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Identification of molecular mechanisms related with fatness in pig at transcriptome and miRNAome level
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of present research was to identify miRNAs potentially related with fattness traits in pigs Methods: miRNA-seq analysis was performed on subcutaneous fat samples collected from 22 pigs representing two sire-line breeds – Pietrain and Hampshire and one dam-line – Large White. Based on dissection data, pigs were selected from a larger population in terms of fatness traits to obtain the most extreme groups in each breed. The cDNA libraries were constructed form 300 ng of total RNA with the use NEBNext Multiplex Small RNA Library Prep Set for Illumina (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA, United States) according to the protocol. The quantification of obtained libraries was performed on Qubit 2.0 (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) and TapeStation 2200 (D1000 ScreenTape; Agilent). The RNA-seq was performed in 36 single-end cycles on HiScanSQ platform (Illumina) with the use of ruSeq SR Cluster Kit v3- CBOT-HS and TruSeq SBS Kit v 3 - HS (Illumina). Each library was sequences in 4 technical replications. The DEGs were detected using DESEq2 software and validation was performed by qPCR. Results: RNA-seq approach allowed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed between pigs with various fatness traits in each analyzed breeds: 64 for Pietrain pigs; 41 for Hampshire and 46 for Large White pigs (pvalue <0.05; fold change≤1.5). The comparison of obtained miRNAs sets showed 13 miRNAs identified in all three breeds. The Gene Ontology analysis (mirPath v.3.0 DIANA Tools web with DIANA—TarBase v7.0 as a reference) confirmed that detected miRNAs were involved in fatty acid biosynthesis (pvalue <1e-325); fatty acid metabolism (pvalue 6.661338e-16); ECM-receptor interaction (pvalue <1e-325). The most important targeted genes regulated by identified miRNAs were: fatty acid synthase – FASN; Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 – ACACA; Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase – MCAT and acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 and 2 (ACAA1 and ACAA2 genes). Conclusions: Obtained results allow to propose the panel of miRNAs, which can be related with fatness in pig. Such analysis can be the basis of future research in terms of identification of molecular mechanisms related with adipogenesis and fatness traits in pigs. Overall design: The fat (subcutaneous fat tissue) microRNA sequencing was performed for 22 samples collected form pigs representing three breeds – Large White, Pietrain and Hampshire, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 36 single-end cycles.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of present research was to identify miRNAs potentially related with muscle growth in pig Methods: miRNA-seq analysis was performed on longissimus lumborum samples collected from 13 pigs representing two sire-line breeds – Pietrain and Hampshire. Based on dissection data, pigs were selected from a larger population in terms of weight of loin muscle to obtain the most extreme groups in each breed The miRNA libraries were constructed form total RNA with the use Neb Next Multiplex Small RNA Library Prep Set for Illumina (New England Biolabs) according to the protocol. The quantification of obtained libraries was performed on a Qubit 2.0 spectrophotometer (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) and a TapeStation 2200 instrument (D1000 ScreenTape; Agilent). The miRNA-seq was performed in 36 single-end cycles on HiScanSQ platform (Illumina) with the use of TruSeq SR Cluster Kit v3- CBOT-HS and TruSeq SBS Kit v 3 - HS (Illumina). Differentially expressed microRNAs were detected using the DESeq2 software while validation was performed by qPCR. Results: miRNA-seq approach allowed to identify 196 known and 149 potentially novel miRNAs in both breeds. The comparison of miRNA profiles between pig groups with different loin weight showed differential expression of 57 microRNAs for Hampshire pigs and 34 miRNAs for Pietrain pigs. Furthermore, 18 common microRNAs with differential expression were identified for both breeds tested. The Gene Ontology analysis (DIANA mirPath v.3 tool) confirmed that detected genes were involved in regulation of cell cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, lysine degradation and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis. According to the KEGG Database, these DE miRNAs enrich the following pathways, i.a.: the Hippo signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Conclusions: Obtained results allow to propose the panel of miRNAs, which can be related with porcine muscle growth and development. Such analysis can be the basis of future research in terms of identification of candidate miRNAs related with important production traits in pigs. Overall design: The muscle (longissimus dorsi) microRNA sequencing was performed for 13 samples collected form pigs representing two breeds - Pietrain and Hampshire, using Illumina HiScan SQ and applying 36 single-end cycles.
