Effects of glucocorticoids and Protein Kinase A on growth factor- and 1beta- regulated gene
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) and protein kinase A (PKA)-activating agents (beta-adrenergic receptor agonists) are mainstream asthma therapies based on their ability to prevent or reverse excessive airway smooth muscle (ASM) constriction. Their abilities to regulate another important feature of asthma - excessive ASM growth are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that GCs render agents of inflammation such as interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha mitogenic to ASM, via suppression of (antimitogenic) induced cyclooxygenase-2-dependent PKA activity. To further explore the mechanistic basis of these observations, we assessed the effects of epidermal growth factor and interleukin 1beta stimulation, and the modulatory effects of GC treatment and PKA inhibition, on the ASM transcriptome by microarray analysis. Keywords: gene expression Overall design: Human ASM cultures were generated from trachea of 4 unidentified donors and used in passage 5-8. These cells were used to generate cells stabely expressing a PKA inhibitor (PKI) or GFP (control), which were then grown to confluence, serum starved for 24h, and stimulated with IL-1b, EGF,or both (E+I) in presence or absence of Fluticasone (Flu, 30 min pretreatment). After 8h stimulation cells were washed and total RNA isolated using TRIzol as per manufacturer's protocol. Gene expression was analyzed in 4 different cultures derived from 4 different donors (for a total of 3-4 microarrays per condition).
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133A] Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Array
Project description:Glucocorticoids (GCs) and protein kinase A (PKA)-activating agents (beta-adrenergic receptor agonists) are mainstream asthma therapies based on their ability to prevent or reverse excessive airway smooth muscle (ASM) constriction. Their abilities to regulate another important feature of asthma - excessive ASM growth are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that GCs render agents of inflammation such as interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha mitogenic to ASM, via suppression of (antimitogenic) induced cyclooxygenase-2-dependent PKA activity. To further explore the mechanistic basis of these observations, we assessed the effects of epidermal growth factor and interleukin 1beta stimulation, and the modulatory effects of GC treatment and PKA inhibition, on the ASM transcriptome by microarray analysis. Experiment Overall Design: Human ASM cultures were generated from trachea of 4 unidentified donors and used in passage 5-8. These cells were used to generate cells stabely expressing a PKA inhibitor (PKI) or GFP (control), which were then grown to confluence, serum starved for 24h, and stimulated with IL-1b, EGF,or both (E+I) in presence or absence of Fluticasone (Flu, 30 min pretreatment). After 8h stimulation cells were washed and total RNA isolated using TRIzol as per manufacturer's protocol. Gene expression was analyzed in 4 different cultures derived from 4 different donors (for a total of 3-4 microarrays per condition).
Project description:Rationale: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. Children with severe asthma have lower levels of vitamin D than children with moderate asthma, and among children with severe asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is inversely related to vitamin D levels. Beta2 agonists are a common asthma medication that act partly by targetting the ASM. We used RNA-Seq to characterize the human ASM transcriptome of fatal and asthma vs. contols at baseline and under two treatment conditions. Methods: The Illumina TruSeq assay was used to prepare 75bp paired-end libraries for ASM cells from white donors, 6 with fatal asthma and 12 control donors under three treatment conditions: 1) no treatment; 2) treatment with a β2-agonist (i.e. Albuterol, 1μM for 18h); 3) treatment with vitamin D 100 nM for 18h). Llibraries were sequenced with an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 instrument. The Tuxedo Suite Tools were used to align reads to the hg19 reference genome, assemble transcripts, and perform differential expression analysis using the protocol described in https://github.com/blancahimes/taffeta Overall design: mRNA profiles obtained via RNA-Seq for primary human airway smooth muscle cell lines from fatal asthma or control donors that were treated with vitamin D, albuterol, or were left untreated.
Project description:Background: Increased proliferation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells leading to hyperplasia and increased ASM mass is one of the most characteristic features of airway remodelling in asthma. A bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has been suggested to affect airway remodelling by stimulation of human ASM cell proliferation. Objective: To investigate the effect of S1P on signalling and regulation of gene expression in ASM cells from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Methods: ASM cells grown from bronchial biopsies of healthy and asthmatic individuals were exposed to S1P. Gene expression was analysed using microarray, real-time PCR and western blotting. Receptor signalling and function was determined by mRNA knockdown and intracellular calcium mobilisation experiments. Results: S1P potently regulated the expression of more than 80 genes in human ASM cells, including several genes known to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and airway remodelling (HBEGF, TGFB3, TXNIP, PLAUR, SERPINE1, RGS4). S1P acting through S1P2 and S1P3 receptors activated intracellular calcium mobilisation and extracellular signal-regulated and Rho-associated kinases to regulate gene expression. S1P-induced responses were not inhibited by corticosteroids and did not differ significantly between ASM cells from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Conclusion: S1P induces a steroid-resistant, pro-remodelling pathway in ASM cells. Targeting S1P or its receptors could be a novel treatment strategy for inhibiting airway remodelling in asthma. Airway smooth muscle cells from 3 healthy donors were cultured and stimulated for 4 h with sphingosine-1-phosphate (100 nM) or medium control. Total RNA was extracted and analysed using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays.
