Global gene expression analysis between Gfi1+/+ and Gfi1-/- splenic B cells
ABSTRACT: The zinc finger transcription factor growth-factor-independent-1 (Gfi1) has been involved in various cellular differentiation processes. Gfi1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and splicing control factor upon binding to cognate binding sites in regulatory elements of its target genes. Here, we report that Gfi1-deficient mice develop autoimmunity. Gfi1-deficient peripheral B-cells show a hyperproliferative phenotype, leading to expansion of plasma cells, increased levels of nuclear autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in brain and kidneys. Dysregulation of multiple transcription factors and cell-cycle control elements may contribute to B-cell dependent autoimmunity. Gfi1 thus emerges as a novel master-regulator restricting autoimmunity. Overall design: Splenic B220+CD19+ CD138- B cells of 4 week old Gfi1+/+ and Gfi1-/- mice were isolated and RNA was extracted from one sample per group and microarray analysis was performed.
Project description:The zinc finger transcription factor growth-factor-independent-1 (Gfi1) has been involved in various cellular differentiation processes. Gfi1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and splicing control factor upon binding to cognate binding sites in regulatory elements of its target genes. Here, we report that Gfi1-deficient mice develop autoimmunity. Gfi1-deficient peripheral B-cells show a hyperproliferative phenotype, leading to expansion of plasma cells, increased levels of nuclear autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in brain and kidneys. Dysregulation of multiple transcription factors and cell-cycle control elements may contribute to B-cell dependent autoimmunity. Gfi1 thus emerges as a novel master-regulator restricting autoimmunity. Experiment Overall Design: Splenic B220+CD19+ CD138- B cells of 4 week old Gfi1+/+ and Gfi1-/- mice were isolated and RNA was extracted from one sample per group and microarray analysis was performed.
Project description:The transcription factor growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) and the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are individually essential for neutrophil differentiation from myeloid progenitors. Here, we provide evidence that the functions of Gfi1 and G-CSF are linked in the regulation of granulopoiesis. We report that Gfi1 promotes the expression of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), an exchange factor that activates Ras, and that RasGRP1 is required for G-CSF signaling through the Ras/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/Erk) pathway. Gfi1-null mice have reduced levels of RasGRP1 mRNA and protein in thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, and Gfi1 transduction in myeloid cells promotes RasGRP1 expression. When stimulated with G-CSF, Gfi1-null myeloid cells are selectively defective at activating Erk1/2, but not signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) or STAT3, and fail to differentiate into neutrophils. Expression of RasGRP1 in Gfi1-deficient cells rescues Erk1/2 activation by G-CSF and allows neutrophil maturation by G-CSF. These results uncover a previously unknown function of Gfi1 as a regulator of RasGRP1 and link Gfi1 transcriptional control to G-CSF signaling and regulation of granulopoiesis.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Gfi1 regulates the expression of genes important for survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Gfi1 deficient mice are severely neutropenic and accumulate ill-defined CD11b(+)GR1(int) myeloid cells. Here we show that Gfi1 expression levels determine mono- or granulocytic lineage choice in precursor cells. In addition, we identify CD48 as a cell surface marker which enables a better definition of monocytes and granulocytes in mouse bone marrow. Using the CD48/Gr1/Gfi1 marker combination we can show that the CD11b(+)GR1(int) cells accumulating in Gfi1 deficient mice are monocytes and not granulocyte precursors. Expression of CD48, Gr1 and Gfi1 define different bone marrow subpopulations that are either committed to the granulocytic lineage, or bipotential precursors of granulocytes or monocytes. Finally, a comparison of genes differentially expressed between murine Gfi1 high granulocytic precursors and mature granulocytes with gene expression changes from human myeloblasts versus neutrophils show a strong resemblance of human and mouse differentiation pathways. This underlines the value of the markers CD48 and Gfi1 identified here to study human and murine granulo-monocytic differentiation.
Project description:The differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Th2 cells requires the T cell receptor-mediated activation of the ERK MAPK cascade. Little is known, however, in regard to how the ERK MAPK cascade regulates Th2 cell differentiation. We herein identified Gfi1 (growth factor independent-1) as a downstream target of the ERK MAPK cascade for Th2 cell differentiation. In the absence of Gfi1, interleukin-5 production and the change of histone modification at the interleukin-5 gene locus were severely impaired. Furthermore, the interferon gamma gene showed a striking activation in the Gfi1(-/-) Th2 cells. An enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation of GATA3 protein was observed in Gfi1(-/-) Th2 cells, and the overexpression of GATA3 eliminated the defect of Th2 cell function in Gfi1-deficient Th2 cells. These data suggest that the T cell receptor-mediated induction of Gfi1 controls Th2 cell differentiation through the regulation of GATA3 protein stability.
