Expression data from human kidney tubule epithelial cells
ABSTRACT: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders, due to deficiency of the mitochondrial methylmalonyl ̶ coenzyme A mutase (MUT). How MUT deficiency triggers mitochondrial alterations and cell damage remains unknown, preventing the development of disease-modifying therapies. To assess the effect of MUT deficiency on gene expression we investigated the transcriptome of in kidney cells derived from healthy controls or patients with MMA who harbor inactivating mutations in MUT. Microarray data indicate that MUT deficiency induces a profound and global change in gene expression that may be in part responsible of cellular alterations observed in patient cells. Overall design: Kidney cells were isolated from urine of either healthy controls or patients with MMA who harbor inactivating mutations in MUT. Confluent cells were sub–cultivated until 3rd passage and, subsequently, immortalized using pRSVneo vector containing SV40 DNA (pRNS1). Afterwards, immortalized kidney tubule epithelial cells were characterized for protein expression and enzyme activity. Total RNA was extracted from control and MMA cells to assess changes in gene expression with microarrays.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array
Project description:Isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), is often complicated by end stage renal disease that is resistant to conventional therapies, including liver transplantation. To establish a viable model of MMA renal disease, Mut was expressed in the liver of Mut(-/-) mice as a stable transgene under the control of an albumin (INS-Alb-Mut) promoter. Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) mice, although completely rescued from neonatal lethality that was displayed by Mut(-/-) mice, manifested a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ultrastructural changes in the proximal tubule mitochondria associated with aberrant tubular function, as demonstrated by single-nephron GFR studies. Microarray analysis of Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) kidneys identified numerous biomarkers, including lipocalin-2, which was then used to monitor the response of the GFR to antioxidant therapy in the mouse model. Renal biopsies and biomarker analysis from a large and diverse patient cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00078078) precisely replicated the findings in the animals, establishing Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) mice as a unique model of MMA renal disease. Our studies suggest proximal tubular mitochondrial dysfunction is a key pathogenic mechanism of MMA-associated kidney disease, identify lipocalin-2 as a biomarker of increased oxidative stress in the renal tubule, and demonstrate that antioxidants can attenuate the renal disease of MMA.
Project description:Methylmalonic acidemias (MMAs) are inborn errors of metabolism due to the deficient activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). MUT catalyzes the formation of succinyl-CoA from methylmalonyl-CoA, produced from propionyl-CoA catabolism and derived from odd chain fatty acids β-oxidation, cholesterol, and branched-chain amino acids degradation. Increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels allow for the presymptomatic diagnosis of the disease, even though no approved therapies exist. MMA patients show hyperammonemia, ketoacidosis, lethargy, respiratory distress, cognitive impairment, and hepatomegaly. The long-term consequences concern neurologic damage and terminal kidney failure, with little chance of survival. The cellular pathways affected by MUT deficiency were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach on a cellular model of MUT knockdown. Currently, a consistent reduction of the MUT protein expression was obtained in the neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) by using small-interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against an MUT transcript (MUT siRNA). The MUT absence did not affect the cell viability and apoptotic process in SH-SY5Y. In the present study, we evaluate and quantify the alterations in the protein expression profile as a consequence of MUT-silencing by a mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative analysis, using two different quantitative strategies. Both quantitative methods allowed us to observe that the expression of the proteins involved in mitochondrial oxido-reductive homeostasis balance was affected by MUT deficiency. The alterated functional mitochondrial activity was observed in siRNA_MUT cells cultured with a propionate-supplemented medium. Finally, alterations in the levels of proteins involved in the metabolic pathways, like carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism, were found.