Project description:Cdx2/IL-1beta mice have less intestinal metaplasia at the squamocolumnar junction thanIL-1beta mice alone. This study was to identify a mechanism for this effect by examining differences in gene expression patterns when Cdx2 is co-expressed. We dissected out intestinal metaplasia nodules from the squamocolumnar junction in Cdx2/IL-1beta mice and Il-1beta mice and measured gene expression on a Mouse Gene 2.0ST Affymetrix array in Oct 2013.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17 plays an important and protective role in host defence and has been demonstrated to orchestrate airway inflammation by cooperating with and inducing proinflammatory cytokines. Mircoarrays were used to identify immediate-early/ primary response IL-17A-dependent gene transcripts in primary human bronchial ASM cells from mild asthmatic and healthy individuals. To evaluate IL-17A-inducible gene transcripts, primary human bronchial ASM cells from 3 mild asthmatic and 3 healthy donors were treated for 2h with IL-17 [10ng/ml] and were probed with the Affymetrix GeneChip array. The 2h time point was carefully chosen in order to identify primary response gene targets and to avoid confounding autocrine mechanisms mediating indirect, or late-phase gene expression responses. Non-stimulated ASM cells from the same patients were used as controls.
Project description:Kupffer cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. However, their involvement in metabolic disorders of the liver, including fatty liver disease, remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the impact of Kupffer cells on hepatic triglyceride storage and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. To that end, C57Bl/6 mice rendered obese and steatotic by chronic high-fat feeding were treated for 1 week with clodronate liposomes, which cause depletion of Kupffer cells. Loss of expression of marker genes Cd68, F4/80, and Clec4f, and loss of Cd68 immunostaining verified almost complete removal of Kupffer cells from the liver. Also, expression of complement components C1, the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 6 (Ccl6), and cytokines interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-1beta were markedly reduced. Importantly, Kupffer cell depletion significantly decreased liver triglyceride and glucosylceramide levels concurrent with increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (Cpt1alpha), and fatty acid transport protein 2 (Fatp2). Treatment of mice with IL-1beta decreased expression of PPARalpha and its target genes, which was confirmed in primary hepatocytes. Consistent with these data, IL-1beta suppressed human and mouse PPARalpha promoter activity. Suppression of PPARalpha promoter activity was recapitulated by overexpression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) subunit p50 and p65, and was abolished upon deletion of putative NF-kappaB binding sites. Finally, IL-1beta and NF-kappaB interfered with the ability of PPARalpha to activate gene transcription. CONCLUSION: Our data point toward important cross-talk between Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in the regulation of hepatic triglyceride storage. The effect of Kupffer cells on liver triglycerides are at least partially mediated by IL-1beta, which suppresses PPARalpha expression and activity. Expression profiling of livers from mice fed control, low-fat diet diet or high-fat diet for 20weeks with or without knockdown of Kupffer cells.
