All the regulated lncRNAs in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs, CD44+CD24- sorted)MCF-7 cells compared to non-BCSCs (non-CD44+CD24- sorted) MCF-7 cells
ABSTRACT: Circulating transcriptional landscapes between BCSCs and non-BCSCs were compared using the Affymetrix Human OE LncRNA Microarray with probes for profiling of 63542 human lncRNAs. Goal was to investigate potential lncRNAs involved in BCSCs progression. Overall design: We used flow cytometry sorting to obtain CD44+CD24- MCF-7 cells and non-CD44+CD24- MCF-7 cells, extracted the total RNAs of these two kinds of cells, and detected the global expression profile of lncRNAs with Affymetrix Human OE LncRNA Microarray.
INSTRUMENT(S): [OElncRNAs520855F] Affymetrix Human Custom lncRNA Array
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). METHODS:MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS:RESULTS showed different proportion of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population was as MCF7<T-47D<MDA-MB-231. Our results also indicated that CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. CONCLUSION:Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been recently identified in breast carcinoma as CD44+CD24- cells, which exclusively retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Using a mammosphere culture technique, MCF7 mammosphere cells are found to enrich breast cancer stem-like cells expressing CD44+CD24-. The stromal cells are mainly constituted by fibroblasts within a breast carcinoma, yet little is known of the contributions of the stromal cells to BCSCs. METHODS: Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated and identified by immunohistochemistry. MCF7 mammosphere cells were co-cultured with different stromal fibroblasts by a transwell cocultured system. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD44 and CD24 expression status on MCF7. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was performed to investigate the production of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in mammosphere cultures subject to various treatments. Mammosphere cells were injected with CAFs and NFs to examine the efficiency of tumorigenity in NOD/SCID mice. RESULTS: CAFs derived from breast cancer patients were found to be positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), exhibiting the traits of myofibroblasts. In addition, CAFs played a central role in promoting the proliferation of CD44+CD24- cells through their ability to secrete SDF-1, which may be mediated to SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling. Moreover, the tumorigenicity of mammosphere cells with CAFs significantly increased as compared to that of mammosphere cells alone or with NFs. CONCLUSION: We for the first time investigated the effects of stromal fibroblasts on CD44+CD24- cells and our findings indicated that breast CAFs contribute to CD44+CD24- cell proliferation through the secretion of SDF-1, and which may be important target for therapeutic approaches.
Project description:The intent of this experiment was to determine the similarities and differences in expression signatures of normal breast cells that express markers associated with an epithelial-like (ALDH+) and mesenchymal-like (CD44+CD24-) stem cells in the normal human breast. Briefly, tissues were collected from women undergoing voluntary reduction mammoplasty. Tissues were dissociated using chemical and enzymatic methods to yield single cells. These cells were sorted by flow cytometry for aldehyde hydrogenase activity (ALDH+), CD44, and CD24, as well as viability, following depletion of hematopoeitc cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts.
Project description:It has been suggested that breast cancers are driven and maintained by a cellular subpopulation with stem cell properties. These breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) mediate metastasis and by virtue of their resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, contribute to relapse. Although several BCSC markers have been described, it is unclear whether these markers identify the same or independent BCSC populations. Based on established breast cancer cell lines, as well as primary tumor xenografts, we show that BCSCs exist in distinct mesenchymal-like (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT) and epithelial-like (mesenchymal-epithelial transition, MET) states characterized by expression of distinct markers, proliferative capacity and invasive characteristics. The gene expression profiles of mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like BCSCs are remarkably similar across the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and resemble those of distinct basal and luminal stem cells found in the normal breast. We propose that the plasticity of BCSCs allowing them to transition between EMT- and MET-like states endows these cells with the capacity for tissue invasion, dissemination and growth at metastatic sites. Breast cancer cell lines, primary xenografts and normal breast cells from patient were sorted using flow cytometry to select for cells that were CD24-,CD44+ and ALDH+. Gene expression profiles of CD24-CD44+ cells were compared with non-CD24-CD44+ cells. Gene expression profiles of ALDH+ cells were compared with ALDH- cells.
Project description:To understand the role of p53 in regulating stem cell population (CD24-CD44+) and stemness-associated miRNAs, we first compared miRNA expression profiles between human mammary epithelical cells knocked-down p53 and control cells. We then cross-referenced p53-regulated miRNAs with stemness-associated miRNAs analyzed from expression profiling of sorted CD24-CD44+ and non-CD24-CD44+ cell populations. Further biological experiments were performed with the miRNAs that are altered in CD24-CD44+ stem cell populations and also regulated by p53. Total RNAs, including miRNAs, extracted from CD24-CD44+ cells (labeled in Hy3) and non-CD24-CD44+ cells (labeled in Hy5) were hybridized on Exiqon miRCURY LNA arrays according to the manufacturer's protocol.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs). METHODS: We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells) from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. RESULTS: Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.
