ABSTRACT: This study is set out to identify EGCG transcriptional targets in 4T1 breast cancer mediated myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in vitro. MDSCs were sorted from the spleens of 4T1-bearing mice and cultured with EGCG for 6h. RNA was extracted from either the Control group or EGCG group and for RNA-sequence. Overall design: Transcriptomic profiling of control and EGCG-treated MDSCs was performed.
Project description:Several studies in the past decades have reported anti-tumor activity of the bioactive compounds extracted from tea leaves, with a focus on the compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, further investigations are required to unravel the underlying mechanisms behind the anti-tumor activity of EGCG. In this study, we demonstrate that EGCG significantly inhibits the growth of 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. EGCG ameliorated immunosuppression by significantly decreasing the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and increasing the proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in spleen and tumor sites in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Surprisingly, a low dose of EGCG (0.5-5 ?g/mL) effectively reduced the cell viability and increased the apoptosis rate of MDSCs in vitro. EGCG down-regulated the canonical pathways in MDSCs, mainly through the Arg-1/iNOS/Nox2/NF-?B/STAT3 signaling pathway. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis suggested that EGCG also affected the non-canonical pathways in MDSCs, such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. qRT-PCR further validated that EGCG restored nine key genes in MDSCs, including Cxcl3, Vcan, Col4a1, Col8a1, Oasl2, Mmp12, Met, Itsnl and Acot1. Our results provide new insight into the mechanism of EGCG-associated key pathways/genes in MDSCs in the murine breast tumor model.
Project description:Expansion of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is governed by the presence of increasingly metastatic, malignant primary tumors. Metastasis, not the primary tumor, is often the cause of mortality. This study sought to fully characterize the MDSC proteome in response to metastatic and non-metastatic mammary tumors using label-free mass spectrometry shotgun proteomics in a mouse model with tumor cell lines, 67NR and 4T1, derived from the same tumor. 67NR cells form only primary mammary tumors, whereas 4T1 cells readily metastasize to the lungs, lymph nodes, and blood. Overall analysis identified a total of 2825 protein groups with a 0.78% false discovery rate. Of the 2814 true identifications, 43 proteins were exclusive to the 67NR group, 153 were exclusive to the 4T1 group, and 2618 were shared. Among the shared cohort, 26 proteins were increased and 31 were decreased in the metastatic 4T1 cohort compared to non-metastatic 67NR controls after filtering. MDSCs selectively express proteins involved in the ?-glutamyl transferase, glutathione synthase pathways, CREB transcription factor signaling, and other pathways involved in platelet aggregation, as well as lipid and amino acid metabolism, in response to highly metastatic 4T1 tumors. Cell cycle regulation dominated protein pathways and ontological groups of the 67NR non-metastatic group. Not only does this study provide a starting point to identify potential biomarkers of metastasis expressed by MDSCs; it identifies critical pathways that are unique to non-metastatic and metastatic conditions. Therapeutic interventions aimed at these pathways in MDSC may offer a new route to control malignancy and metastasis.
Project description:Acquired resistance to chemotherapy remains a major stumbling block in cancer treatment. Chronic inflammation has a crucial role in induction of chemoresistance and results, in part, from the induction and expansion of inflammatory cells that include myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and IL-13+ Th2 cells. The mechanisms that lead to induction of activated MDSCs and IL-13+ Th2 cells have not yet been identified. Here we demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX) treatment of 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice led to the induction of IL-13R+miR-126a+ MDSCs (DOX-MDSC). DOX-MDSC promote breast tumor lung metastasis through MDSC miR-126a+ exosomal-mediated induction of IL-13+ Th2 cells and tumor angiogenesis. The induction of DOX-MDSC is regulated in a paracrine manner. DOX treatment not only increases interleukin (IL)-33 released from breast tumor cells, which is crucial for the induction of IL-13+ Th2 cells, but it also participates in the induction of IL-13 receptors and miR-126a expressed on/in the MDSCs. IL-13 released from IL-13+Th2 cells then promotes the production of DOX-MDSC and MDSC miR-126a+ exosomes via MDSC IL-13R. MDSC miR-126a+ exosomes further induce IL13+ Th2 cells in a positive feed-back loop manner. We also showed that MDSC miR-126a rescues DOX-induced MDSC death in a S100A8/A9-dependent manner and promotes tumor angiogenesis. Our findings provide insight into the MDSC exosomal-mediated chemoresistance mechanism, which will be useful for the design of inhibitors targeting the blocking of induction of miR-126a+ MDSCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Solid tumors produce proteins that can induce the accumulation of bone marrow-derived cells in various tissues, and these cells can enhance metastatic tumor growth by several mechanisms. 