MRNAs and lncRNAs expression data of chondrogenic differentiated and undifferentiated murine chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 cells
ABSTRACT: Chondrogenic differentiation is a coordinated biological process regulated by various cell signalings at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, microarray was performed to detect the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs during chondrogenic differentiation of murine chondrogenic cell line ATDC5. Overall design: ATDC5 cells were treated by 1% ITS (0μg/ml recombinant human insulin, 5.5μg/ml human transferrin and 5ng/ml sodium selenite) for chondrogenic differentiation induction. After 14 days of chondrogenic induction, three pairs of differentiated ATDC5 cell samples (d-1, d-2, d-3) and undifferentiated ATDC5 cell samples (u-1, u-1, u-3) were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The ATDC5 cell line is regarded as an excellent cell model for chondrogenesis. In most studies with ATDC5 cells, insulin medium (IM) was used to induce chondrogenesis while chondrogenic medium (CM), which was usually applied in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), was rarely used for ATDC5 cells. This study was mainly designed to investigate the effect of IM, CM, and growth medium (GM) on chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells. METHODS: ATDC5 cells were, respectively, cultured in IM, CM, and GM for a certain time. Then the proliferation and the chondrogenesis progress of cells in these groups were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with CM and GM, IM promoted the proliferation of cells significantly. CM was effective for enhancement of cartilage specific markers, while IM induced the cells to express endochondral ossification related genes. Although GAG deposition per cell in CM group was significantly higher than that in IM and GM groups, the total GAG contents in IM group were the most. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that CM focused on induction of chondrogenic differentiation while IM was in favor of promoting proliferation and expression of endochondral ossification related genes. Combinational use of these two media would be more beneficial to bone/cartilage repair.
Project description:Mutations in the RMRP gene are the origin of cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is associated with severe dwarfism caused by impaired skeletal development. However, it is not clear why mutations in the RMRP gene lead to skeletal dysplasia. Viperin is a known substrate of RMRP. Since chondrogenic differentiation of the growth plate is required for development of the long bones, we hypothesized that viperin functions as a chondrogenic regulator downstream of RMRP. Viperin protein is expressed throughout the stages of chondrogenic differentiation in vivo. Viperin gene expression is increased during knockdown of Rmrp RNA in the ATDC5 model for chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin is expressed during ATDC5 chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin knockdown reduces, while viperin overexpression increases overall protein secretion, with CXCL10 identified as a potential target via mass spectrometry-proteomics. CXCL10 protein expression is reduced during knockdown and increased during overexpression of viperin and CXCL10 protein expression coincides with viperin expression in ATDC5 chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin knockdown induces, while viperin overexpression reduces TGFβ activity. Furthermore, viperin knockdown conditioned media increases, while viperin overexpression conditioned media reduces chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. TGFβ target genes Pai1 and Smad7 are increased during knockdown and reduced during overexpression of viperin. Moreover, TGFβ activity is reduced when differentiating ATDC5 cells are exposed to CXCL10 and, acting as a viperin overexpression mimic, CXCL10 similarly reduces chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5. Lastly, we show that in CHH patient cells, RMRP expression is reduced and viperin expression is increased, coinciding with reduced chondrogenic differentiation and increased CXCL10 expression, possibly explaining the CHH phenotype. Together our data show that viperin may play a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation, with potential consequences for cartilage-hair hypoplasia pathobiology.
Project description:Mutations in the RMRP-gene, encoding the lncRNA component of the RNase MRP complex, are the origin of cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is associated with severe dwarfism caused by impaired skeletal development. However, it is not clear why mutations in RMRP RNA lead to skeletal dysplasia. Since chondrogenic differentiation of the growth plate is required for development of long bones, we hypothesized that RMRP RNA plays a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation. Expression of Rmrp RNA and RNase MRP protein subunits was detected in the murine growth plate and during the course of chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cultures, where Rmrp RNA expression was found to be correlated with chondrocyte hypertrophy. Genetic interference with Rmrp RNA expression in ATDC5 cultures caused a deregulation of chondrogenic differentiation, with a prominent impact on hypertrophy and changes in pre-rRNA processing and rRNA levels. Promoter reporter studies showed that Rmrp RNA expression responds to chondrogenic morphogens. Chondrogenic trans-differentiation of cartilage-hair hypoplasia fibroblasts was impaired with a pronounced impact on hypertrophic differentiation. Together, our data show that RMRP RNA expression is regulated during different stages of chondrogenic differentiation and indicate that RMRP RNA may play a pivotal role in chondrocyte hypertrophy, with potential consequences for CHH pathobiology.