Project description:Isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a pleiotropic enzymatic defect of branched-chain amino acid oxidation most commonly caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). End stage renal disease (ESRD) is emerging as an inevitable disease-related complication, recalcitrant to conventional therapies and liver transplantation. To establish a viable model of MMA-associated renal disease, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) was expressed in the liver of Mut -/- mice as a stable transgene under the control of an albumin (INS-Alb-Mut) promoter. Mut -/- ;TgINS-Alb-Mut mice were rescued from the neonatal lethality displayed by Mut -/- mice and manifested a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), chronic tubulointerstital nephritis (CTIN) and prominent ultrastructural changes in the proximal tubular mitochondria, replicating precisely the renal manifestations seen in a large MMA patient cohort. To explore the pathophysiological changes that underlie the renal disease of MMA, we compared gene expression profiles of whole kidney mRNA samples between 4 female Mut +/+, Mut +/- and Mut -/- ;TgINS-Alb-Mut mice after they ingested a HP diet for 2 months. Females were used because more survived the dietary challenge, whereas the histology, ultrastructure and GFR effects were identical between sexes
Project description:Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) enzyme. Downstream MUT deficiency, methylmalonic acid accumulates together with toxic metabolites from propionyl-CoA and other compounds upstream of the block in the enzyme pathway. The presentation is with life-threatening acidosis, respiratory distress, brain disturbance, hyperammonemia, and ketosis. Survivors develop poorly understood multi-organ damage, notably to the brain and kidneys. The HEK 293 cell line was engineered by CRISPR/Cas9 technology to knock out the MUT gene (MUT-KO). Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses revealed potential damaging biological processes in MUT-deficient cells. MUT-KO induced alteration of cellular architecture and morphology, and ROS overproduction. We found the alteration of proteins involved in cytoskeleton and cell adhesion organization, cell trafficking, mitochondrial, and oxidative processes, as validated by the regulation of VIM, EXT2, SDC2, FN1, GLUL, and CHD1. Additionally, a cell model of MUT-rescuing was developed in order to control the specificity of MUT-KO effects. Globally, the proteomic landscape of MUT-KO suggests the cell model to have an increased susceptibility to propionate- and H2O2-induced stress through an impairment of the mitochondrial functionality and unbalances in the oxidation-reduction processes.
Project description:The mut-type methylmalonic aciduria (MMA, MIM 251000) is caused by a deficiency of mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM, E.C. 188.8.131.52) activity, which results from defects in the MUT gene. To elucidate the mutation spectrum of the MUT gene in Chinese MMA patients, 13 exons of the MUT gene, including untranslated regions, were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing for 42 unrelated Chinese MMA patients. All the 42 patients were found to have at least one MUT mutation. A total of 41 mutations were identified. Of these mutations, 20 were novel ones, including one nonsense mutation (c.103C>T), 12 missense mutations (c.316A>C, c.424A>G, c.494A>G, c.554C>T, c.599T>C, c.919T>C, c.1009T>C, c.1061C>T, c.1141G>A, c.1208G>A, c.1267G>A, and c.1295A>C), one duplication (c.755dupA), three small deletions (c.398_399delGA, c.1046_1058del, and c.1835delG), two mutations that might affect mRNA splicing (c.754-1G>A and c.1084-10A>G), and one major deletion. Among the mutations identified, the c.1280G>A (15.5%), c.729_730insTT (10.7%), c.1106G>A (4.8%), c.1630_1631GG>TA (4.8%), and c.2080C>T (4.8%) accounted for 40% of the diseased alleles. The c.1280G>A and c.729_730insTT mutations were found to be the most frequent mutations in Southern and Northern Chinese, respectively. The results of microsatellite analysis suggest that the spread of c.729_730insTT among the Northern Chinese and of c.1280G>A and c.1630_1631GG>TA among the Southern Chinese may have undergone founder effects. This mutation analysis of the gene responsible for mut-type MMA will help to provide a molecular diagnostic aid for differential diagnosis of MMA and could be applied for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis among Chinese family at risk of mut-type MMA.
Project description:Methylmalonic and propionic acidemia (MMA/PA) are inborn errors of metabolism characterized by accumulation of propionic acid and/or methylmalonic acid due to deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) or propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). MMA has an estimated incidence of?~?1: 50,000 and PA of?~?1:100'000 -150,000. Patients present either shortly after birth with acute deterioration, metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia or later at any age with a more heterogeneous clinical picture, leading to early death or to severe neurological handicap in many survivors. Mental outcome tends to be worse in PA and late complications include chronic kidney disease almost exclusively in MMA and cardiomyopathy mainly in PA. Except for vitamin B12 responsive forms of MMA the outcome remains poor despite the existence of apparently effective therapy with a low protein diet and carnitine. This may be related to under recognition and delayed diagnosis due to nonspecific clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of health care professionals because of disease rarity.
