Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s transcriptome response to tomato media
ABSTRACT: Summary: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s transcriptome response to tomato medium (TM) and tomato root exudates (TX) compared to minimal medium (MM). Purpose: Salmonella mRNA profile, when grown in different media was compared to minimal medium to reveal environment specific transcriptional changes. Methods: mRNA profiles were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates. The sequences were analysed using Bowtie2 followed by Cufflinks. Overall design: mRNA profiles of Salmonella were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates.
Project description:Summary: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s transcriptome response to lettuce medium (LM) and lettuce root exudates (LX) to minimal medium (MM). Purpose: Salmonella mRNA profile, when grown in different media was compared to minimal medium to reveal environment specific transcriptional changes. Methods: mRNA profiles were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates. The sequences were analysed using Bowtie2 followed by Cufflinks. Overall design: mRNA profiles of Salmonella were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates.
Project description:Summary: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s transcriptome response to DS soil suspension (DS) and suspension of autoclaved DS soil (DA) compared to minimal medium (MM). Purpose: Salmonella mRNA profile, when grown in different media was compared to minimal medium to reveal environment specific transcriptional changes. Methods: mRNA profiles were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates. The sequences were analysed using Bowtie2 followed by Cufflinks. Overall design: mRNA profiles of Salmonella were generated using Illumina HiSeq in triplicates.
Project description:Salmonellosis outbreaks associated with sprouted legumes have been a food safety concern for over two decades. Despite evidence that Salmonella enterica triggers biotic plant defense pathways, it has remained unclear how plant defenses impact Salmonella growth on sprouted legumes. We used Medicago truncatula mutants in which the gene for the flagellin receptor FLS2 was disrupted to demonstrate that plant defenses triggered by FLS2 elicitation do not impact the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028S. As a control, we tested the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, which has a defect in rpoS that increases its sensitivity to reactive oxygen species. LT2 displayed enhanced growth on M. truncatula FLS2 mutants in comparison to wild-type M. truncatula. We hypothesize that these growth differences are primarily due to differences in 14028S and LT2 reactive oxygen species sensitivity. Results from this study show that FLS2-mediated plant defenses are ineffective in inhibiting growth of Salmonella entrica 14028S.
Project description:Transcriptional profiles of wt and dksA minus Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium 14028S in E salts minimal medium in response to 5 mM DETANONOate for 30 min Total RNA was harvested from three biological replicates of wt and dksA mutant cultures exposed or unexposed to 5mM DETANONOate for 30min in E salts minimal medium.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is an ubiquitous pathogen throughout the world causing gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Survival of pathogenic bacteria in the external environment may be associated with the ability to overcome the stress caused by starvation. The bacterial response to starvation is well understood in laboratory cultures with a sufficiently high cell density. However, bacterial populations often have a small size when facing this challenge in natural biotopes. The aim of this work was to find out if there are differences in the transcriptomes of S. enterica depending on the factor of cell density during starvation. Here we present transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in carbon rich or carbon deficient medium with high or low cell density. These data will help identify genes involved in adaptation of low-density bacterial populations to starvation conditions.
Project description:The initial virulence and invasiveness of a bacterial strain may play an important role in leading to a maximally efficacious attenuated live vaccine. Here we show that ?9909, derived from Salmonella Typhimurium UK-1 ?3761 (the most virulent S. Typhimurium strain known to us), is effective in protecting mice against lethal UK-1 and 14028S (less virulent S. Typhimurium strain) challenge. As opposed to this, 14028S-derived vaccine ?12359 induces suboptimal levels of protection, with survival percentages that are significantly lower when challenged with lethal UK-1 challenge doses. T-cell assays have revealed that significantly greater levels of Th1 cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? were secreted by stimulated T-lymphocytes obtained from UK-1(?aroA) immunized mice than those from mice immunized with 14028S(?aroA). In addition, UK-1(?aroA) showed markedly higher colonizing ability in the spleen, liver, and cecum when compared to 14028S(?aroA). Enumeration of bacteria in fecal pellets has also revealed that UK-1(?aroA) can persist in the host for over 10 days whereas 14028S(?aroA) titers dropped significantly by day 10. Moreover, co-infection of parent strains UK-1 and 14028S resulted in considerably greater recovery of the former in multiple mucosal and gut associated lymphatic tissues. Mice immunized with UK-1(?aroA) were also able to clear UK-1 infection remarkably more efficiently from the target organs than 14028S(?aroA). Together, these results provide ample evidence to support the hypothesis that attenuated derivatives of parent strains with higher initial virulence make better vaccines.
