Transcriptome analysis of influenza infected GFP+ AEC compared to bystander GFP- AEC
ABSTRACT: A GFP-expressing recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 influenza virus was used to infect C57BL/6 wild type mice and on day 3 post infection, lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) were isolated and sorted based on GFP expression. GFP+ AEC represent the infected AEC and GFP- AEC represent the bystander AEC. AEC were also sorted from uninfected mice to serve as controls. Overall design: AEC from infected mice were pooled to make three (3) infected GFP+ AEC replicates for sequencing. Five (5) bystander GFP- replicates and five (5) uninfected AEC replicates were also isolated for sequencing
Project description:Influenza virus outbreaks remain a serious threat to public health. A greater understanding of how cells targeted by the virus respond to the infection can provide insight into the pathogenesis of disease. Here we examined the transcriptional profile of in vivo-infected and uninfected type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lungs of influenza virus-infected mice. We show for the first time the unique gene expression profiles induced by the in vivo infection of AEC as well as the transcriptional response of uninfected bystander cells. This work allows us to distinguish the direct and indirect effects of infection at the cellular level. Transcriptome analysis revealed that although directly infected and bystander AEC from infected animals shared many transcriptome changes compared to AEC from uninfected animals, directly infected cells produce more interferon and express lower levels of Wnt signaling-associated transcripts, while concurrently expressing more transcripts associated with cell death pathways, than bystander uninfected AEC. The Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated in both in vivo-infected AEC and in vitro-infected human lung epithelial A549 cells. Wnt signaling did not affect type I and III interferon production by infected A549 cells. Our results reveal unique transcriptional changes that occur within infected AEC and show that influenza virus downregulates Wnt signaling. In light of recent findings that Wnt signaling is essential for lung epithelial stem cells, our findings reveal a mechanism by which influenza virus may affect host lung repair.IMPORTANCE Influenza virus infection remains a major public health problem. Utilizing a recombinant green fluorescent protein-expressing influenza virus, we compared the in vivo transcriptomes of directly infected and uninfected bystander cells from infected mouse lungs and discovered many pathways uniquely regulated in each population. The Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated in directly infected cells and was shown to affect virus but not interferon production. Our study is the first to discern the in vivo transcriptome changes induced by direct viral infection compared to mere exposure to the lung inflammatory milieu and highlight the downregulation of Wnt signaling. This downregulation has important implications for understanding influenza virus pathogenesis, as Wnt signaling is critical for lung epithelial stem cells and lung epithelial cell differentiation. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which influenza virus may affect host lung repair and suggest interventions that prevent damage or accelerate recovery of the lung.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a progressive depletion of CD4 + T cells. Despite its importance for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the precise mechanisms underlying CD4 + T-cell depletion remain incompletely understood. Here we make the surprising observation that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediates the death of uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells in cultures of HIV-1-infected cells. While HIV-1-infected cells are protected from ADCC by the action of the viral Vpu and Nef proteins, uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells bind gp120 shed from productively infected cells and are efficiently recognized by ADCC-mediating antibodies. Thus, gp120 shedding represents a viral mechanism to divert ADCC responses towards uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells. Importantly, CD4-mimetic molecules redirect ADCC responses from uninfected bystander cells to HIV-1-infected cells; therefore, CD4-mimetic compounds might have therapeutic utility in new strategies aimed at specifically eliminating HIV-1-infected cells.
Project description:HIV-1 Vpr triggers NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells by upregulating ULBP2, a ligand of the NKG2D receptor, through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Herein, we demonstrate that Vpr augments ULBP2 expression on both infected and uninfected bystander cells during HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Indeed, the frequency of uninfected bystander cells expressing high levels of ULBP2 was elevated in a Vpr-dependent manner. Nevertheless, the same does not hold true for a Vpr mutant that is not packaged into virions, suggesting the involvement of virion-associated Vpr in this process. Additionally, we show that soluble Vpr has the ability to induce a DNA damage response and to augment cell-surface ULBP2 upon transducing target cells, including T cells, conditions known to promote NK cell-mediated killing. Overall, these findings suggest that Vpr could contribute to CD4+ T cell loss by rendering uninfected bystander cells susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing.