4T1 murine mammary tumors are known to produce granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and increase the numbers of immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tissues such as the spleen and lungs of tumor-bearing mice. While surgical resection of primary tumors decreases MDSC levels in the spleen, the longevity and impact of MDSCs and other immune cells in the lungs after tumor resection have been less studied. METHODS:We used mass cytometry time of flight (CyTOF) and flow cytometry to quantify MDSCs in the spleen, peripheral blood, and lungs of mice bearing orthotopic murine mammary tumors. We also tested the effect of primary tumor resection and/or gemcitabine treatment on the levels of MDSCs, other immune suppressor and effector cells, and metastatic tumor cells in the lungs. RESULTS:We have found that, similar to mice with 4T1 tumors, mice bearing metastatic 4T07 tumors also exhibit accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs in the spleen and lungs, while tissues of mice with non-metastatic 67NR tumors do not contain MDSCs. Mice with orthotopically implanted 4T1 tumors have increased granulocytic (G-) MDSCs, monocytic (M-) MDSCs, macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells in the lungs. Resection of primary 4T1 tumors decreases G-MDSCs, M-MDSCs, and macrophages in the lungs within 48 h, but significant numbers of functional immunosuppressive G-MDSCs persist in the lungs for 2 weeks after tumor resection, indicative of an environment that can promote metastatic tumor growth. The chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine depletes G-MDSCs, M-MDSCs, macrophages, and eosinophils in the lungs of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, and we found that treating mice with gemcitabine after primary tumor resection decreases residual G-MDSCs in the lungs and decreases subsequent metastatic growth. CONCLUSIONS:Our data support the development of therapeutic strategies to target MDSCs and to monitor MDSC levels before and after primary tumor resection to enhance the effectiveness of immune-based therapies and improve the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in the clinic.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that suppress T-cell activity in a tumor microenvironment. However, the suppressive function of MDSCs on B cells and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we show that in 4T1 breast cancer mice, a significantly increased number of MDSCs, in parallel with splenic B cells, are accumulated when compared to normal mice. In the presence of MDSCs, the surface molecules of B cells are remolded, with checkpoint-related molecules such as PD-1 and PD-L1 changing prominently. MDSCs also emerge as vital regulators in B-cell immune functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and the abilities to secrete antibodies and cytokines. Our study further identifies that MDSCs can transform normal B cells to a subtype of immuno- regulatory B cells (Bregs) which inhibit T-cell response. Furthermore, we identified a novel kind of Bregs with a specific phenotype PD-1-PD-L1+CD19+, which exert the greatest suppressive effects on T cells in comparison with the previously reported Bregs characterized as CD1d+CD5+CD19+, CD5+CD19+ and Interleukin (IL)-10-secreting B cells. Our results highlight that MDSCs regulate B-cell response and may serve as a therapeutic approach in anti-tumor treatment. Investigation of this new Breg subtype extends our understanding of regulation of T-cell response and sheds new light on anti-tumor immunity and immune therapy.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in cancer patients and tumor bearing-animals. MDSCs infiltrate into tumors and promote tumor invasion and metastasis. To identify the mediator responsible for the prometastatic property of MDSCs, we used proteomics. We found neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) was decreased >2-fold in MDSCs from metastatic 4T1 tumor-bearing mice compared to nonmetastatic 67NR controls. NGP mRNA levels were decreased in bone marrow and in tumor-infiltrating MDSCs by 45 and 66%, respectively, in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice compared to 67NR controls. Interestingly, 4T1-conditioned medium reduced myeloid cell NGP expression by ? 40%, suggesting that a secreted factor mediates gene reduction. Sequence analysis shows a putative cystatin domain in NGP, and biochemical analysis confirms NGP a novel cathepsin inhibitor. It inhibited cathepsin B activity by nearly 40% in vitro. NGP expression in 4T1 tumor cells suppressed cell invasion, delayed primary tumor growth, and greatly reduced lung metastasis in vivo. A 2.8-fold reduction of cathepsin activity was found in tumors expressing NGP compared to controls. NGP significantly reduced tumor angiogenesis to 12.6 from 19.6 and lymphangiogenesis to 4.6 from 9.1 vessels/field. Necrosis was detectable only in NGP-expressing tumors, and the number of apoptotic cells increased to 22.4 from 8.3 in controls. Taken together, this study identifies a negative regulator of tumor metastasis in MDSCs, NGP, which is down-regulated in metastatic conditions. The finding suggests that malignant tumors promote invasion/metastasis not only through up-regulation of proteases but also down-regulation of protease inhibitors.