Project description:Recently, selection in pigs has been focused on improving the lean meat content in carcasses; this focus has been most evident in breeds constituting a paternal component in breeding. Such sire-breeds are used to improve the meat quantity of cross-breed pig lines. However, even in one breed, a significant variation in the meatiness level can be observed. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of genes and microRNA expression profiles in porcine muscle tissue was applied to identify the genetic background of meat content. The comparison was performed between whole gene expression and miRNA profiles of muscle tissue collected from two sire-line pig breeds (Pietrain, Hampshire). The RNA-seq approach allowed the identification of 627 and 416 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pig groups differing in terms of loin weight between Pietrain and Hampshire breeds, respectively. The comparison of miRNA profiles showed differential expression of 57 microRNAs for Hampshire and 34 miRNAs for Pietrain pigs. Next, 43 genes and 18 miRNAs were selected as differentially expressed in both breeds and potentially related to muscle development. According to Gene Ontology analysis, identified DEGs and microRNAs were involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The most deregulated pathways dependent on muscle mass were the Hippo signalling pathway connected with the TGF-? signalling pathway and controlling organ size via the regulation of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The identified target genes were also involved in pathways such as the FoxO signalling pathway, signalling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. The obtained results indicate molecular mechanisms controlling porcine muscle growth and development. Identified genes (SOX2, SIRT1, KLF4, PAX6 and genes belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily) could be considered candidate genes for determining muscle mass in pigs.
Project description:Fat deposition and growth rate are closely related to pork quality and fattening efficiency. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for transcriptome and miRNAome massive parallel sequencing of adipocyte tissue was applied to search for a molecular network related to fat deposition in pigs. Pigs were represented by three breeds (Large White, Pietrain, and Hampshire) that varied in fat content within each breed. The obtained results allowed for the detection of significant enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and pathways associated directly and indirectly with fat deposition via regulation of fatty acid metabolism, fat cell differentiation, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and disassembly. Moreover, the results showed that adipocyte tissue content strongly affected the expression of leptin and other genes related to a response to excessive feed intake. The findings indicated that modification of genes and miRNAs involved in ECM rearrangements can be essential during fat tissue growth and development in pigs. The identified molecular network within genes and miRNAs that were deregulated depending on the subcutaneous fat level are proposed as candidate factors determining adipogenesis, fatness, and selected fattening characteristics in pigs.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of present research was to identify genes potentially related with muscle growth in pig Methods: RNA-seq analysis was performed on longissimus lumborum samples collected from 13 pigs representing two sire-line breeds – Pietrain and Hampshire. Base on dissection data, pigs were selected from a larger population in terms of weight of loin muscle to obtain the most extreme groups in each breed The cDNA libraries were constructed form 300 ng of total RNA with the use TruSeq RNA Sample Prep Kit v2 kit (Illumina) according to the protocol. The quantification of obtained libraries was performed on Qubit 2.0 (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) and TapeStation 2200 (D1000 ScreenTape; Agilent). The RNA-seq was performed in 101 single-end cycles on HiScanSQ platform (Illumina) with the use of ruSeq SR Cluster Kit v3- CBOT-HS and TruSeq SBS Kit v 3 - HS (Illumina). Each library was sequences in 4 technical replications. The DEGs were detected using DESEq2 software and validation was performed by qPCR. Results: RNA-seq approach allowed to identify 627 and 416 DEGs between pig groups with different loin weight (pvalue <0.05; fold change≤1.5) for Pietrain and Hampshire; respectively. Next, the comparison of obtained genes sets showed 43 genes identified in both breeds. The Gene Ontology analysis (Panther software) confirmed that detected genes were involved in regulation of metabolic process (18 genes), developmental growth or skeletal system development (PCOLCE; BBS2; TBX2; RBBP6; ATAF5). According to David software these genes belong to PI3K-Akt signaling, Focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction pathways. Conclusions: Obtained results allow to propose the panel of genes, which can be related with porcine muscle growth and development. Such analysis can be the basis of future research in terms of identification of candidate genes related with important production traits in pigs. Overall design: The muscle (longissimus dorsi) transcriptome sequencing was performed for 13 samples collected form pigs representing two breeds - Pietrain and Hampshare, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 101 single-end cycles and in 4 technical repetitions repetitions.