Project description:The innate immune system is critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet many pathogens express virulence factors that impair immune function. Here, we used the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila to understand how the immune system successfully overcomes pathogen subversion mechanisms. L. pneumophila replicates within macrophages by using a type IV secretion system to translocate bacterial effectors into the host cell cytosol. As a consequence of effector delivery, host protein synthesis is blocked at several steps, including translation initiation and elongation. Despite this translation block, infected cells robustly produce proinflammatory cytokines, but the basis for this is poorly understood. By using a reporter system that specifically discriminates between infected and uninfected cells within a population, we demonstrate here that infected macrophages produced IL-1α and IL-1β, but were poor producers of IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, which are critical mediators of host protection. Uninfected bystander cells robustly produced IL-6, TNF, and IL-12, and this bystander response required IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling during early pulmonary infection. Our data demonstrate functional heterogeneity in production of critical protective cytokines and suggest that collaboration between infected and uninfected cells enables the immune system to bypass pathogen-mediated translation inhibition to generate an effective immune response.
Project description:Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells with distinct origins, phenotypes, functions and tissue localization. Their susceptibility to HIV-1 is subject to variations from permissiveness to resistance, owing in part to regulatory microRNAs. Here, we used RNAseq to examine the expression of >400 microRNAs in productively infected and bystander cells of HIV-1-exposed macrophage cultures. Two micro-RNAs up regulated in bystander macrophages, miR-221 and miR-222, were identified as negative regulators of CD4 expression and CD4-mediated HIV-1 entry. Both microRNAs were enhanced by TNF-α, an inhibitor of CD4 expression. MiR-221/miR-222 inhibitors recovered HIV-1 entry in TNF-α-treated macrophages by enhancing CD4 expression, and increased HIV-1 replication and spread in macrophages by countering TNF-α-enhanced miR-221/miR-222 expression in bystander cells. In line with these findings, HIV-1-resistant intestinal myeloid cells express higher levels of miR-221 than peripheral blood monocytes. Thus, miR-221/miR-222 act as effectors of the antiviral host response activated during macrophage infection that restrict HIV-1 entry. Overall design: Macrophages derived from the blood of 3 different adults (n=3 adults) were used. MicroRNAseq was performed on uninfected, productively HIV-1 infected (GFP+) and bystander (GFP-) macrophages.
Project description:Phagocytosis induced cell death (PICD) is crucial for controlling phagocyte effector cells, such as monocytes, at sites of infection, and essentially contributes to termination of inflammation. Here we tested the hypothesis, that during PICD bystander apoptosis of non-phagocyting monocytes occurs, that apoptosis induction is mediated via tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? and that TNF-? secretion and -signalling is causal. Monocytes were infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli), expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), or a pH-sensitive Eos-fluorescent protein (EOS-FP). Monocyte phenotype, phagocytic activity, apoptosis, TNF-receptor (TNFR)-1, -2-expression and TNF-? production were analyzed. Apoptosis occured in phagocyting and non-phagocyting, bystander monocytes. Bacterial transport to the phagolysosome was no prerequisite for apoptosis induction, and desensitized monocytes from PICD, as confirmed by EOS-FP expressing E. coli. Co-cultivation with non-infected carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl-ester- (CFSE-) labelled monocytes resulted in significant apoptotic cell death of non-infected bystander monocytes. This process required protein de-novo synthesis and still occurred in a diminished way in the absence of cell-cell contact. E. coli induced a robust TNF-? production, leading to TNF-mediated apoptosis in monocytes. Neutralization with an anti-TNF-? antibody reduced monocyte bystander apoptosis significantly. In contrast to TNFR2, the pro-apoptotic TNFR1 was down-regulated on the monocyte surface, internalized 30 min. p.i. and led to apoptosis predominantly in monocytes without phagocyting bacteria by themselves. Our results suggest, that apoptosis of bystander monocytes occurs after infection with E. coli via internalization of TNFR1, and indicate a relevant role for TNF-?. Modifying monocyte apoptosis in sepsis may be a future therapeutic option.