Project description:The forkhead box O (FOXO) proteins are transcription factors involved in the differentiation of many cell types. Type II collagen (Col2) Cre-Foxo1-knockout and Col2-Cre-Foxo1,3,4 triple-knockout mice exhibit growth plate malformation. Moreover, recent studies have reported that in some cells, the expressions and activities of FOXOs are promoted by transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1), a growth factor playing a key role in chondrogenic differentiation. Here, using a murine chondrogenic cell line (ATDC5), mouse embryos, and human mesenchymal stem cells, we report the mechanisms by which FOXOs affect chondrogenic differentiation. FOXO1 expression increased along with chondrogenic differentiation, and FOXO1 inhibition suppressed chondrogenic differentiation. TGF?1/SMAD signaling promoted expression and activity of FOXO1. In ATDC5, FOXO1 knockdown suppressed expression of sex-determining region Y box 9 (Sox9), a master regulator of chondrogenic differentiation, resulting in decreased collagen type II ?1 (Col2a1) and aggrecan (Acan) expression after TGF?1 treatment. On the other hand, chemical FOXO1 inhibition suppressed Col2a1 and Acan expression without suppressing Sox9 To investigate the effects of FOXO1 on chondrogenic differentiation independently of SOX9, we examined FOXO1's effects on the cell cycle. FOXO1 inhibition suppressed expression of p21 and cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Conversely, FOXO1 overexpression promoted expression of p21 and cell-cycle arrest. FOXO1 inhibition suppressed expression of nascent p21 RNA by TGF?1, and FOXO1 bound the p21 promoter. p21 inhibition suppressed expression of Col2a1 and Acan during chondrogenic differentiation. These results suggest that FOXO1 is necessary for not only SOX9 expression, but also cell-cycle arrest during chondrogenic differentiation via TGF?1 signaling.
Project description:It is known that Wnt/?-catenin signaling induces endochondral ossification and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. This study investigated the role of sclerostin in the endochondral differentiation under an OA-like condition induced by proinflammatory cytokines. ATDC5 cells were used to investigate chondrogenic differentiation and terminal calcification, and 10 ng/ml IL-1? and/or 200 ng/ml sclerostin were added to the culture medium. IL-1? impaired early chondrogenesis from undifferentiated state into proliferative chondrocytes, and it was not altered by sclerostin. IL-1? induced progression of chondrogenic differentiation in the late stage and promoted terminal calcification. These processes were inhibited by sclerostin and chondrogenic phenotype was restored. In addition, sclerostin restored IL-1?-induced upregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the late stage. This study provides insights into the possible role of sclerostin in the chondrogenic differentiation under the IL-1?-induced OA-like environment. Suppression of Wnt signaling by an antagonist may play a key role in the maintenance of articular homeostasis and has a potential to prevent the progression of OA. Thus, sclerostin is a candidate treatment option for OA.
Project description:Regulation of gene expression changes during chondrogenic differentiation by DNA methylation and demethylation is little understood. Methylated cytosines (5mC) are oxidized by the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins to 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), 5-formylcytosines (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosines (5caC), eventually leading to a replacement by unmethylated cytosines (C), ie, DNA demethylation. Additionally, 5hmC is stable and acts as an epigenetic mark by itself. Here, we report that global changes in 5hmC mark chondrogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Tibia anlagen and growth plate analyses during limb development at mouse embryonic days E 11.5, 13.5, and 17.5 showed dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in the differentiating chondrocytes. A similar increase in 5hmC levels was observed in the ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cell line accompanied by increased expression of the TET proteins during in vitro differentiation. Loss of TET1 in ATDC5 decreased 5hmC levels and impaired differentiation, demonstrating a functional role for TET1-mediated 5hmC dynamics in chondrogenic differentiation. Global analyses of the 5hmC-enriched sequences during early and late chondrogenic differentiation identified 5hmC distribution to be enriched in the regulatory regions of genes preceding the transcription start site (TSS), as well as in the gene bodies. Stable gains in 5hmC were observed in specific subsets of genes, including genes associated with cartilage development and in chondrogenic lineage-specific genes. 5hmC gains in regulatory promoter and enhancer regions as well as in gene bodies were strongly associated with activated but not repressed genes, indicating a potential regulatory role for DNA hydroxymethylation in chondrogenic gene expression.
