Identification of PIKfyve kinase as a target in multiple myeloma
ABSTRACT: The cellular cytotoxicity of APY0201, a PIKfyve inhibitor, against multiple myeloma was initially identified in an unbiased in vitro chemical library screen. Activity was confirmed in all 25 cell lines tested and 40% of 100 ex vivo patient derived primary samples, and positively correlated with samples harboring trisomies and inversely related to t(11;14). The broad anti- multiple myeloma activity of PIKfyve inhibitors was further demonstrated in confirmatory screens and showed the superior potency of APY0201 when compared to the PIKfyve inhibitors YM201636 and apilimod, with a mid-point EC50 at nanomolar concentrations respectively in 65%, 40%, and 5% of the tested cell lines. An up-regulation of genes in the lysosomal pathway and increased cellular vacuolization was observed in vitro in cell lines following APY0201 treatment however this cellular response did not correlate well with responsiveness. We confirm that PIKfyve inhibition is associated with activation of the transcription factor EB, a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Furthermore, we established an assay measuring autophagy as a predictive marker of APY0201 sensitivity. Overall, these findings suggest promising activity of PIKfyve inhibitors secondary to disruption of autophagy in multiple myeloma and a strategy to enrich for likely responders. Overall design: Five human myeloma cell lines were treated with a DMSO control or 100nM of APY0201 for 24 hours and four human multiple myeloma primary patient samples treated with a DMSO control or 50nM and 500nM of APY0201 for 24 hours and were sent for RNA sequencing
Project description:The cellular cytotoxicity of APY0201, a PIKfyve inhibitor, against multiple myeloma was initially identified in an unbiased in vitro chemical library screen. The activity of APY0201 was confirmed in all 25 cell lines tested and in 40% of 100 ex vivo patient-derived primary samples, with increased activity in primary samples harboring trisomies and lacking t(11;14). The broad anti-multiple myeloma activity of PIKfyve inhibitors was further demonstrated in confirmatory screens and showed the superior potency of APY0201 when compared to the PIKfyve inhibitors YM201636 and apilimod, with a mid-point half maximal effective concentration (EC50) at nanomolar concentrations in, respectively, 65%, 40%, and 5% of the tested cell lines. Upregulation of genes in the lysosomal pathway and increased cellular vacuolization were observed in vitro following APY0201 treatment, although these cellular effects did not correlate well with responsiveness. We confirm that PIKfyve inhibition is associated with activation of the transcription factor EB, a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Furthermore, we established an assay measuring autophagy as a predictive marker of APY0201 sensitivity. Overall, these findings indicate promising activity of PIKfyve inhibitors secondary to disruption of autophagy in multiple myeloma and suggest a strategy to enrich for likely responders.
Project description:Cells degrade proteins either by proteasomes that clinically are targeted by for example bortezomib or carfilzomib, or by formation of autophagosomes and lysosomal degradation that can be inhibited by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Multiple myeloma is unique among cancers because proteasomal inhibition has good clinical effects. However, some multiple myeloma patients display intrinsic resistance to the treatment and most patients acquire resistance over time. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting both arms of protein degradation could be a way to improve treatment of multiple myeloma. Here we tested the combined effects of the lysosomal inhibitor HCQ and clinically relevant proteasome inhibitors on myeloma cell lines and primary cells. Carfilzomib and bortezomib both induced immunoglobulin-containing aggregates in myeloma cells. HCQ significantly potentiated the effect of carfilzomib in both cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. In contrast, HCQ had little or no effects on the toxicity of bortezomib. Furthermore, cells adapted to tolerate high levels of carfilzomib could be re-sensitized to the drug by co-treatment with HCQ. Thus, we show that inhibition of lysosomal degradation can overcome carfilzomib resistance, suggesting that the role of autophagy in myeloma cells is dependent on type of proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, attempts should be made to combine HCQ with carfilzomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Project description:The BCL-2 antagonist venetoclax is highly effective in multiple myeloma (MM) patients exhibiting the 11;14 translocation, the mechanistic basis of which is unknown. In evaluating cellular energetics and metabolism of t(11;14) and non-t(11;14) MM, we determine that venetoclax-sensitive myeloma has reduced mitochondrial respiration. Consistent with this, low electron transport chain (ETC) Complex I and Complex II activities correlate with venetoclax sensitivity. Inhibition of Complex I, using IACS-010759, an orally bioavailable Complex I inhibitor in clinical trials, as well as succinate ubiquinone reductase (SQR) activity of Complex II, using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) or introduction of SDHC R72C mutant, independently sensitize resistant MM to venetoclax. We demonstrate that ETC inhibition increases BCL-2 dependence and the 'primed' state via the ATF4-BIM/NOXA axis. Further, SQR activity correlates with venetoclax sensitivity in patient samples irrespective of t(11;14) status. Use of SQR activity in a functional-biomarker informed manner may better select for MM patients responsive to venetoclax therapy.