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection compromises the central nervous system (CNS) in a significant number of infected individuals, resulting in neurological dysfunction that ranges from minor cognitive deficits to frank dementia. While macrophages/microglia are the predominant CNS cells infected by HIV, our laboratory and others have shown that HIV-infected astrocytes, although present in relatively low numbers with minimal to undetectable viral replication, play key role in NeuroAIDS pathogenesis. Our laboratory has identified that HIV "hijacks" connexin (Cx) containing channels, such as gap junctions (GJs) and hemichannels (HCs), to spread toxicity and apoptosis to uninfected cells even in the absence of active viral replication. In this study, using a murine model with an astrocyte-directed deletion of Cx43 gene (hGFAP-cre Cx43fl/fl) and control Cx43fl/fl mice, we examined whether few HIV-infected human astrocytoma cells (U87-CD4-CCR5), microinjected into the mouse cortex, can spread toxicity and apoptosis through GJ-mediated mechanisms, into the mouse cells, which are resistant to HIV infection. In the control Cx43fl/fl mice, microinjection of HIV-infected U87-CD4-CCR5 cells led to apoptosis in 84.28 ± 6.38% of mouse brain cells around the site of microinjection, whereas hGFAP-cre Cx43fl/fl mice exhibited minimal apoptosis (2.78 ± 1.55%). However, simultaneous injection of GJ blocker, 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid, and Cx43 blocking peptide along with microinjection of HIV-infected cells prevented apoptosis in Cx43fl/fl mice, demonstrating the Cx43 is essential for HIV-induced bystander toxicity. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Cx43 expression, and formation of GJs is essential for bystander apoptosis during HIV infection. These findings reveal novel potential therapeutic targets to reduce astrocyte-mediated bystander toxicity in HIV-infected individuals because despite low to undetectable viral replication in the CNS, Cx channels hijacked by HIV amplify viral neuropathogenesis.
Project description:HIV entry into the CNS is an early event after peripheral infection, resulting in neurologic dysfunction in a significant number of individuals despite successful anti-retroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which HIV mediates CNS dysfunction are not well understood. Our group recently demonstrated that HIV infection of astrocytes results in survival of HIV infected cells and apoptosis of surrounding uninfected astrocytes by the transmission of toxic intracellular signals through gap junctions. In the current report, we characterize the intracellular signaling responsible for this bystander apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that HIV infection of astrocytes results in release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, and dysregulation of inositol trisphosphate/intracellular calcium that leads to toxicity to neighboring uninfected astrocytes. Blocking these dysregulated pathways results in protection from bystander apoptosis. These secondary messengers that are toxic in uninfected cells are not toxic in HIV infected cells, suggesting that HIV protects these cells from apoptosis. Thus, our data provide novel mechanisms of HIV mediated toxicity and generation of HIV reservoirs. Our findings provide new potential therapeutic targets to reduce the CNS damage resulting from HIV infection and to eradicate the generation of viral reservoirs. We demonstrated that HIV infection of astrocytes protects infected cells from apoptosis but results in cell death of surrounding uninfected astrocytes by a mechanism that is dependent on gap junction channels, dysregulation of mitochondrial cytochrome C (CytC), and cell to cell diffusion of inositol trisphosphate (IP3 ) and calcium. Our data provide essential information about generation of brain reservoirs and the mechanism of toxicity mediated by the virus.
Project description:Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are ultrafine, filamentous actin-based cytoplasmic extensions which form spontaneously to connect cells at short and long-range distances. We have previously described long-range intercellular communication via TNTs connecting mesothelioma cells in vitro and demonstrated TNTs in intact tumors from patients with mesothelioma. Here, we investigate the ability of TNTs to mediate a viral thymidine kinase based bystander effect after oncolytic viral infection and administration of the nucleoside analog ganciclovir. Using confocal microscopy we assessed the ability of TNTs to propagate enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), which is encoded by the herpes simplex virus NV1066, from infected to uninfected recipient cells. Using time-lapse imaging, we observed eGFP expressed in infected cells being transferred via TNTs to noninfected cells; additionally, increasing fluorescent activity in recipient cells indicated cell-to-cell transmission of the eGFP-expressing NV1066 virus had also occurred. TNTs mediated cell death as a form of direct cell-to-cell transfer following viral thymidine kinase mediated activation of ganciclovir, inducing a unique long-range form of the bystander effect through transmission of activated ganciclovir to nonvirus-infected cells. Thus, we provide proof-of-principle demonstration of a previously unknown and alternative mechanism for inducing apoptosis in noninfected recipient cells. The conceptual advance of this work is that TNTs can be harnessed for delivery of oncolytic viruses and of viral thymidine kinase activated drugs to amplify the bystander effect between cancer cells over long distances in stroma-rich tumor microenvironments.