Project description:Fat content and fatty acid (FA) profile influence meat quality in pigs. These parameters are important for consumers due to their preferences for healthy, high quality meat. The aim of this study was searching for polymorphisms and transcript levels of two positional and functional candidate genes, FASN and INSIG2, encoding proteins which take part in lipid metabolism. The molecular findings were analyzed in relation to fatness traits. Pigs of four commercial breeds were included: Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Duroc and Pietrain. DNA sequencing, 5'RACE technique and real time PCR and association analysis were applied. In total, 20 polymorphisms in 5'-flanking, 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions of FASN (12 novel polymorphisms) and INSIG2 (seven novel ones and one known) genes were found. Association study with fatness traits (PL n = 225, PLW n = 179) revealed that four polymorphisms (c.-2908G>A, c.-2335C>T, c.*42_43insCCCCA and c.*264A>G) of the FASN gene were associated with back fat thickness in PL and PLW. Since the polymorphisms were identified in regulatory sequences of the both genes also their transcript levels were studied in PLW (n = 23), PL (n = 22), Pietrain (n = 17) and Duroc (n = 23). The INSIG2 transcript level was positively correlated with monounsaturated FA contents in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Several correlations were also found between three polymorphisms (c.*264A>G and c.-2335C>T in FASN, and c.-5527C>G in INSIG2) and the FA content. Our study showed that the FASN gene is a promising marker for subcutaneous fat tissue accumulation, while INSIG2 is a promising marker for FA composition.
Project description:Fatness traits are important in pigs because of their implications for fattening efficiency, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity. Songliao black pigs and Landrace pigs show important differences in production and meat quality traits, including fatness and muscle growth. Therefore, we used a high-throughput massively parallel RNA-seq approach to identify genes differentially expressed in backfat tissue between these two breeds (six pigs in each). An average of 37.87 million reads were obtained from the 12 samples. After statistical analysis of gene expression data by edgeR, a total of 877 differentially expressed genes were detected between the two pig breeds, 205 with higher expression and 672 with lower expression in Songliao pigs. Candidate genes (LCN2, CES3, DGKB, OLR1, LEP, PGM1, PCK1, ACACB, FADS1, FADS2, MOGAT2, SREBF1, PPARGC1B) with known effects on fatness traits were included among the DEGs. A total of 1071 lncRNAs were identified, and 85 of these lncRNAs were differentially expressed, including 53 up-regulated and 32 down-regulated lncRNAs, respectively. The differentially expressed genes and lncRNAs involved in glucagon signaling pathway, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, insulin signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and so on. Integrated analysis potential trans-regulating or cis-regulating relation between DEGs and DE lncRNAs, suggested lncRNA MSTRG.2479.1 might regulate the expressed level of VLDLR affecting porcine fat metabolism. These results provide a number of candidate genes and lncRNAs potentially involved in porcine fat deposition and provide a basis for future research on the molecular mechanisms underlying in fat deposition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The expression of genes involved in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism may affect economically important fatness traits in pigs. Allele-specific expression (ASE) reflects imbalance between allelic transcript levels and can be used to identify underlying cis-regulatory elements. ASE has not yet been intensively studied in pigs. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the differential allelic expression of four genes, PPARA, PPARG, SREBF1, and PPARGC1A, which are involved in the regulation of fat deposition in porcine subcutaneous and visceral fat and longissimus dorsi muscle. RESULTS:Quantification of allelic proportions by pyrosequencing revealed that both alleles of PPARG and SREBF1 are expressed at similar levels. PPARGC1A showed the greatest ASE imbalance in fat deposits in Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace and Pietrain pigs; and PPARA in PLW pigs. Significant deviations of mean PPARGC1A allelic transcript ratio between cDNA and genomic DNA were detected in all tissues, with the most pronounced difference (p < 0.001) in visceral fat of PLW pigs. To search for potential cis-regulatory elements affecting ASE in the PPARGC1A gene we analyzed the effects of four SNPs (rs337351686, rs340650517, rs336405906 and rs345224049) in the promoter region, but none were associated with ASE in the breeds studied. DNA methylation analysis revealed significant CpG methylation differences between samples showing balanced (allelic transcript ratio ≈1) and imbalanced allelic expression for CpG site at the genomic position in chromosome 8 (SSC8): 18527678 in visceral fat (p = 0.017) and two CpG sites (SSC8:18525215, p = 0.030; SSC8:18525237, p = 0.031) in subcutaneous fat. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis of differential allelic expression suggests that PPARGC1A is subjected to cis-regulation in porcine fat tissues. Further studies are necessary to identify other regulatory elements localized outside the PPARGC1A proximal promoter region.