Project description:Glycerophospholipids have important structural and functional roles in cells and are the main components of cellular membranes. Glycerophospholipids are formed via the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are subsequently matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Lands' cycle consists of two steps: deacylation of phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and reacylation of lysophospholipids by lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs). LPLATs play key roles in the maturation and maintenance of the fatty acid composition of biomembranes, and cell differentiation. We examined whether LPLATs are involved in chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells, which can differentiate into chondrocytes. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 (LPCAT4) mRNA expression and LPCAT enzymatic activity towards 18:1-, 18:2-, 20:4-, and 22:6-CoA increased in the late stage of chondrogenic differentiation, when mineralization occurred. LPCAT4 knockdown decreased mRNA and protein levels of chondrogenic markers as well as Alcian blue staining intensity and alkaline phosphatase activity in ATDC5 cells. These results suggest that LPCAT4 plays important roles during the transition of chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes and/or a mineralized phenotype.
Project description:The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) shows potential in degenerative disc disease (DDD) treatment. However, little is known about the function of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) in modulating the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. This study aimed to investigate the role of hnRNPA1 in the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and potential mechanisms. Mouse MSCs C3H10 and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells were used to quantify hnRNPA1 expression. The hnRNPA1 overexpression vectors were transfected into C3H10 cells, cell viability and chondrogenic factors expressions were assessed by MTT assay, qPCR and Western blot, respectively. After microRNA-34a (miR-34a) inhibitor transfection, expressions of chondrogenic factors and the Wnt signaling were detected. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) was performed to reveal the interaction between hnRNPA1 and miR-34a. Results showed that hnRNPA1 was significantly down-regulated in C3H10 compared to ATDC5.Overexpression of hnRNPA1 markedly promoted C3H10 cell viability and expressions of chondrogenic factors SRY-box 9 (SOX9), collagen II, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and aggrecan, without significant influence on adipogenic factors. miR-34a inhibitor suppressed chondrogenic factors expressions. RIP results showed the interaction between miR-34a and hnRNPA1. Besides, hnRNPA1 promoted expressions of Wnt family member 3A (WNT3A), WNT5A and ?-catenin, and these effects were abrogated by miR-34a inhibitor. We fund the promotive effect of hnRNPA1 on chondrogenic factors, which might require the interaction with miR-34a and the regulation of the Wnt signaling. Thus hnRNPA1 might induce the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs that facilitate the MSC therapy for DDD.
Project description:Both the miR-17-92 cluster and autophagy have been suggested as critical regulators of bone development, but the potential correlation between the two factors is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated whether members of this cluster can regulate chondrogenesis through an autophagy-related signalling pathway. In this study, the expression of miR-17-92 cluster members and the level of autophagic activity were investigated during chondrogenic induction in ATDC5 cells. miR-17, miR-18a, miR-20a, and miR-92-1 showed significant changes, and the level of autophagic activity was enhanced. Among the miR-17-92 cluster members, miR-20a showed the most significant change. Histological, cellular and molecular analyses were performed after the regulation of miR-20a and autophagy. miR-20a and autophagy had the opposite effect on chondrogenic differentiation, and there was a negative correlation between them. Moreover, the expression of the autophagy regulatory gene Atg7 was inhibited by miR-20a. siRNA was then used to knock down Atg7, and the results further indicated that Atg7 might be a potential target of miR-20a in chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, miR-20a is a critical negative regulator of chondrogenic differentiation because it inhibits autophagy via Atg7. Other members of the miR-17-92 cluster may have a similar effect, but this hypothesis requires further investigation.
Project description:Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.