Project description:Tumorigenic breast cancer cells characterized by CD44 expression and low or undetectable CD24 levels (CD44+/CD24-/low) may be resistant to chemotherapy and therefore responsible for cancer relapse. Paired breast cancer core biopsies before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or lapatinib were obtained and as single cell suspensions stained using antibodies against CD24, CD44, and lineage markers, and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Mammosphere (MS) formation in culture was compared before and after treatment. Global gene expression differences between cancer cells bearing CD44+/CD24-/low cells and all other sorted cells, and between cancer MS and the primary bulk invasive cancers were analyzed. We report that CD44+/CD24-/low tumorigenic breast cancer cells were intrinsically chemoresistant ─ chemotherapy led to increased CD44+/CD24-/low cells, increased self-renewal capacity on MS assays, and enhanced tumorigeneicity in immunocompromised SCID/Beige mice. Conversely, in patients with HER2 overexpressing tumors, the EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lapatinib decreased CD44+/CD24-/low cells, with the majority of these patients after conventional therapy achieving pathologic complete response, a validated surrogate marker for long-term survival. Gene transcription pathways that underlie chemoresistant, MS-forming CD44+/CD24-/low cells involve genes belonging to stem cell self-renewal, Wnt signaling, and early development pathways. Experiment Overall Design: Human breast tumor samples were sorted using flow cytometry to select for cells that were CD44+ and CD24-. Gene expression profiles of these cells were compared with profiles of the other sorted cells (CD24+ and CD44-/CD24-). Experiment Overall Design: Core biopsies of primary breast tumors were taken and placed immediately in cold RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated newborn calf serum (HINCS, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Within an hour, the samples were minced and then digested in 10-15 mL of MEGM with 250-300 units/mL collagenase at 370C. The samples were filtered, washed, and then subjected to hypotonic shock to lyse red blood cells. About 106 single cells were re-suspended, incubated for 15 min at 40C with anti-CD44 (APC), anti-CD24 (FITC), and anti-lineage cocktail antibodies (PE-conjugated anti-CD2, CD3, CD10, CD16, CD18, CD31 and CD 140B) (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) using the manufacturer’s suggested concentrations. The cells were then washed twice, re-suspended with the viability dye propidium iodide, and analyzed using Dako MoFlo flow cytometry. Side- and forward- scatter were used to eliminate debris and cell doublets, and the Lin- cells were further analyzed by CD44 and CD24 markers.
Project description:Breast cancer cells with CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker expression profile are proposed as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Normal breast epithelial cells that are CD44+/CD24- express higher levels of stem/progenitor cell associated genes. We, amongst others, have shown that cancer cells that have undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) display the CD44+/CD24- phenotype. However, whether all genes that induce EMT confer the CD44+/CD24- phenotype is unknown. We hypothesized that only a subset of genes associated with EMT generates CD44+/CD24- cells.MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, a subpopulation of which spontaneously acquire the CD44+/CD24- phenotype, were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in CD44+/CD24- and CD44-/CD24+ cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed to identify signaling networks that linked differentially expressed genes. Two EMT-associated genes elevated in CD44+/CD24- cells, SLUG and Gli-2, were overexpressed in the CD44-/CD24+ subpopulation of MCF-10A cells and MCF-7 cells, which are CD44-/CD24+. Flow cytometry and mammosphere assays were used to assess cell surface markers and stem cell-like properties, respectively.Two thousand thirty five genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.001, fold change >or= 2) between the CD44+/CD24- and CD44-/CD24+ subpopulations of MCF-10A. Thirty-two EMT-associated genes including SLUG, Gli-2, ZEB-1, and ZEB-2 were expressed at higher levels in CD44+/CD24- cells. These EMT-associated genes participate in signaling networks comprising TGFbeta, NF-kappaB, and human chorionic gonadotropin. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which induces NF-kappaB and represses E-cadherin, or overexpression of SLUG in CD44-/CD24+ MCF-10A cells, gave rise to a subpopulation of CD44+/CD24- cells. Overexpression of constitutively active p65 subunit of NF-kappaB in MCF-10A resulted in a dramatic shift to the CD44+/CD24+ phenotype. SLUG overexpression in MCF-7 cells generated CD44+/CD24+ cells with enhanced mammosphere forming ability. In contrast, Gli-2 failed to alter CD44 and CD24 expression.EMT-mediated generation of CD44+/CD24- or CD44+/CD24+ cells depends on the genes that induce or are associated with EMT. Our studies reveal a role for TNF in altering the phenotype of breast CSC. Additionally, the CD44+/CD24+ phenotype, in the context of SLUG overexpression, can be associated with breast CSC "stemness" behavior based on mammosphere forming ability.
Project description:CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells have been reported to be cancer stem cells in pancreatic cancer; however, the histological and clinical importance of these cells has not yet been investigated. Here we clarified the characteristics of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells in clinical specimens of pancreatic cancer using immunohistochemical assay. We used surgical specimens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from 101 patients. In view of tumor heterogeneity, we randomly selected 10 high-power fields per case, and triple-positive CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was identified using our scoring system. The distribution, histological characteristics, and prognostic importance of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells were then analyzed. As a result, the distribution of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells varied widely among the 101 cases examined, and CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was correlated with poor glandular differentiation and high proliferation. Survival analysis showed that CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was not correlated with patient outcome; however, CD44(+) /CD24(+) expression appeared to be correlated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression overlapped with poorly differentiated cells and possessed high proliferative potential in clinical pancreatic cancer. In particular, the presence of double-positive CD44(+) /CD24(+) expression seemed to have clinical relevance, associating with poor prognosis.