Measuring the transcriptomic response to targeting kinases correlated with estrogen receptor activity in Breast Cancer
ABSTRACT: We undertook a phosophotranscriptomic network analysis of published patient tumour RNA-seq and phosphoproteomic data to identify kinases that correltated with Estrogen Receptor activity in Breast Cancer. The most sucessful canidates were selected for targeting by siRNA and the effects monitored by RNA-seq. Overall design: Expression data characterising the effects of siRNAs targeting CAMK2D, CDK8, CSNK1A1, ESR1, GRB2, HIPK4, KSR1, LIMK1, MKNK2, NEK9 in both MCF7 and T47D.
Project description:We engineered HCT116 cells by transfecting a non targeting control hairpin or 2 different short hairpin against KSR1 to knockdown KSR1 and microarrays were performed on non-transfected controls, non-targeting shRNA controls, shRNA #1 targeting KSR1, and shRNA #2 targeting KSR1. We used microarray for molecular profiling of colon cancer cells in presence or in absence of KSR1, an important scaffold of Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and identify genes which are regulated by KSR1 Cell lines were measured in as single biological replicates 1. HCT116 untransfected 2 HCT116 + shCTRL 3.HCT116 + shKSR1#1 4. 3.HCT116 + shKSR1#2
Project description:Cytokines are highly pleiotropic ligands that regulate the immune response. Here, using interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a model system, we perform detailed phosphoproteomic and transcriptomic studies in human CD4<sup>+</sup> T helper 1 (Th-1) cells to address the molecular bases defining cytokine functional pleiotropy. We identify CDK8 as a negative regulator of STAT3 transcriptional activities, which interacts with STAT3 upon IL-6 stimulation. Inhibition of CDK8 activity, using specific small molecule inhibitors, reduces the IL-6-induced phosphoproteome by 23% in Th-1 cells, including STAT3 S727 phosphorylation. STAT3 binding to target DNA sites in the genome is increased upon CDK8 inhibition, which results in a concomitant increase in STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity. Importantly, inhibition of CDK8 activity under Th-17 polarizing conditions results in an enhancement of Th-17 differentiation. Our results support a model where CDK8 regulates STAT3 transcriptional processivity by modulation of its gene loci resident time, critically contributing to diversification of IL-6 responses.
Project description:The nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) family of transcription factors has been implicated in inflammatory disorders, viral infections, and cancer. Most of the drugs that inhibit NF?B show significant side effects, possibly due to sustained NF?B suppression. Drugs affecting induced, but not basal, NF?B activity may have the potential to provide therapeutic benefit without associated toxicity. NF?B activation by stress-inducible cell cycle inhibitor p21 was shown to be mediated by a p21-stimulated transcription-regulating kinase CDK8. CDK8 and its paralog CDK19, associated with the transcriptional Mediator complex, act as coregulators of several transcription factors implicated in cancer; CDK8/19 inhibitors are entering clinical development. Here we show that CDK8/19 inhibition by different small-molecule kinase inhibitors or shRNAs suppresses the elongation of NF?B-induced transcription when such transcription is activated by p21-independent canonical inducers, such as TNF?. On NF?B activation, CDK8/19 are corecruited with NF?B to the promoters of the responsive genes. Inhibition of CDK8/19 kinase activity suppresses the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphorylation required for transcriptional elongation, in a gene-specific manner. Genes coregulated by CDK8/19 and NF?B include IL8, CXCL1, and CXCL2, which encode tumor-promoting proinflammatory cytokines. Although it suppressed newly induced NF?B-driven transcription, CDK8/19 inhibition in most cases had no effect on the basal expression of NF?B-regulated genes or promoters; the same selective regulation of newly induced transcription was observed with other transcription signals potentiated by CDK8/19. This selective role of CDK8/19 identifies these kinases as mediators of transcriptional reprogramming, a key aspect of development and differentiation as well as pathological processes.
