant heifers containing multiple ovoid conceptuses; however, total PG levels were higher in the uterine lumen of pregnant heifers than in that of cyclic heifers. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 44 genes was increased in the endometria of day 13 pregnant heifers when compared with that in the endometria of cyclic heifers, and many of these genes were classical Type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In studies two and three, the effects of infusing PGs at the levels produced by the elongating day 14 conceptus into the uterine lumen of cyclic ewes on ISG expression in the endometrium were determined. Results indicated that the infusion of PGs increased the abundance of several ISGs in the endometrium. These studies support the hypothesis that the day 13 conceptus secretes PGs that act locally in a paracrine manner to alter gene expression in the endometrium prior to pregnancy recognition in cattle.
Project description:In cattle, maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs on Day 16 via secretion of interferon tau (IFNT) by the conceptus. The endometrium can distinguish between embryos with different developmental competencies. In eutherian mammals, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is required to ensure an equal transcriptional level of most X-linked genes for both male and female embryos in adult tissues, but this process is markedly different in cattle than mice. We examined how sexual dimorphism affected conceptus gene expression and amino acid composition as well as the endometrial transcriptome during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Of the 5132 genes were differently expressed on Day 19 in male compared to female conceptuses, 2.7% were located on the X-chromosome. Concentrations of specific amino acids were higher in the uterine luminal fluid with male compared to female conceptuses, while female conceptuses had higher expression of specific amino acid transporters (SLC6A19 and SLC1A35). Of note, the endometrial transcriptome was not different in cattle gestating a male or a female conceptus. These data support the hypothesis that, far from being a blastocyst specific phenomenon, XCI is incomplete before and during implantation in cattle. Despite differences in gene expression and amino acid utilization in male versus female conceptuses, the sex of the conceptus itself does not elicit a different response in the endometrium. Following a synchronized estrous cycle, all heifers observed in standing estrus (=Day 0, n=30) were inseminated with semen from a proven sire. All samples were recovered at slaughter on Day 19 following estrus corresponding to the initiation of implantation in cattle, flushed with 10 ml of PBS and the presence of a conceptus was observed under a stereo-microscope (n=24). Each conceptus was dissected into 4 pieces, 3 containing only trophectoderm cells and one containing the embryonic disc along with associated trophectoderm cells, and immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen along with the corresponding intercaruncular endometrium from the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. DNA was extracted from each conceptus with phenol/chloroform treatment and finally re-suspended in 200 Î¼L of milliQ water. Two microliters of each sample were used to perform embryo sexing by PCR amplification of sex-specific polymorphic fragments in the amelogenin gene. N=5 samples of intercaruncular endometirum and the corresponding trophectoderm only sample were anaylsed for gene expression.
Project description:Biochemical and/or physical communication between the conceptus and the uterine endometrium is required for conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium, leading to placentation and the establishment of pregnancy. We previously reported that in vitro co-culture system with bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, primary uterine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), and uterine flushings (UFs) mimics in vivo conceptus attachment process. To identify molecules in UFs responsible for this change, we first characterized protein contents of UFs from day 17 cyclic (C17) and pregnant (P17) ewes through the use of two dimensional-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), followed by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. These analyses identified 266 proteins specific for P17 UFs, from which 172 proteins were identified as exosomal proteins. Among 172 exosomal proteins, 8 proteins that had been identified as exosomal proteins were chosen for further analysis, including macrophage-capping protein (CAPG), aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 protein (AKR1B1), bcl-2-like protein 15 (BCL2L15), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (EEF2), moesin (MSN), and ezrin (EZR). CAPG and AKR1B1 were again confirmed in P15 and P17 UFs, and more importantly CAPG and AKR1B1, mRNA and protein, were found only in P15 and P17 conceptuses. Moreover, exosomes were isolated from C15, C17, P15, or P17 UFs. Only P15 and P17 exosomes, originated from the conceptus, contained interferon tau (IFNT) as well as CAPG and AKR1B1, and up-regulated STAT1, STAT2, MX1, MX2, BST2, and ISG15 transcripts in EECs. These observations indicate that in addition to endometrial derived exosomes previously described, conceptus-derived exosomes are present in UFs and could function to modify endometrial response. These results suggest that exosomes secreted from conceptuses as well as endometria are involved in cell to cell interactions for conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium.