Project description:Novel inhibitors of PI3K, Akt and mTOR have been developed recently, some of which have entered clinical trials. Although such compounds inhibit cell proliferation, their effects on cell survival, an important determinant of clinical response, are less distinct. Using a broad panel of myeloma cell lines and primary patient samples, we show that dual PI3K and mTOR inhibition can induce cell death. The effects are most marked in cells expressing the t(4;14) translocation, whereas t(11;14) cells are largely resistant. Using specific inhibitors of individual pathway components, we show that optimal induction of cell death requires inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR. This is due to a PI3K-independent component of mTOR activation downstream of the MAP kinase pathway. Novel mTOR kinase inhibitors, which block both TORC1 and TORC2 complexes thereby also reducing Akt activity, are less effective than dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors because of feedback activation of PI3K signalling. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors sensitise t(4;14) and t(14;16), but not t(11;14), expressing cells to the cytotoxic effects of dexamethasone. We have identified a robust cytogenetic biomarker for response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition--these results will inform the design and prioritisation of clinical studies with novel inhibitors in genetic subgroups of myeloma.
Project description:A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease in need of the development of novel therapeutic agents and drug combinations. ABT-199 is a specific Bcl-2 inhibitor in clinical trials for MM; however, its activity as a single agent was limited to myeloma patients with the t(11;14) translocation who acquire resistance due to co-expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. These limitations preclude its use in a broader patient population. We have recently found that a sphingosine kinase 2-specific inhibitor (ABC294640) induces apoptosis in primary human CD138+ cells and MM cell lines. ABC294640 is currently in phase I/II clinical trials for myeloma (clinicaltrials.gov: #NCT01410981). Interestingly, ABC294640 down-regulates c-Myc and Mcl-1, but does not have any effects on Bcl-2. We first evaluated the combinatorial anti-myeloma effect of ABC294640 and ABT-199 in vitro in 7 MM cell lines, all of which harbor no t(11;14) translocation. Combination index calculation demonstrated a synergistic anti-myeloma effect of the combination of ABC294640 and ABT-199. This synergistic anti-myeloma effect was maintained even in the presence of bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. The combination of ABC294640 and ABT-199 led to enhanced cleavage of PARP and caspase-3/9 and increased Annexin-V expression, consistent with the induction of apoptosis by the combination treatment. In addition, the combination of ABC294640 and ABT-199 resulted in the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL and the cleavage of Bax and Bid. The combination induced both the mitochondrial mediated- and caspase-mediated apoptosis pathways. Finally, the combination of ABC294640 and ABT-199 resulted in augmented anti-myeloma effect in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. These findings demonstrate that the co-administration of ABC294640 and ABT-199 exhibits synergistic anti-myeloma activity in vitro and in vivo, providing justification for a clinical study of this novel combination in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
Project description:More than 50% of myeloma cases have normal karyotypes under conventional cytogenetic analysis due to low mitotic activity and content of plasma cells in the bone marrow. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based translocation detection assay to detect BCL1/JH t(11;14) (q13;q32) in 105 myeloma patients, and randomly selected 8 translocation positive samples for array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis. Our findings revealed 14.3% of myeloma samples were positive for BCL1/JH t(11;14) (q13;q32) translocation (n=15 of 105). We found no significant correlation between this translocation with age (P=0.420), gender (P=0.317), ethnicity (P=0.066) or new/relapsed status of multiple myeloma (P=0.412) at 95% confidence interval level by χ(2)test. In addition, aCGH results showed genomic imbalances in all samples analyzed. Frequent chromosomal gains were identified at regions 1q, 2q, 3p, 3q, 4p, 4q, 5q, 7q, 9q, 11q, 13q, 15q, 21q, 22q and Xq, while chromosomal losses were detected at 4q and 14q. Copy number variations at genetic loci that contain NAMPT, IVNS1ABP and STK17B genes are new findings that have not previously been reported in myeloma patients. Besides fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR is another rapid, sensitive and simple technique that can be used for detecting BCL1/JH t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation in multiple myeloma patients. Genes located in the chromosomal aberration regions in our study, such as NAMPT, IVNS1ABP, IRF2BP2, PICALM, STAT1, STK17B, FBXL5, ACSL1, LAMP2, SAMSN1 and ATP8B4 might be potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in the treatment and management of multiple myeloma patients positive for BCL1/JH t(11;14) (q13;q32) translocation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma-cell tumor with heterogeneity in molecular abnormalities and treatment response. DESIGN AND METHODS: We have assessed whether human myeloma cell lines have kept patients' heterogeneity using Affymetrix gene expression profiling of 40 human myeloma cell lines obtained with or without IL6 addition and could provide a signature for stratification of patient risk. RESULTS: Human myeloma cell lines, especially those derived in the presence of IL6, displayed a heterogeneity that overlaps that of the patients with multiple myeloma. Human myeloma cell lines segregated into 6 groups marked by overexpression of MAF, MMSET, CCND1, FRZB with or without overexpression of cancer testis antigens (CTA). Cell lines of CTA/MAF and MAF groups have a translocation involving C-MAF or MAFB, cell lines of groups CCND1-1 and CCND1-2like have a t(11;14) and cell lines of group MMSET have a t(4;14). The CTA/FRZB group comprises cell lines that had no or no recurrent 14q32 translocation. Expression of 248 genes accounted for human myeloma cell line molecular heterogeneity. Human myeloma cell line heterogeneity genes comprise genes with prognostic value for survival of patients making it possible to build a powerful prognostic score involving a total of 13 genes. CONCLUSIONS: Human myeloma cell lines derived in the presence of IL6 recapitulate the molecular diversity of multiple myeloma that made it possible to design, using human myeloma cell line heterogeneity genes, a high-risk signature for patients at diagnosis. We propose this classification to be used when addressing the physiopathology of multiple myeloma with human myeloma cell lines.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the production of monoclonal protein (MP). We have shown previously that disruption of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) causes a block in MP secretion through a disruption of Rab GTPase activity, leading to an enhanced unfolded protein response and subsequent apoptosis in MM cells. Autophagy is induced by cellular stressors including nutrient deprivation and ER stress. IBP inhibitors have been shown to have disparate effects on autophagy. Here we define the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of IBP inhibitors on autophagic flux in MM cells utilizing specific pharmacological inhibitors. We demonstrate that IBP inhibition induces a net increase in autophagy as a consequence of disruption of isoprenoid biosynthesis which is not recapitulated by direct geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. IBP inhibitor-induced autophagy is a cellular defense mechanism as treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 enhances the cytotoxic effects of GGPP depletion, but not geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that IBP inhibitors disrupt ER to Golgi trafficking of monoclonal light chain protein and that this protein is not a substrate for alternative degradative pathways such as aggresomes and autophagosomes. These studies support further development of specific GGTase II inhibitors as anti-myeloma agents.
Project description:Venetoclax is efficacious in relapsed/refractory t(11;14) multiple myeloma, thus warranting investigation in light-chain amyloidosis (AL). This retrospective cohort includes 43 patients with previously treated AL, from 14 centers in the US and Europe. Thirty-one patients harbored t(11;14), 11 did not, and one t(11;14) status was unknown. Patients received a venetoclax-containing regimen for at least one 21- or 28-day cycle; the median prior treatments was three. The hematologic response rate for all patients was 68%; 63% achieved VGPR/CR. t(11;14) patients had higher hematologic response (81% vs. 40%) and higher VGPR/CR rate (78% vs. 30%, odds ratio: 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.62) than non-t(11;14) patients. For the unsegregated cohort, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 31.0 months and median OS was not reached (NR). For t(11;14), median PFS was NR and for non-t(11;14) median PFS was 6.7 months (HR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.53). Multivariate analysis incorporating age, sex, prior lines of therapy, and disease stage suggested a risk reduction for progression or death in t(11;14) patients. Median OS was NR for either subgroup. The organ response rate was 38%; most responders harbored t(11;14). Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 19% with 7% due to infections. These promising results require confirmation in a randomized clinical trial.