Project description:Walleye dermal sarcoma virus encodes a retroviral cyclin (rv-cyclin) with a cyclin box fold and transcription activation domain (AD). Co-immune precipitation (co-IP) identified an association of rv-cyclin with cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (cdk8). Cdk8 is dependent upon cyclin C and regulates transcription with the Mediator complex, a co-activator of transcription. Mutation of cyclin residues, required for cdk binding, disrupts rv-cyclin-cdk8 co-IP. Mutation or removal of the AD has no effect on cdk8 interaction. Direct rv-cyclin-cdk8 binding is demonstrated by pulldown of active cdk8 and by GST-rv-cyclin binding to recombinant cdk8. Cdk3 is also activated by cyclin C and phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein to initiate entry into the cell division cycle. Co-IP and pulldowns demonstrate direct rv-cyclin binding to cdk3 as well. The rv-cyclin functions as a structural ortholog of cyclin C in spite of its limited amino acid sequence identity with C cyclins or with any known cyclins.
Project description:The Mediator-associated kinases CDK8 and CDK19 function in the context of three additional proteins: CCNC and MED12, which activate CDK8/CDK19 kinase function, and MED13, which enables their association with the Mediator complex. The Mediator kinases affect RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription indirectly, through phosphorylation of transcription factors and by controlling Mediator structure and function. In this review, we discuss cellular roles of the Mediator kinases and mechanisms that enable their biological functions. We focus on sequence-specific, DNA-binding transcription factors and other Mediator kinase substrates, and how CDK8 or CDK19 may enable metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming through enhancers and chromatin looping. We also summarize Mediator kinase inhibitors and their therapeutic potential. Throughout, we note conserved and divergent functions between yeast and mammalian CDK8, and highlight many aspects of kinase module function that remain enigmatic, ranging from potential roles in pol II promoter-proximal pausing to liquid-liquid phase separation.
Project description:Somatic progenitors sustain tissue self-renewal while suppressing premature differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) affect many processes; however, their role in progenitor function is incompletely understood. PRMT1 was found to be the most highly expressed PRMT in epidermal progenitors and the most downregulated PRMT during differentiation. In targeted mouse knockouts and in long-term regenerated human mosaic epidermis in vivo, epidermal PRMT1 loss abolished progenitor self-renewal and led to premature differentiation. Mass spectrometry of the PRMT1 protein interactome identified the CSNK1a1 kinase, which also proved essential for progenitor maintenance. CSNK1a1 directly bound and phosphorylated PRMT1 to control its genomic targeting to PRMT1-sustained proliferation genes as well as PRMT1-suppressed differentiation genes. Among the latter were GRHL3, whose derepression was required for the premature differentiation seen with PRMT1 and CSNK1a1 loss. Maintenance of the progenitors thus requires cooperation by PRMT1 and CSNK1a1 to sustain proliferation gene expression and suppress premature differentiation driven by GRHL3.
Project description:Mediator-associated kinases CDK8/19 are context-dependent drivers or suppressors of tumorigenesis. Their inhibition is predicted to have pleiotropic effects, but it is unclear whether this will impact on the clinical utility of CDK8/19 inhibitors. We discovered two series of potent chemical probes with high selectivity for CDK8/19. Despite pharmacodynamic evidence for robust on-target activity, the compounds exhibited modest, though significant, efficacy against human tumor lines and patient-derived xenografts. Altered gene expression was consistent with CDK8/19 inhibition, including profiles associated with super-enhancers, immune and inflammatory responses and stem cell function. In a mouse model expressing oncogenic beta-catenin, treatment shifted cells within hyperplastic intestinal crypts from a stem cell to a transit amplifying phenotype. In two species, neither probe was tolerated at therapeutically-relevant exposures. The complex nature of the toxicity observed with two structurally-differentiated chemical series is consistent with on-target effects posing significant challenges to the clinical development of CDK8/19 inhibitors.