Project description:Rationale: Steroids are the mainstay of asthma therapy. However, it is unclear whether the benefits of steroids in asthma are merely based on anti-inflammatory properties. Steroids may also alter gene expression of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Hypothesis and Aims: We hypothesized that the transcriptomic profile of the ASM layer in endobronchial biopsies of atopic asthma patients changes by oral steroid therapy. First, we examined the change in ASM transcriptomic profile in endobronchial biopsies after 14 days of oral steroid therapy. Second, we investigated the association between changes in ASM transcriptomic profile and airway function. Methods: 12 atopic steroid-free asthma patients were included in this double-blind intervention study. Endobronchial biopsies were taken before and after 14 days of oral prednisolon (n=6) or placebo (n=6). RNA of laser-dissected ASM was sequenced (RNA-Seq) using the GS FLX+ System (454/Roche). Gene networks were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RNA-Seq reads were assumed to follow a negative binomial distribution. At the current sample size the estimated false discovery rate was approximately 3%. Results: 15 genes were significantly changed by 14 days of oral prednisolon. 2 of these genes (FAM129A, SYNPO2) were associated with the methacholine PC20 (r=0.637, p=0.035; r=0.662, p=0.027). Pathway analysis revealed 3 gene networks that were associated with cellular functions including cellular growth, proliferation, and development. Conclusion: Oral prednisolon changes the gene expression profile of the ASM layer in asthma. This indicates that steroids also exert effects on the transcriptomic level of ASM in addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, which can promote improved airway function. The current randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled intervention study comprised 4 visits. At visit 1, asthma patients were screened according to the in- and exclusion criteria prior to enrollment. Additionally, spirometry and methacholine bronchoprovocation test were performed. At visit 2, FEV1 reversibility was measured and endobronchial biopsies were collected during a bronchoscopy. Asthma patients were then prescribed oral prednisolon at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per day or placebo for 14 consecutive days. The dosage and dosing scheme was based on international recommendations for the treatment of acute exacerbations . On the 11th day after visit 2, the patients visited the lung function laboratory for spirometry and methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Finally, at visit 4 (15th day after visit 2) FEV1 reversibility was measured and endobronchial biopsies were collected by bronchoscopy. Airway smooth muscle was collected from the biopsies by laser capture microdissection and total RNA isolated. cDNA was prepared using the Ovation RNA-Seq System (NuGEN). RNA-Seq was performed using the GS FLX+ instrument (454/Roche). Sequence reads were mapped against the human genome (hg19; UCSC). Comparison of the numbers of reads per gene between the prednisolon and placebo study group was carried out with the R package DESeq.
Project description:Rationale: Asthma and atopy shares common features including Th2-inflammation. However, impairment of airway function seems to be absent in atopy. Increased understanding of the complex cellular and molecular pathways defining the similarities and differences between asthma and atopy may be achieved by transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq). Hypothesis and Aims: As the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer plays an important role in airway function, we hypothesized that the transcriptomic profile of the ASM layer in endobronchial biopsies is different between atopic asthma patients and atopic healthy controls. First, we examined the differences in transcriptomic profiles of the ASM layer in endobronchial biopsies between atopic mild, steroid-free asthma patients, and atopic and non-atopic healthy controls. Second, we investigated the association between the transcriptomic profiles of the ASM layer and airway function. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 12 steroid-free atopic asthma patients, 6 atopic, and 6 non-atopic healthy controls. RNA of ASM from 4 endobronchial biopsies per subject was isolated and sequenced (GS FLX+, 454/Roche). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to identify gene networks. Comparison of the numbers of reads per gene in asthma and controls was based on the negative binomial distribution. At the current sample size the estimated false discovery rate was approximately 1%. Results: Yield of isolated RNA was 30-821ng. We identified 174 differentially expressed genes between asthma and atopic controls, 108 between asthma and non-atopic controls, and 135 between atopic and non-atopic controls. A set of 8 genes was identified, which seems to define asthma patients from non-asthmatic controls regardless of atopy. Four of these genes were significantly associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. Conclusion: A difference in transcriptomic profile of the airway smooth muscle layer in asthma patients compared to atopic and non-atopic healthy controls may lead to a different regulation of inflammatory pathways and of airway smooth muscle function and development resulting in impaired airway function. This cross-sectional transcriptomics study consisted of 2 visits. At visit 1, asthma patients (n=12), and healthy atopic (n=6) and non-atopic (n=6) controls were screened for eligibility to participate according to the in- and exclusion criteria. Spirometry and a methacholine bronchoprovocation test were performed. At visit 2, FEV1 reversibility was measured and 4 endobronchial biopsies per subject were collected during a bronchoscopy. Airway smooth muscle was collected from the biopsies by laser capture microdissection and total RNA isolated. cDNA was prepared using the Ovation RNA-Seq System (NuGEN). RNA-Seq was performed using the GS FLX+ instrument (454/Roche). Sequence reads were mapped against the human genome (hg19; UCSC). Comparison of the numbers of reads per gene between asthma and healthy controls was based on the negative binomial distribution and carried out with the R package DESeq including correction for multiple testing.
Project description:The aim of this data set is to measure the effect of IL-1beta stimulation on the transcription profile in an in vitro inflammation model. Transcription profiling was carried out using Affymetrix HG U-133A v2 microarrays. Overall design: Human aortic smooth muscle cells (3F1243) were pre-treated with DMSO for two hours and subsequently exposed to IL-1beta (10 ng/ml). Transcription profiling was carried out at 0h and 2h points of IL-1beta exposure, with four samples at each time point 0hr and 2hr. 8 samples in total.
Project description:microRNA expression profilings of chondrocytes comparing control untreated cells with cells treated with IL-1beta. Three timepoints included are 6h,12h and 24h. Many microRNAs change their expression patterns owing to IL-1beta stimulation. Some of them are chosen for further investigation. time series,including three time points and one control.Five replicates per array.