Project description:Human pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella enterica, are able to colonize crop plants. So far, not much is known about biotic and abiotic factors influencing this colonization in field soil. This understanding, however, is imperative for the provision of safe fresh produce to the consumer. In this study, we investigated the effects of soil type, organic fertilization, plant species and the way of Salmonella entry into the plant production system, on the survival of S. enterica in soil as well as the colonization of plants. The selected S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s, S. Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. Senftenberg were able to persist in soil for several weeks. Salmonella's persistence in soil was prolonged in loamy, if compared to sandy soil, and when applied together with organic fertilizer. The leaves of lettuce and corn salad were colonized by S. enterica providing evidence for internalization from the soil via the root. Colonization rates were affected by soil type, plant species and S. enterica strain. Overall, S. enterica was detected in leaves of 0.5-0.9% of the plants, while lettuce was more frequently colonized than corn salad. Plants grown in sandy soil were more often colonized than plants grown in loamy soil. After spray inoculation, S. enterica could be detected on and in leaves for several weeks by cultivation-depending methods, confirmed by confocal microscopy using GFP-labeled S. Typhimurium 14028s. On the one hand, transcriptome data from S. Typhimurium 14028s assessed in response to lettuce medium or lettuce root exudates showed an upregulation of genes associated with biofilm formation and virulence. On the other hand, lettuce inoculated with S. Typhimurium 14028s showed a strong upregulation of genes associated with plant immune response and genes related to stress response. In summary, these results showed that organic fertilizers can increase the persistence of Salmonella in soil and that soil type and plant species play a crucial role in the interactions between human pathogens and crop plants. This understanding is therefore a starting point for new strategies to provide safe food for the consumer.
Project description:Foodborne illness-causing enteric bacteria are able to colonize plant surfaces without causing infection. We lack an understanding of how epiphytic persistence of enteric bacteria occurs on plants, possibly as an adaptive transit strategy to maximize chances of reentering herbivorous hosts. We used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars that have exhibited differential susceptibilities to Salmonella enterica colonization to investigate the influence of plant surface compounds and exudates on enteric bacterial populations. Tomato fruit, shoot, and root exudates collected at different developmental stages supported growth of S. enterica to various degrees in a cultivar- and plant organ-dependent manner. S. enterica growth in fruit exudates of various cultivars correlated with epiphytic growth data (R(2) = 0.504; P = 0.006), providing evidence that plant surface compounds drive bacterial colonization success. Chemical profiling of tomato surface compounds with gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) provided valuable information about the metabolic environment on fruit, shoot, and root surfaces. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed quantitative differences in phytocompounds among cultivars and changes over a developmental course and by plant organ (P < 0.002). Sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids were associated with increased S. enterica growth, while fatty acids, including palmitic and oleic acids, were negatively correlated. We demonstrate that the plant surface metabolite landscape has a significant impact on S. enterica growth and colonization efficiency. This environmental metabolomics approach provides an avenue to understand interactions between human pathogens and plants that could lead to strategies to identify or breed crop cultivars for microbiologically safer produce.In recent years, fresh produce has emerged as a leading food vehicle for enteric pathogens. Salmonella-contaminated tomatoes represent a recurrent human pathogen-plant commodity pair. We demonstrate that Salmonella can utilize tomato surface compounds and exudates for growth. Surface metabolite profiling revealed that the types and amounts of compounds released to the plant surface differ by cultivar, plant developmental stage, and plant organ. Differences in exudate profiles explain some of the variability in Salmonella colonization susceptibility seen among tomato cultivars. Certain medium- and long-chain fatty acids were associated with restricted Salmonella growth, while sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids correlated with larger Salmonella populations. These findings uncover the possibility of selecting crop varieties based on characteristics that impair foodborne pathogen growth for enhanced safety of fresh produce.