Project description:Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor (ER) is the principal treatment for ER-positive breast cancers. However, many cancers develop resistance to hormone therapy while retaining ER expression. Identifying new druggable mediators of ER function can help to increase the efficacy of ER-targeting drugs. Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) is a Mediator complex-associated transcriptional regulator with oncogenic activities. Expression of CDK8, its paralog CDK19 and their binding partner Cyclin C are negative prognostic markers in breast cancer. Meta-analysis of transcriptome databases revealed an inverse correlation between CDK8 and ER? expression, suggesting that CDK8 could be functionally associated with ER. We have found that CDK8 inhibition by CDK8/19-selective small-molecule kinase inhibitors, by shRNA knockdown or by CRISPR/CAS9 knockout suppresses estrogen-induced transcription in ER-positive breast cancer cells; this effect was exerted downstream of ER. Estrogen addition stimulated the binding of CDK8 to the ER-responsive GREB1 gene promoter and CDK8/19 inhibition reduced estrogen-stimulated association of an elongation-competent phosphorylated form of RNA Polymerase II with GREB1. CDK8/19 inhibitors abrogated the mitogenic effect of estrogen on ER-positive cells and potentiated the growth-inhibitory effects of ER antagonist fulvestrant. Treatment of estrogen-deprived ER-positive breast cancer cells with CDK8/19 inhibitors strongly impeded the development of estrogen independence. In vivo treatment with a CDK8/19 inhibitor Senexin B suppressed tumor growth and augmented the effects of fulvestrant in ER-positive breast cancer xenografts. These results identify CDK8 as a novel downstream mediator of ER and suggest the utility of CDK8 inhibitors for ER-positive breast cancer therapy.
Project description:: Unresectable hepatic metastases of colon cancer respond poorly to existing therapies and are a major cause of colon cancer lethality. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic viability of targeting the mediator kinase CDK8, an early clinical stage drug target, as a means to suppress metastasis of colon cancer. CDK8 was amplified or overexpressed in many colon cancers and CDK8 expression correlated with shorter patient survival. Knockdown or inhibition of CDK8 had little effect on colon cancer cell growth but suppressed metastatic growth of mouse and human colon cancer cells in the liver. This effect was due in part to inhibition of already established hepatic metastases, indicating therapeutic potential of CDK8 inhibitors in the metastatic setting. In contrast, knockdown or inhibition of CDK8 had no significant effect on the growth of tumors implanted subcutaneously, intrasplenically, or orthotopically in the cecum. CDK8 mediated colon cancer growth in the liver through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor TIMP3 via TGF?/SMAD-driven expression of a TIMP3-targeting microRNA, miR-181b, along with induction of Mmp3 in murine or MMP9 in human colon cancer cells via Wnt/?-catenin-driven transcription. These findings reveal a new mechanism for negative regulation of gene expression by CDK8 and a site-specific role for CDK8 in colon cancer hepatic metastasis. Our results indicate the utility of CDK8 inhibitors for the treatment of colon cancer metastases in the liver and suggest that CDK8 inhibitors may be considered in other therapeutic settings involving TGF?/SMAD or Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the transcription-regulating kinase CDK8 exerts a site-specific tumor-suppressive effect on colon cancer growth in the liver, representing a unique therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of advanced colon cancer.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/23/6594/F1.large.jpg.
Project description:Enhancement of autophagy serves as a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Casein kinase 1? (CK1?), encoded by CSNK1A1, regulates Wnt/??catenin, p53 and other key signaling pathways, and is critically involved in tumor progression. However, the relationship and mechanism of CK1? with autophagy in AML still remain unclear. In the present study, it was found that AML patients had higher expression of CSNK1A1 mRNA than healthy donors. Furthermore, we analyzed 163 cases of AML patients in the LAML database of TCGA and found that AML patients with high CSNK1A1 had shorter overall survival than those with low or medium CSNK1A1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CK1? was a negative regulator of autophagy and apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of CK1? using D4476 or CK1? knockdown via lentivirus?mediated shRNA suppressed proliferation and the clone formation by enhancing autophagic flux and apoptosis in AML cell lines as well as in patient blast cells. Intriguingly, D4476?induced cell death was aggravated in combination with an autophagy inhibitor, Spautin?1, suggesting that autophagy may be a pro?survival signaling. CK1? interacted with murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and p53, and CK1? inhibitor D4476 significantly upregulated p53 and phosphorylated 5' AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK), and substantially inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Our findings indicate that CK1? promotes AML by suppressing p53 downstream of MDM2?mediated autophagy and apoptosis, suggesting that targeting CK1? provides a therapeutic opportunity to treat AML.