Project description:Vertnin (VRTN) variants have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in European pigs, but the association has not been evidenced in Chinese indigenous pigs. In this study, we first performed a genome-wide association study in Chinese Erhualian pigs using one VRTN candidate causative mutation and the Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchips. The VRTN mutation is significantly associated with thoracic vertebral number in this population. We further show that the VRTN mutation has pleiotropic and desirable effects on teat number and carcass (body) length across four diverse populations, including Erhualian, White Duroc × Erhualian F2 population, Duroc and Landrace pigs. No association was observed between VRTN genotype and growth and fatness traits in these populations. Therefore, testing for the VRTN mutation in pig breeding schemes would not only increase the number of vertebrae and nipples, but also enlarge body size without undesirable effects on growth and fatness traits, consequently improving pork production. Further, by using whole-genome sequence data, we show that the VRTN mutation was possibly introgressed from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Our results provide another example showing that introgressed Chinese genes greatly contributed to the development and production of modern European pig breeds.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in diverse biological processes via regulation of gene expression including in skeletal muscles. In the current study, miRNA expression profile was investigated in longissimus muscle biopsies of malignant hyperthermia syndrome-negative Duroc and Pietrain pigs with distinct muscle metabolic properties in order to explore the regulatory role of miRNAs related to mitochondrial respiratory activity and metabolic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.A comparative analysis of the miRNA expression profile between Duroc and Pietrain pigs was performed, followed by integration with mRNA profiles based on their pairwise correlation and computational target prediction. The identified target genes were enriched in protein ubiquitination pathway, stem cell pluripotency and geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis, as well as skeletal and muscular system development. Next, we analyzed the correlation between individual miRNAs and phenotypical traits including muscle fiber type, mitochondrial respiratory activity, metabolic enzyme activity and adenosine phosphate concentrations, and constructed the regulatory miRNA-mRNA networks associated with energy metabolism. It is noteworthy that miR-25 targeting BMPR2 and IRS1, miR-363 targeting USP24, miR-28 targeting HECW2 and miR-210 targeting ATP5I, ME3, MTCH1 and CPT2 were highly associated with slow-twitch oxidative fibers, fast-twitch oxidative fibers, ADP and ATP concentration suggesting an essential role of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory networking in modulating the mitochondrial energy expenditure in the porcine muscle. In the identified miRNA-mRNA network, a tight relationship between mitochondrial and ubiquitin proteasome system at the level of gene expression was observed. It revealed a link between these two systems contributing to energy metabolism of skeletal muscle under physiological conditions.We assembled miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks based on divergent muscle properties between different pig breeds and further with the correlation analysis of expressed genes and phenotypic measurements. These complex networks relate to muscle fiber type, metabolic enzyme activity and ATP production and may contribute to divergent muscle phenotypes by fine-tuning the expression of genes. Altogether, the results provide an insight into a regulatory role of miRNAs in muscular energy metabolisms and may have an implication on meat quality and production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epigenetic variation may result from selection for complex traits related to metabolic processes or appear in the course of adaptation to mediate responses to exogenous stressors. Moreover epigenetic marks, in particular the DNA methylation state, of specific loci are driven by genetic variation. In this sense, polymorphism with major gene effects on metabolic and cell signaling processes, like the variation of the ryanodine receptors in skeletal muscle, may affect DNA methylation. METHODS:DNA-Methylation profiles were generated applying Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) on 17 Musculus longissimus dorsi samples. We examined DNA methylation in skeletal muscle of pig breeds differing in metabolic type, Duroc and Pietrain. We also included F2 crosses of these breeds to get a first clue to DNA methylation sites that may contribute to breed differences. Moreover, we compared DNA methylation in muscle tissue of Pietrain pigs differing in genotypes at the gene encoding the Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) that largely affects muscle physiology. RESULTS:More than 2000 differently methylated sites were found between breeds including changes in methylation profiles of METRNL, IDH3B, COMMD6, and SLC22A18, genes involved in lipid metabolism. Depending on RYR1 genotype there were 1060 differently methylated sites including some functionally related genes, such as CABP2 and EHD, which play a role in buffering free cytosolic Ca2+ or interact with the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. CONCLUSIONS:The change in the level of methylation between the breeds is probably the result of the long-term selection process for quantitative traits involving an infinite number of genes, or it may be the result of a major gene mutation that plays an important role in muscle metabolism and triggers extensive compensatory processes.