Transcriptome changes accompany mitochondrial membrane potential heterogeneity in mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells
ABSTRACT: Stem cells are uniquely dependent on both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis to maintain pluripotency and drive differentiation. Here, we identified that stem cells sorted by their inherent differences in mitochondrial activity exhibited significantly altered germline differentiation potential. Stem cells with lower average mitochondrial membrane potential were less proliferative and generated less ROS and ATP despite having a similar mitochondrial DNA copy number as cells with higher membrane potential. We demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells exhibit a large range of mitochondrial activity from an otherwise homogenous population, and that they are dependent on this activity to drive differentiation. Overall design: Mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells from a C57BL/6 background were stained with mitochondrial membrane potential dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting into populations of low or high mitochondrial membrane potential. RNA was extracted from each population and analyzed by Affymetrix arrays.
INSTRUMENT(S): [MoGene-2_0-st] Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Array [mogene20st_Mm_ENTREZG_17.1.0]
Project description:Herein we investigated whether inherent differences in mitochondrial activity in mouse pluripotent cells could be used to identify populations with an intrinsic ability to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs). Notably, we determined that stem cells sorted based on differences in mitochondrial membrane activity exhibited altered germline differentiation capacity, with low-mitochondrial membrane potential associated with an increase in PGC-like cells. This specification was not further enhanced by hypoxia. We additionally noted differences between these populations in metabolism, transcriptome, and cell-cycle. These data contribute to a growing body of work demonstrating that pluripotent cells exhibit a large range of mitochondrial activity, which impacts cellular function and differentiation potential. Furthermore, pluripotent cells possess a subpopulation of cells with an improved ability to differentiate into the germ lineage that can be identified based on differences in mitochondrial membrane potential.
Project description:Differentiation of stem/progenitor cells is associated with a substantial increase in mitochondrial mass and complexity. Mitochondrial dynamics, including the processes of fusion and fission, plays an important role for somatic cell reprogramming and pluripotency maintenance in induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). However, the role of mitochondrial dynamics during stem/progenitor cell differentiation in vivo remains elusive. Here we found differentiation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell is accompanied with continuous mitochondrial fusion. Mitochondrial fusion defective(opa1RNAi) ISCs contain less mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced ATP, and increased ROS level. Surprisingly, suppressing fusion also resulted in the failure of progenitor cells to differentiate. Cells did not switch on the expression of differentiation markers, and instead continued to show characteristics of progenitor cells. Meanwhile, proliferation or apoptosis was unaffected. The differentiation defect could be rescued by concomitant inhibition of Drp1, a mitochondrial fission molecule. Moreover, ROS scavenger also partially rescues opa1RNAi-associated differentiation defects via down-regulating JNK activity. We propose that mitochondrial fusion plays a pivotal role in controlling the developmental switch of stem cell fate.
Project description:In pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), expression of the Hox master regulatory transcription factors that play essential roles in organogenesis, angiogenesis, and maintenance of differentiated tissues, is globally suppressed. We investigated whether differentiation of endothelial cells (ECs) from mouse ESCs was accompanied by activation of distinct Hox gene expression profiles. Differentiation was observed within 3 days, as indicated by the appearance of cells expressing specific endothelial marker genes (Flk-1+ /VE-Cadherin+ ). Expression of HoxA3 and HoxD3, which drive adult endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis, peaked at day 3 and declined thereafter, whereas expression of HoxA5 and HoxD10, which maintain a mature quiescent EC phenotype, was low at day 3, but increased over time. The temporal and reciprocal changes in HoxD3 and HoxA5 expression were accompanied by corresponding changes in expression of established downstream target genes including integrin ?3 and Thrombospondin-2. Our results indicate that differentiation and maturation of ECs derived from cultured ESCs mimic changes in Hox gene expression that accompany maturation of immature angiogenic endothelium into differentiated quiescent endothelium in vivo.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) utility is limited by variations in the ability of these cells to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. We have undertaken a transcriptional comparison of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and hiPSC lines and have shown that hiPSCs are inferior in their ability to undergo neuroectodermal differentiation. Among the differentially expressed candidates between hESCs and hiPSCs, we identified a mitochondrial protein, CHCHD2, whose expression seems to correlate with neuroectodermal differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells. We provide evidence that hiPSC variability with respect to CHCHD2 expression and differentiation potential is caused by clonal variation during the reprogramming process and that CHCHD2 primes neuroectodermal differentiation of hESCs and hiPSCs by binding and sequestering SMAD4 to the mitochondria, resulting in suppression of the activity of the TGF? signaling pathway. Using CHCHD2 as a marker for assessing and comparing the hiPSC clonal and/or line differentiation potential provides a tool for large scale differentiation and hiPSC banking studies.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) utility is limited by variations in the ability of these cells to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. We have undertaken a transcriptional comparison of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and hiPSC lines and have shown that hiPSCs are inferior in their ability to undergo neuroectodermal differentiation. Among the differentially expressed candidates between hESCs and hiPSCs, we identified a mitochondrial protein, CHCHD2, whose expression seems to correlate with neuroectodermal differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells. We provide evidence that hiPSC variability with respect to <jats:italic>CHCHD2</jats:italic> expression and differentiation potential is caused by clonal variation during the reprogramming process and that <jats:italic>CHCHD2</jats:italic> primes neuroectodermal differentiation of hESCs and hiPSCs by binding and sequestering SMAD4 to the mitochondria, resulting in suppression of the activity of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Using <jats:italic>CHCHD2</jats:italic> as a marker for assessing and comparing the hiPSC clonal and/or line differentiation potential provides a tool for large scale differentiation and hiPSC banking studies.