Project description:The generation of all blood cells depends on the ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. We show here that the transcription factor Gfi1 is expressed in HSCs and in more mature cells such as common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and granulo/monocytic progenitors, but is absent in common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors. When Gfi1 is deleted in mice, HSC frequencies are significantly reduced and CLPs all but disappear from the bone marrow. This specific requirement of Gfi1 for the maintenance of HSC numbers is cell autonomous. Transplantation of Gfi1-deficient bone marrow results in a compromised radioprotection and lower numbers of colony forming units in the spleen of wild-type recipients. Strikingly, Gfi1-/- bone marrow cells are severely impaired in competitive long-term reconstituting abilities after transplantation and show a surprisingly high proportion of actively cycling HSCs, suggesting that Gfi1 restrains proliferation of HSCs and thereby regulates their self-renewal and long-term engraftment abilities.
Project description:Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) is essential for T cell survival and differentiation. Glucocorticoids are potent enhancers of IL-7Rα expression with diverse roles in T cell biology. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor, growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1), as a novel intermediary in glucocorticoid-induced IL-7Rα up-regulation. We found Gfi1 to be a major inhibitory target of dexamethasone by microarray expression profiling of 3B4.15 T-hybridoma cells. Concordantly, retroviral transduction of Gfi1 significantly blunted IL-7Rα up-regulation by dexamethasone. To further assess the role of Gfi1 in vivo, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, in which a modified Il7r locus expresses GFP to report Il7r gene transcription. By introducing this BAC reporter transgene into either Gfi1-deficient or Gfi1-transgenic mice, we document in vivo that IL-7Rα transcription is up-regulated in the absence of Gfi1 and down-regulated when Gfi1 is overexpressed. Strikingly, the in vivo regulatory role of Gfi1 was specific for CD8(+), and not CD4(+) T cells or immature thymocytes. These results identify Gfi1 as a specific transcriptional repressor of the Il7r gene in CD8 T lymphocytes in vivo.
Project description:Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.
Project description:Gfi1 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of many hematopoietic linage cells. However, the impact of Gfi1-deficiency on the iNKT cell differentiation remains unclear. We herein demonstrate a critical role of Gfi1 in regulating the development of iNKT cell subsets. In the thymus of T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice, iNKT cells normally developed up to stage 2, while the number of stage 3 NK1.1pos iNKT cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, CD4pos iNKT cells were selectively reduced in the peripheral organs of T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice. The ?-GalCer-dependent production of IFN-?and Th2 cytokines, but not IL-17A, was severely reduced in T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice. In addition, a reduction of the ?-GalCer-induced anti-tumor activity was observed in Gfi1-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate the important role of Gfi1 in regulating the development and function of NKT1- and NKT2-type iNKT cell subsets.
Project description:GFI1 is a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in hematopoiesis and has also been implicated in lymphomagenesis. It is still poorly understood how GFI1 expression is regulated in the hematopoietic system. We show here that GFI1 transcription was repressed by the tumor suppressor p53 in hematopoietic cells. Knockdown of p53 resulted in increased GFI1 expression and abolished DNA damage-induced GFI1 downregulation. In contrast, GFI1 expression was reduced and its downregulation in response to DNA damage was rescued upon restoration of p53 function in p53-deficient cells. In luciferase reporter assays, wild type p53, but not a DNA binding-defective p53 mutant, repressed the GFI1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that p53 bound to the proximal region of the GFI1 promoter. Detailed mapping of the GFI1 promoter indicated that GFI1 core promoter region spanning from -33 to +6 bp is sufficient for p53-mediated repression. This core promoter region contains a putative p53 repressive response element, mutation of which abolished p53 binding to and repression of GFI1 promoter. Significantly, apoptosis induced by DNA damage was inhibited upon Gfi1 overexpression, but augmented following GFI1 knockdown. Our data establish for the first time that GFI1 is repressed by p53 and add to our understanding of the roles of GFI1 in normal hematopoiesis and lymphomagenesis.
Project description:The transcription factor PU.1, encoded by the Sfpi1 gene, functions in a graded manner to regulate macrophage versus B cell generation; its higher concentration favors the macrophage fate. We demonstrated that Gfi1 reciprocally promoted B cell fate choice at the expense of myeloid progeny. Gfi1(-/-) multipotential progenitors (MPPs) were unable to constrain the expression of PU.1 because Gfi1 functioned to repress the Sfpi1 gene by displacing PU.1 from positive autoregulatory elements. Attenuating a transcriptional module composed of PU.1 and Egr suppressed the B lineage developmental defects of Gfi1(-/-) MPPs. Finally Ikaros, a transcription factor required for B cell development, promoted Gfi1 and antagonized PU.1 expression in MPPs. Our results reveal that a core transcriptional regulatory network used for directing cell fate choice in the innate immune system has been co-opted by Ikaros to orchestrate B lymphocyte generation. These findings have important implications for the evolution of the adaptive immune system.