Transcriptomic analysis of 13.5dpc embryonic ovaries exposed to the acetaminophen (APAP) and ibuprofen (IBU) combination in mice
ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (IBU) and analgesic drugs, such as acetaminophen (APAP), are the most frequently medications taken by pregnant women, even in combination. They were shown to target fetal gonadal development acting as endocrine disruptors, that might favour genital malformations in new-born boys and reproductive disorders in adults, in an intergenerational manner. However, the consequences on postnatal ovarian development and female reproductive health after in utero exposure are still unknown. Here, we show that in utero exposure to therapeutic doses of the widely used APAP-IBU combination during the sensitive window of sex determination leads to an increased proliferation of female embryonic germ cells and a delayed entry into meiosis in 13.5dpc exposed ovaries. Consequently, the primordial follicle formation is enhanced in postnatal ovaries and is followed by a reduced follicular activation through the Akt/FoxO3 pathway and an increased follicular apoptosis. Subsequently, a reduced ovarian reserve in adult ovaries of exposed animals and in their offspring (F1) is observed. This leads to the subfertility of 6-month-old F1 animals that show an accelerated ovarian aging, a Premature Ovarian Insufficiency-like phenotype, with an abnormal persistence of corpora lutea due to the decreased apoptosis and an increased luteal Akt-mediated cell survival. Our data suggest that the use of APAP+IBU during this critical period of development that occurs during the first trimester of gestation (6 to 10 weeks), could lead in humans to adverse effects that could be passed to the offspring.
Project description:Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesic drugs, such as acetaminophen (APAP), are frequently taken during pregnancy, even in combination. However, they can favour genital malformations in newborn boys and reproductive disorders in adults. Conversely, the consequences on postnatal ovarian development and female reproductive health after in utero exposure are unknown. Here, we found that in mice, in utero exposure to therapeutic doses of the APAP-ibuprofen combination during sex determination led to delayed meiosis entry and progression in female F1 embryonic germ cells. Consequently, follicular activation was reduced in postnatal ovaries through the AKT/FOXO3 pathway, leading in F2 animals to subfertility, accelerated ovarian aging with abnormal corpus luteum persistence, due to decreased apoptosis and increased AKT-mediated luteal cell survival. Our study suggests that administration of these drugs during the critical period of sex determination could lead in humans to adverse effects that might be passed to the offspring.
Project description:Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. We have shown previously that female rat offspring born to mothers fed a high-fat (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and display aberrant reproductive cyclicity. The mechanisms driving this reproductive phenotype are currently unknown thus we investigated whether changes in ovarian function were involved. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to: dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Ovaries were collected from fetuses at Embryonic Day (E) 20, and neonatal ovaries at Day 4 (P4), prepubertal ovaries at P27 and adult ovaries at P120. In a subset of offspring, the effects of a HF diet fed postweaning were evaluated. The present study shows that fetuses of mothers fed a HF diet had significantly fewer oocytes at E20, and in neonates, have reduced AMH signaling that may facilitate an increased number of assembled primordial follicles. Both prepubertally and in adulthood, ovaries show increased follicular atresia. As adults, offspring have reduced FSH responsiveness, low expression levels of estrogen receptor alpha (Eralpha), the oocyte-secreted factor, Gdf9, oocyte-specific RNA binding protein, Dazl, and high expression levels of the granulosa-cell derived factor, AMH, in antral follicles. Together, these data suggest that ovarian compromise in offspring born to HF-fed mothers may arise from changes already observable in the fetus and neonate and in the long term, associated with increased follicular atresia through adulthood.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used plasticizer. Previous studies show that in utero exposure to BPA affects reproductive outcomes in the F1-F3 generations of mice. However, its multigenerational effects on ovarian histology and steroidogenesis over the reproductive lifespan are unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA has multigenerational effects on follicle numbers and steroidogenesis. Mice were exposed in utero to vehicle control or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50?g/kg/day). Ovaries were collected for histological and gene expression analyses and sera were collected for hormone assays. In utero BPA exposure decreased preantral follicle numbers, cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA levels, and estradiol levels in the F1 generation, whereas it decreased testosterone levels and altered steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, and cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA levels in the F2 generation. These data suggest that BPA has multigenerational effects on the ovary in mice.
Project description:Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane, leach out from consumer products into the environment. Exposure to BFRs has been associated with effects on endocrine homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that in utero and lactational exposure to BFRs may affect the reproductive system of female offspring, adult female Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets formulated to deliver nominal doses (0, 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day) of a BFR dietary mixture mimicking the relative congener levels in house dust from prior to mating until weaning. Vaginal opening and the day of first estrus occurred at a significantly earlier age among offspring from the 20 mg/kg/day BFR group, indicating that the onset of puberty was advanced. Histological analysis of ovaries from postnatal day 46 offspring revealed an increase in the incidence of abnormal follicles. A toxicogenomic analysis of ovarian gene expression identified upstream regulators, including HIF1A, CREB1, EGF, the β-estradiol, and PPARA pathways, predicted to be downregulated in the 20 or 60 mg/kg/day group and to contribute to the gene expression patterns observed. Thus, perinatal exposure to BFRs dysregulated ovarian folliculogenesis and signaling pathways that are fundamental for ovarian function in the adult.
