Centromeric DNA destabilizes H3 nucleosomes to promote CENP-A deposition during the cell cycle (part 3)
ABSTRACT: Centromeres are the regions of eukaryotic chromosomes where kinetochores are assembled and direct the correct segregation of chromosomes. Active centromeres are defined by presence of nucleosomes containing CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, which alone is sufficient to direct kinetochore assembly. Once assembled at a location CENP-A chromatin and the kinetochore is maintained at that location though a positive feedback loop where kinetochore proteins recruited by CENP-A promote deposition of new CENP-A following replication. Although CENP-A chromatin itself is a heritable entity, it is normally associated with specific sequences such as human alpha satellite arrays. Such analyses suggest that properties of centromeric DNA itself may favour assembly of CENP-A rather than H3 nucleosomes. To investigate the innate properties of centromeric DNA we have examined histone dynamics on this DNA assembled in CENP-A chromatin at endogenous centromeres and when assembled only in H3 chromatin at an ectopic location. We demonstrate that H3 occupancy on centromeric DNA is innately low while H3 turnover is high. Moreover, even at an ectopic location centromeric DNA programs H3 deposition in S phase and its eviction during G2 when CENP-A is otherwise deposited. G2 accumulation of RNAPII on centromeric DNA during G2 is consistent with transcription-coupled destabilisation of H3 nucleosomes to favour CENP-A deposition. Overall design: ChIP-Nexus samples were preprared for histone H3 and H4 from wild type strain and strain bearing an ectopically inserted central core DNA.
Project description:Centromere is the chromosomal locus at which kinetochore is assembled to direct chromosome segregation. Histone H3 variant CENP-A epigenetically marks active centromeres; however, the mechanism by which CENP-A propagates at the centromere, replacing histone H3, remains poorly understood. Using fission yeast, we find that CENP-ACnp1 chromatin assembly at the centromere requires the Ino80 ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex which removes histone H3-containing nucleosomes from associated chromatin. CENP-ACnp1 chromatin actively recruits the Ino80 complex to centromeres to elicit eviction of histone H3-containing nucleosomes. Artificial targeting of Ino80 subunits to a non-centromeric DNA placed in a native centromere enhances the spreading of CENP-ACnp1 chromatin into the non-centromeric DNA. Based on these results, we propose that CENP-ACnp1 chromatin employs the Ino80 complex to mediate replacement of histone H3 with CENP-ACnp1, and thereby reinforces itself. Overall design: ChIP-Seq samples of CENP-ACnp1, histone H3, Flag-tagged Ino80 subunits in wild type (wt) and various mutants were prepared using fission yeast.
Project description:A defining feature of centromeres is the presence of the histone H3 variant CENP-ACnp1. It is not known how CENP-ACnp1 is specifically delivered to, and assembled into centromeric chromatin. Through a screen for factors involved in kinetochore integrity in fission yeast we identified Sim3. Sim3 is homologous to known histone binding proteins NASPHuman and N1/N2Xenopus and aligns with Hif1S.cerevisiae to define the SHNi-TPR family. Sim3 associates with CENP-ACnp1 but is distributed throughout the nucleoplasm rather than being concentrated at centromeres. Cells defective in Sim3 function have reduced levels of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeres and display chromosome segregation defects. Newly synthesized CENPACnp1 can be deposited at centromeres by a replication-independent mechanism during G2. Sim3 is required to allow this new CENP-ACnp1 to accumulate at centromeres in S and G2-phase arrested cells. We propose that Sim3 acts as an escort which hands off CENP-ACnp1 to chromatin assembly factors, allowing its incorporation into centromeric chromatin. Keywords: Expression of sim3-143 versus wt and sim3-205 versus wt Overall design: cDNA expression profiling was carried out according to (Xue et al., 2004). We used the S. pombe ORF spotted microarrays (Eurogentec, Belgium custom DNA microarray services). GeneSpring software was used for all data analysis.