Project description:Interferon Tau (IFNT), the conceptus-derived pregnancy recognition signal in cattle, significantly modifies the transcriptome of the endometrium. However, the endometrium also responds to IFNT-independent conceptus-derived products. The aim of this study was to determine what proteins are produced by the bovine conceptus that may facilitate the pregnancy recognition process in cattle. We analysed by mass spectrometry the proteins present in conceptus-conditioned media (CCM) after 6 h culture of Day 16 bovine conceptuses (n = 8) in SILAC media (arginine- and lysine-depleted media supplemented with heavy isotopes) and the protein content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of Day 16 pregnant (n = 7) and cyclic (n = 6) cross-bred heifers on day 16. In total, 11,122 proteins were identified in the CCM. Of these, 5.95% (662) had peptides with heavy labelled amino acids, i.e., de novo synthesised by the conceptuses. None of these proteins were detected in the EVs isolated from ULF. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 11, Trophoblast Kunitz domain protein 1 and DExD-Box Helicase 39A were de novo produced and present in the CCM from all conceptuses and in previously published CCM data following 6 and 24 h. A total of 463 proteins were present in the CCM from all the conceptuses in the present study, and after 6 and 24 h culture in a previous study, while expression of their transcripts was not detected in endometrium indicating that they are likely conceptus-derived. Of the proteins present in the EVs, 67 were uniquely identified in ULF from pregnant heifers; 35 of these had been previously reported in CCM from Day 16 conceptuses. This study has narrowed a set of conceptus-derived proteins that may be involved in EV-mediated IFNT-independent embryo-maternal communication during pregnancy recognition in cattle.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify conceptus-derived proteins, in addition to IFNT, that may facilitate pregnancy recognition in cattle. Analysis of the protein content of the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from cyclic heifers on Day 16 by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified 334 proteins. Comparison of these data with 299 proteins identified in the ULF of pregnant heifers on Day 16 identified 85 proteins only present in the ULF of pregnant heifers. Analysis of Day 16 conceptus-conditioned culture medium revealed the presence of 1005 proteins of which 30 proteins were unique to ULF from Day 16 pregnant heifers. Of these 30 proteins, 12 had mRNA expression values at least 2-fold higher in abundance (P < 0.05) in the conceptus compared to the endometrium (ARPC5L, CAPG, CKMT1, CSTB, HSPA8, HSPE1, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, TKT) as determined by RNA sequencing. In addition, genes that have a significant biological interaction with the proteins (ACO2, CKMT1, CSTB, EEF2, GDI1, GLB1, GPLD1, HNRNPA1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPF, HSPA8, HSPE1, IDH2, KRT75, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, PSMA4, PSMB5, PSMC4, SERPINA3, TKT) were differentially expressed in the endometrium of pregnant compared to cyclic heifers during the pregnancy recognition period (Days 16-18). These results indicate that 30 proteins unique to ULF from pregnant heifers and produced by short-term in vitro cultured Day 16 conceptuses could potentially be involved in facilitating the interactions between the conceptus and the endometrium during the pregnancy recognition period.
Project description:A major unresolved issue is how the uterus influences infertility and subfertility in cattle. Serial embryo transfer was previously used to classify heifers as high-fertile (HF), subfertile (SF), or infertile (IF). To assess pregnancy loss, two in vivo-produced embryos were transferred into HF, SF, and IF heifers on day 7, and pregnancy outcome was assessed on day 17. Pregnancy rate was substantially higher in HF (71%) and SF (90%) than IF (20%) heifers. Elongating conceptuses were about twofold longer in HF than SF heifers. Transcriptional profiling detected relatively few differences in the endometrium of nonpregnant HF, SF, and IF heifers. In contrast, there was a substantial difference in the transcriptome response of the endometrium to pregnancy between HF and SF heifers. Considerable deficiencies in pregnancy-dependent biological pathways associated with extracellular matrix structure and organization as well as cell adhesion were found in the endometrium of SF animals. Distinct gene expression differences were also observed in conceptuses from HF and SF animals, with many of the genes decreased in SF conceptuses known to be embryonic lethal in mice due to defects in embryo and/or placental development. Analyses of biological pathways, key players, and ligand-receptor interactions based on transcriptome data divulged substantial evidence for dysregulation of conceptus-endometrial interactions in SF animals. These results support the ideas that the uterus impacts conceptus survival and programs conceptus development, and ripple effects of dysregulated conceptus-endometrial interactions elicit loss of the postelongation conceptus in SF cattle during the implantation period of pregnancy.
Project description:Conceptus expansion throughout the uterus of mammalian species with a noninvasive epitheliochorial type of placentation is critical establishing an adequate uterine surface area for nutrient support during gestation. Pig conceptuses undergo a unique rapid morphological transformation to elongate into filamentous threads within 1 h, which provides the uterine surface to support development and maintain functional corpora lutea through the production of estrogen. Conceptus production of a unique interleukin 1?, IL1B2, temporally increases during the period of trophoblast remodeling during elongation. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing was used to knock out pig conceptus IL1B2 expression and the secretion of IL1B2 during the time of conceptus elongation. Trophoblast elongation occurred on day 14 in wild-type (IL1B2+/+) conceptuses but did not occur in ILB2-null (IL1B2-/-) conceptuses. Although the morphological transition of IL1B2-/- conceptuses was inhibited, expression of a number of conceptus developmental genes was not altered. However, conceptus aromatase expression and estrogen secretion were decreased, indicating that IL1B2 may be involved in the spatiotemporal increase in conceptus estrogen synthesis needed for the establishment of pregnancy in the pig and may serve to regulate the proinflammatory response of endometrium to IL1B2 during conceptus elongation and attachment to the uterine surface.