Project description:We showed previously that in utero exposure to the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin (SMV) during sex differentiation lowers fetal lipids and testicular testosterone production (T Prod) in Hsd:SD rats. Here, the effects of SMV on fetal lipids and T Prod in Crl:CD(SD) rats were correlated with postnatal alterations in F1 males. The current study was conducted in two parts: 1) a prenatal assessment to confirm and further characterize the dose response relationship among previously reported alterations of SMV on fetal T Prod and the fetal lipid profile and 2) a postnatal assessment to determine the effects of SMV exposure during the periods of major organogenesis and/or sexual differentiation on F1 offspring growth and development. We hypothesized that SMV would have adverse effects on postnatal development and sexual differentiation as a consequence of the disruptions of fetal lipid levels and testicular T Prod since fetal cholesterol is essential for normal intrauterine growth and development and steroid synthesis. In the prenatal assessment, SMV was administered orally at 0, 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, 80, 90, 100, and 110 mg SMV/kg/d from GD 14-18, the period that cover the critical window of sex differentiation in the male rat fetus. T Prod was maximally reduced by ~40% at 62.5 mg/kg/d, and higher doses induced overt maternal and toxicity. In the postnatal assessment, SMV was administered at 0, 15.6, 31.25, and 62.5 mg/kg/d from GD 8-18 to determine if it altered postnatal development. We found that exposure during this time frame to 62.5 mg SMV/kg/d reduced pup viability by 92%, decreased neonatal anogenital distance, and altered testis histology and morphology in 17% of the F1 males. In another group, SMV was administered only during the masculinizing window (GD14-18) at 62.5 mg/kg/d to determine if male rat sexual differentiation and postnatal reproductive development were altered. SMV-exposed F1 males displayed female-like areolae/nipples, delayed puberty, and reduced seminal vesicle and levator ani-bulbocavernosus weights. Together, these results demonstrate that in utero exposure to SMV reduces offspring viability and permanently disrupts reproductive tract development in the male offspring. While the effects of high dose, short term in utero exposure to SMV in the adult male are likely androgen-dependent and consistent with the 40% reduction in T Prod in the fetal testes, long-term, lower dose administration induced some effects that were likely not mediated by decreased T Prod.
Project description:Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters.
Project description:To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10 ?g/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation.
Project description:Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3?-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Arsenic (As) exposure is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Chronic exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with an increased incidence of a number of diseases, including reproductive and developmental effects. The goal of this study was to identify adverse outcomes in a mouse model of early life exposure to low-dose drinking water As (10 ppb, current U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level).<h4>Methodology and findings</h4>C57B6/J pups were exposed to 10 ppb As, via the dam in her drinking water, either in utero and/or during the postnatal period. Birth outcomes, the growth of the F1 offspring, and health of the dams were assessed by a variety of measurements. Birth outcomes including litter weight, number of pups, and gestational length were unaffected. However, exposure during the in utero and postnatal period resulted in significant growth deficits in the offspring after birth, which was principally a result of decreased nutrients in the dam's breast milk. Cross-fostering of the pups reversed the growth deficit. Arsenic exposed dams displayed altered liver and breast milk triglyceride levels and serum profiles during pregnancy and lactation. The growth deficits in the F1 offspring resolved following separation from the dam and cessation of exposure in male mice, but did not resolve in female mice up to six weeks of age.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Exposure to As at the current U.S. drinking water standard during critical windows of development induces a number of adverse health outcomes for both the dam and offspring. Such effects may contribute to the increased disease risks observed in human populations.
Project description:Use of the dietary supplement quercetin is on the rise. Because previous studies imply an inhibitory effect of quercetin on male fertility, we explored the effects of this flavonoid on fertility in female mice. Birth outcomes, and ovarian morphology in 4-week-old offspring, were assessed in mice receiving dietary quercetin (5mgkg-1day-1) for 9 months during two breeding periods: from 2 to 6 months (prime reproductive age) and 8 to11 months of age. Quercetin increased birth spacing, leading to a 60% reduction in the number of litters, but enhanced folliculogenesis in ovaries of female offspring. While in young females quercetin caused an almost 70% increase in litter size, in older animals this effect was reversed. Consistent with the inhibitory activity of quercetin on the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2), genetic ablation of TG2 in mice mirrors the effects of quercetin on birth outcomes and follicular development. Further, TG2-null mice lack responsiveness to quercetin ingestion. Our study shows for the first time that dietary quercetin can cause reduced reproductive potential in female mice and implies that TG2 may regulate ovarian ageing.