Project description:Specialized chromatin containing CENP-A nucleosomes instead of H3 nucleosomes is found at all centromeres. However, the mechanisms that specify the locations at which CENP-A chromatin is assembled remain elusive in organisms with regional, epigenetically regulated centromeres. It is known that normal centromeric DNA is transcribed in several systems including the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we show that factors which preserve stable histone H3 chromatin during transcription also play a role in preventing promiscuous CENP-A(Cnp1) deposition in fission yeast. Mutations in the histone chaperone FACT impair the maintenance of H3 chromatin on transcribed regions and promote widespread CENP-A(Cnp1) incorporation at non-centromeric sites. FACT has little or no effect on CENP-A(Cnp1) assembly at endogenous centromeres where CENP-A(Cnp1) is normally assembled. In contrast, Clr6 complex II (Clr6-CII; equivalent to Rpd3S) histone deacetylase function has a more subtle impact on the stability of transcribed H3 chromatin and acts to prevent the ectopic accumulation of CENP-A(Cnp1) at specific loci, including subtelomeric regions, where CENP-A(Cnp1) is preferentially assembled. Moreover, defective Clr6-CII function allows the de novo assembly of CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin on centromeric DNA, bypassing the normal requirement for heterochromatin. Thus, our analyses show that alterations in the process of chromatin assembly during transcription can destabilize H3 nucleosomes and thereby allow CENP-A(Cnp1) to assemble in its place. We propose that normal centromeres provide a specific chromatin context that limits reassembly of H3 chromatin during transcription and thereby promotes the establishment of CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin and associated kinetochores. These findings have important implications for genetic and epigenetic processes involved in centromere specification. In total, 24 samples: 22 ChIP DNA files (10 different conditions), 2 Input files.
Project description:CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone 3 variant essential for centromere specification. CENP-A partially replaces canonical histone H3 at the centromeres. How the particular CENP-A/H3 ratio at centromeres is precisely maintained is unknown. It also remains unclear how CENP-A is excluded from non-centromeric chromatin. Here we identify Ccp1, an uncharacterized NAP family protein in fission yeast that antagonizes CENP-A loading at both centromeric and non-centromeric regions. Like the CENP-A loading factor HJURP, Ccp1 interacts with CENP-A, and is recruited to centromeres at the end of mitosis in a Mis16-dependent manner. These data indicate that factors with opposing CENP-A loading activities are recruited to centromeres. Furthermore, Ccp1 also cooperates with H2A.Z to evict CENP-A assembled in euchromatin. Structural analyses indicate that Ccp1 forms a homodimer that is required for its anti-CENP-A loading activity. Our study establishes mechanisms for maintenance of CENP-A homeostasis at centromeres and the prevention of ectopic assembly of centromeres. Examination of cnp1 distribution in one wild type (wt) and two ccp1 mutants.
Project description:The centromere specific histone H3 variant CENP-A/CENH3 specifies where the kinetochore is formed in most eukaryotes. Despite tight regulation of CENP-A levels in normal cells, overexpression of CENP-A is a feature shared by various types of solid tumors and results in its mislocalization to non-centromeric DNA. How CENP-A is assembled ectopically and the consequences of this mislocalization remain topics of high interest. Here, we report that in human colon cancer cells, the H3.3 chaperones HIRA and DAXX promote ectopic CENP-A deposition. Moreover, the correct balance between levels of the centromeric chaperone HJURP and CENP-A is essential to preclude ectopic assembly by H3.3 chaperones. In addition, we find that ectopic localization can recruit kinetochore components, and correlates with mitotic defects and DNA damage in G1 phase. Finally, CENP-A occupancy at the 8q24 locus is also correlated with amplification and overexpression of the MYC gene within that locus. Overall, these data provide insights into the causes and consequences of histone variant mislocalization in human cancer cells. Overall design: CENP-A ChIP-Seq in SW480 cells
Project description:A key element for defining the centromere identity is the incorporation of a specific histone H3, CENP-A, known as Cnp1p in S. pombe. Previous studies have suggested that functional S. pombe centromeres lack nucleosome arrays and may involve chromatin remodeling as a key step of kinetochore assembly. We used tiling microarrays to show that nucleosomes are in fact positioned in regular intervals in the core of centromere 2, providing the first high resolution map of regional centromere chromatin. Nucleosome locations are not disrupted by mutations in kinetochore proteins cnp1, mis18, mis12, nuf2, mal2, overexpression of Cnp1p, or deletion of ams2. Bioinformatic analysis of the centromere sequence indicates certain enriched motifs in linker regions between nucleosomes and reveals a sequence-bias in nucleosome positioning. We conclude that centromeric nucleosome positions are stable and may be derived from the underlying DNA sequence. In addition, sequence analysis of nucleosome-free regions identifies novel binding sites for the GATA-like protein Ams2p, which participates in CENP-A incorporation. Keywords: Nucleosome Mapping Study Overall design: Entire cnt regions and histone-related genes were tiled at 1-5 bp spacing using 60-mer probes.