Project description:Methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria (MMA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders biochemically characterized by the accumulation of methylmalonic acid. Isolated MMA is primarily caused by the deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMA mut; EC 184.108.40.206). A systematic literature review and a meta-analysis were undertaken to assess and compile published epidemiological data on MMA with a focus on the MMA mut subtype (OMIM #251000). Of the 1114 identified records, 227 papers were assessed for eligibility in full text, 48 articles reported on disease epidemiology, and 39 articles were included into the quantitative synthesis. Implementation of newborn screening in various countries has allowed for the estimation of birth prevalence of MMA and its isolated form. Meta-analysis pooled point estimates of MMA (all types) detection rates were 0.79, 1.12, 1.22 and 6.04 per 100,000 newborns in Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions, respectively. The detection rate of isolated MMA was <?1 per 100,000 newborns in all regions with the exception of MENA where it approached 6 per 100,000 newborns. Few studies published data on the epidemiology of MMA mut, therefore no meta-analysis could have been performed on this subtype. Most of the identified papers reported birth prevalence estimates below 1 per 100,000 newborns for MMA mut. The systematic literature review clearly demonstrates that MMA and its subtypes are ultra-rare disorders.
Project description:Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), an inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, carries a poor prognosis for long-term survival. While administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vector (rAAV8) can rescue Mut(-/-) mice from neonatal lethality and provide sustained phenotypic correction, translation of gene therapy to human subjects will likely require multiple rounds of systemic administration and, ideally, the use of a vector that transduces the kidney. To examine the effectiveness of alternative rAAVs in the treatment of MMA, a serotype 9 rAAV expressing the Mut cDNA was constructed and delivered to newborn Mut(-/-) mice (n=11). rAAV9 gene therapy directed hepatic transgene expression within 24 h and effectively rescued the Mut(-/-) mice from lethality, conferred long-term survival, markedly improved metabolism and resulted in striking preservation of renal function and histology. Systemic readministration of the vector at a dose similar to that used in human clinical trials (2.5 × 10(9)?GC of rAAV9 per gram) to older, treated Mut(-/-) mice (n=5) lowered circulating metabolites, increased in vivo propionate oxidative capacity and produced transgene expression in the kidney and liver. Our data support the use of an rAAV9 vector in the acute and chronic treatment of MMA, and highlight the renal tropism afforded by this novel serotype.
Project description:Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), an organic acidemia characterized by metabolic instability and multiorgan complications, is most frequently caused by mutations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). To define the metabolic adaptations in MMA in acute and chronic settings, we studied a mouse model generated by transgenic expression of Mut in the muscle. Mut-/-;TgINS-MCK-Mut mice accurately replicate the hepatorenal mitochondriopathy and growth failure seen in severely affected patients and were used to characterize the response to fasting. The hepatic transcriptome in MMA mice was characterized by the chronic activation of stress-related pathways and an aberrant fasting response when compared with controls. A key metabolic regulator, Fgf21, emerged as a significantly dysregulated transcript in mice and was subsequently studied in a large patient cohort. The concentration of plasma FGF21 in MMA patients correlated with disease subtype, growth indices, and markers of mitochondrial dysfunction but was not affected by renal disease. Restoration of liver Mut activity, by transgenesis and liver-directed gene therapy in mice or liver transplantation in patients, drastically reduced plasma FGF21 and was associated with improved outcomes. Our studies identify mitocellular hormesis as a hepatic adaptation to metabolic stress in MMA and define FGF21 as a highly predictive disease biomarker.
Project description:Dysregulation of the mitochondrial network in terminally differentiated cells contributes to a broad spectrum of disorders. Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of intermediary metabolism caused by the deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMUT) - a mitochondrial enzyme that mediates the degradation of certain amino acids and lipids. The loss of MMUT activity triggers an accumulation of toxic endogenous metabolites causing severe organ dysfunctions and life-threatening complications. How MMUT deficiency instigates mitochondrial distress and tissue damage remains poorly understood. Using cell and animal-based models, we recently discovered that MMUT deficiency disables the PINK1-induced translocation of PRKN/Parkin to MMA-damaged mitochondria, impeding their delivery and subsequent dismantling by macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosome degradation systems (Luciani et al. Nat Commun. 11(1):970). This promotes an accumulation of damaged and/or dysfunctional mitochondria that spark epithelial distress and tissue damage. Using a systems biology approach based on drug-disease network perturbation modeling, we predicted targetable pathways, whose modulation repairs mitochondrial dysfunctions in patient-derived kidney cells and ameliorates disease-relevant phenotypes in mmut-deficient zebrafish. These results unveil a link between primary MMUT deficiency, defective mitophagy, and cell distress, offering promising therapeutic avenues for MMA and other mitochondria-related diseases.