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cell-like cells (iMSCs) are considered to be a promising source of progenitor cells for approaches in the field of bone regeneration. In a previous study, we described the generation of footprint-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) by transfection of a self-replicating RNA (srRNA) and subsequent differentiation into functional osteogenic progenitor cells. In order to facilitate the prospective transfer into clinical practice, xeno-free reprogramming and differentiation methods were established. In this study, we compared the properties and stem cell potential of the iMSCs produced from JPC-derived iPSCs with the parental primary JPCs they were generated from. Our results demonstrated, on the one hand, a comparable differentiation potential of iMSCs and JPCs. Additionally, iMSCs showed significantly longer telomere lengths compared to JPCs indicating rejuvenation of the cells during reprogramming. On the other hand, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity indicated early senescence of iMSCs. These data demonstrate the requirement of further optimization strategies to improve mesenchymal development of JPC-derived iPSCs in order to take advantage of the best features of reprogrammed and rejuvenated cells.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) derive energy predominantly from glycolysis and not the energy-efficient oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Differentiation is initiated with energy metabolic shift from glycolysis to OXPHOS. We investigated the role of mitochondrial energy metabolism in human PSCs using molecular, biochemical, genetic, and pharmacological approaches. We show that the carcinoma protein OCIAD1 interacts with and regulates mitochondrial complex I activity. Energy metabolic assays on live pluripotent cells showed that OCIAD1-depleted cells have increased OXPHOS and may be poised for differentiation. OCIAD1 maintains human embryonic stem cells, and its depletion by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout leads to rapid and increased differentiation upon induction, whereas OCIAD1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Pharmacological alteration of complex I activity was able to rescue the defects of OCIAD1 modulation. Thus, hPSCs can exist in energy metabolic substates. OCIAD1 provides a target to screen for additional modulators of mitochondrial activity to promote transient multipotent precursor expansion or enhance differentiation.
Project description:Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is a major source of cellular ATP. Its usage as an energy source varies, not only according to the extracellular environment, but also during development and differentiation, as indicated by the reported changes in the flux ratio of glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. The fluorescent probe JC-1 allows visualization of changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Strong JC-1 signals were localized in the differentiated cells located at the edge of H9 ES colonies that expressed vimentin, an early differentiation maker. The JC-1 signals were further intensified when individual adjacent colonies were in contact with each other. Time-lapse analyses revealed that JC-1-labeled H9 cells under an overconfluent condition were highly differentiated after subculture, suggesting that monitoring oxidative phosphorylation in live cells might facilitate the prediction of induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as ES cells, that are destined to lose their undifferentiated potency.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue as well as other tissues and have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Differentiation of stem cells into mature cell types is guided by growth factors and hormones, but recent studies suggest that metabolic shifts occur during differentiation and can modulate the differentiation process. We therefore investigated mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration and the mitochondrial membrane potential during adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs. In addition, we inhibited mitochondrial function to assess its effects on adipogenic differentiation. Our data show that mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption increase markedly during adipogenic differentiation, and that reducing mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia or by inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain significantly suppresses adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we used a novel approach to suppress mitochondrial activity using a specific siRNA-based knockdown of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which also resulted in an inhibition of adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrates that increased mitochondrial activity is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation into adipocytes. These findings suggest that metabolic modulation of adult stem cells can maintain stem cell pluripotency or direct adult stem cell differentiation.
Project description:It has been assumed, based largely on morphologic evidence, that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain underdeveloped, bioenergetically inactive mitochondria. In contrast, differentiated cells harbour a branched mitochondrial network with oxidative phosphorylation as the main energy source. A role for mitochondria in hPSC bioenergetics and in cell differentiation therefore remains uncertain. Here, we show that hPSCs have functional respiratory complexes that are able to consume O(2) at maximal capacity. Despite this, ATP generation in hPSCs is mainly by glycolysis and ATP is consumed by the F(1)F(0) ATP synthase to partially maintain hPSC mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a regulating role in hPSC energy metabolism by preventing mitochondrial glucose oxidation and facilitating glycolysis via a substrate shunting mechanism. With early differentiation, hPSC proliferation slows, energy metabolism decreases, and UCP2 is repressed, resulting in decreased glycolysis and maintained or increased mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Ectopic UCP2 expression perturbs this metabolic transition and impairs hPSC differentiation. Overall, hPSCs contain active mitochondria and require UCP2 repression for full differentiation potential.