Project description:The histone H3 variant, CENP-ACnp1, is normally assembled upon canonical centromeric sequences, but there is no apparent obligate coupling of sequence and assembly, suggesting that centromere location can be epigenetically determined. To explore the tolerances and constraints on CENP-ACnp1 deposition we investigated whether certain locations are favoured when additional CENP-ACnp1 is present in fission yeast cells. Our analyses show that additional CENP-ACnp1 accumulates within and close to heterochromatic centromeric outer repeats, and over regions adjacent to rDNA and telomeres. The use of minichromosome derivatives with unique DNA sequences internal to chromosome ends shows that telomeres are sufficient to direct CENP-ACnp1 deposition. However, chromosome ends are not required as CENP-ACnp1 deposition also occurs at telomere repeats inserted at an internal locus and correlates with the presence of H3K9 methylation near these repeats. The Ccq1 protein, which is known to bind telomere repeats and recruit telomerase, was found to be required to induce H3K9 methylation and thus promote the incorporation of CENP-A near telomere repeats. These analyses demonstrate that at non-centromeric chromosomal locations the presence of heterochromatin influences the sites at which CENP-A is incorporated into chromatin and thus, potentially the location of centromeres. For CENP-A/Cnp1 chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with anti-Cnp1 serum using chromatin extracts from mutants and wild type control cells in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from each strain.
Project description:Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays we show that Top3 unlike Top1 and Top2 is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-ACnp1 occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-ACnp1 in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-ACnp1 nucleosomes. For transcription: Total RNA from top3-105 mutant and WT control cells after 8 hours at 36C in biological duplicates. For Top3-myc chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with mouse anti-Myc using chromatin extracts from cells expressing Top3-Myc from the endogenous locus at 30C in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from wild type cells at 30C in biological duplicates. For CENP-A/Cnp1 chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with anti-Cnp1 serum using chromatin extracts from top3-105 mutant and wild type control cells after 8 hours at 36C in in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from each strain.
Project description:A key element for defining the centromere identity is the incorporation of a specific histone H3, CENP-A, known as Cnp1p in S. pombe. Previous studies have suggested that functional S. pombe centromeres lack nucleosome arrays and may involve chromatin remodeling as a key step of kinetochore assembly. We used tiling microarrays to show that nucleosomes are in fact positioned in regular intervals in the core of centromere 2, providing the first high resolution map of regional centromere chromatin. Nucleosome locations are not disrupted by mutations in kinetochore proteins cnp1, mis18, mis12, nuf2, mal2, overexpression of Cnp1p, or deletion of ams2. Bioinformatic analysis of the centromere sequence indicates certain enriched motifs in linker regions between nucleosomes and reveals a sequence-bias in nucleosome positioning. We conclude that centromeric nucleosome positions are stable and may be derived from the underlying DNA sequence. In addition, sequence analysis of nucleosome-free regions identifies novel binding sites for the GATA-like protein Ams2p, which participates in CENP-A incorporation. Keywords: Nucleosome Mapping Study Entire cnt regions and histone-related genes were tiled at 1-5 bp spacing using 60-mer probes.
Project description:Centromeres are the chromosomal sites of assembly for kinetochores, the protein complexes that attach to spindle fibers and mediate separation of chromosomes to daughter cells in mitosis and meiosis. In most multicellular organisms, centromeres comprise a single specific family of tandem repeats, often 100-400 bp in length, found on every chromosome, typically in one location within heterochromatin. Drosophila melanogaster is unusual in that the heterochromatin contains many families of mostly short (5-12 bp) tandem repeats, none of which appears to be present at all centromeres, and none of which is found only at centromeres. Although centromere sequences from a minichromosome have been identified and candidate centromere sequences have been proposed, the DNA sequences at native Drosophila centromeres remain unknown. Here we use native chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify the centromeric sequences bound by the foundational kinetochore protein cenH3, known in vertebrates as CENP-A. In D. melanogaster, these sequences include a few families of 5-bp and 10-bp repeats, but in closely related D. simulans, a partially overlapping set of short repeats and more complex repeats comprise the centromeres. The results suggest that a recent expansion of short repeats is replacing more complex centromeric repeats in the melanogaster subgroup of Drosophila. Overall design: We used native chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-CENP-A antibodies to enrich for and sequence centromeric satellites bound by CENP-A in two sibling Drosophila species. We counted 71 candidate repeated sequences and their reverse complements to determine which were enriched in the immunoprecipitates.