Project description:Cancer progression is associated with inflammation, increased metabolic demand, infection, cachexia, and eventually death. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) commonly expand during cancer and are associated with adaptive immune suppression and inflammatory metabolite production. We propose that cancer-induced cachexia is driven at least in part by the expansion of MDSCs. MDSC expansion in 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing hosts is associated with induction of a hepatic acute-phase protein response and altered host energy and fat metabolism, and eventually reduced survival to polymicrobial sepsis and endotoxemia. Similar results are also seen in mice bearing a Lewis lung carcinoma and a C26 colon adenocarcinoma. However, a similar cachexia response is not seen with equivalent growth of the 66C4 subclone of 4T1, in which MDSC expansion does not occur. Importantly, reducing MDSC numbers in 4T1-bearing animals can ameliorate some of these late responses and reduce susceptibility to inflammation-induced organ injury and death. In addition, administering MDSCs from both tumor- and nontumor-bearing mice can produce an acute-phase response. Thus, we propose a previously undescribed mechanism for the development of cancer cachexia, whereby progressive MDSC expansion contributes to changes in host protein and energy metabolism and reduced resistance to infection.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that are increased in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and limit productive immune responses against tumors. Immunosuppressive MDSCs are well characterized in murine splenic tissue and are found at higher frequencies in spleens of tumor-bearing mice. However, no studies have yet analyzed these cells in parallel human spleens. We hypothesized that MDSCs would be increased in the spleens of human cancer patients, similar to tumor-bearing mice. We compared the frequency and function of MDSC subsets in dissociated human spleen from 16 patients with benign pancreatic cysts and 26 patients with a variety of cancers. We found that total MDSCs (Linneg CD11bpos CD33pos HLA-DRneg), granulocytic MDSCs (additional markers CD14neg CD15pos), and monocytic MDSCs (CD14pos CD15neg) were identified in human spleen. The monocytic subset was the most prominent in both spleen and peripheral blood and the granulocytic subset was expanded in the spleen relative to matched peripheral blood samples. Importantly, the frequency of CD15pos MDSCs in the spleen was increased in patients with cancer compared to patients with benign pancreatic cysts and was associated with a significantly increased risk of death and decreased overall survival. Finally, MDSCs isolated from the spleen suppressed T cell responses, demonstrating for the first time the functional capacity of human splenic MDSCs. These data suggest that the human spleen is a potential source of large quantities of cells with immunosuppressive function for future characterization and in-depth studies of human MDSCs.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise a critical component of the tumor environment and CXCR2 reportedly plays a key role in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory diseases. Here, CXCR2 expression on granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) was found to participate in myeloid cell differentiation within the tumor environment. In CXCR2-deficient tumor-bearing mice, GMPs exhibited fewer macrophage and dendritic cell progenitor cells than wild-type tumor-bearing mice, thereby decreasing monocytic MDSCs (mo-MDSCs) expansion. CXCR2 deficiency increased SAP18 expression in tumor-bearing mice, which reduced STAT3 phosphorylation through restraining ERK1/2 activation. Our findings reveal a critical role for CXCR2 in regulating hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation under tumor conditions, and SAP18 is a key negative regulator in this process. Thus, inhibiting CXCR2 expression may alter the tumor microenvironment and attenuate tumor progression.
Project description:Impressive responses have been observed in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitory anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. However, immunotherapy against poorly immunogenic cancers remains a challenge. Here we report that treatment with both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies was unable to eradicate large, modestly immunogenic CT26 tumors or metastatic 4T1 tumors. Cotreatment with epigenetic-modulating drugs and checkpoint inhibitors markedly improved treatment outcomes, curing more than 80% of the tumor-bearing mice. Functional studies revealed that the primary targets of the epigenetic modulators were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). A PI3K inhibitor that reduced circulating MDSCs also eradicated 4T1 tumors in 80% of the mice when combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus, cancers resistant to immune checkpoint blockade can be cured by eliminating MDSCs.