NCI-H446 control (NC) and MTA1-overexpressing (OE) cells
ABSTRACT: MTA1, SOX4, EZH2 and TGF-β are all potent inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer; however, the signaling relationship among these molecules in EMT is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of MTA1 in cancer cells and demonstrated that MTA1 overexpression efficiently activates EMT. This activation resulted in a significant increase in the migratory and invasive properties of three different cancer cell lines through a common mechanism involving SOX4 activation, screened from a gene expression profiling analysis. We showed that both SOX4 and MTA1 are induced by TGF-β and both are indispensable for TGF-β-mediated EMT. Further investigation identified that MTA1 acts upstream of SOX4 in the TGF-β pathway, emphasizing a TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4 signaling axis in EMT induction. The histone methyltransferase EZH2, a component of the polycomb (PcG) repressive complex 2 (PRC2), was identified as a critical responsive gene of the TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4 signaling in three different epithelial cancer cell lines, suggesting that this signaling acts broadly in cancer cells in vitro. The MTA1-SOX4-EZH2 signaling cascade was further verified in TCGA pan-cancer patient samples and in a colon cancer cDNA microarray, and activation of genes in this signaling pathway predicted an unfavorable prognosis in colon cancer patients. Collectively, our data uncover a SOX4-dependent EMT-inducing mechanism underlying MTA1-driven cancer metastasis and suggest a widespread TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4-EZH2 signaling axis that drives EMT in various cancers. We propose that this signaling may be used as a common therapeutic target to control epithelial cancer metastasis. We used microarrays to detect MTA1-regulated genes in cancer cells. Overall design: NCI-H446 control (NC) and MTA1-overexpressing (OE) cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HTA-2_0] Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:In spite of a large number of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1)-regulated genes, the nature of its targets with roles in transformation continues to be poorly understood. Here, we discovered that TGF-?1 stimulates transcription of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a dual master coregulator, in epithelial cells, and that MTA1 status is a determinant of TGF-?1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes. In addition, we found that MTA1/polymerase II/activator protein-1 (AP-1) co-activator complex interacts with the FosB-gene chromatin and stimulates its transcription, and FosB in turn, utilizes FosB/histone deacetylase 2 complex to repress E-cadherin expression in TGF-?1-stimulated mammary epithelial cells. These findings suggest that TGF-?1 regulates the components of EMT via stimulating the expression of MTA1, which in turn, induces FosB to repress E-cadherin expression and thus, revealed an inherent function of MTA1 as a target and effector of TGF-?1 signaling in epithelial cells.
Project description:TGF-? signaling can be pro-tumorigenic or tumor suppressive. We investigated this duality in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), which, with other gastrointestinal cancers, exhibits frequent inactivation of the TGF-? mediator Smad4. We show that TGF-? induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), generally considered a pro-tumorigenic event. However, in TGF-?-sensitive PDA cells, EMT becomes lethal by converting TGF-?-induced Sox4 from an enforcer of tumorigenesis into a promoter of apoptosis. This is the result of an EMT-linked remodeling of the cellular transcription factor landscape, including the repression of the gastrointestinal lineage-master regulator Klf5. Klf5 cooperates with Sox4 in oncogenesis and prevents Sox4-induced apoptosis. Smad4 is required for EMT but dispensable for Sox4 induction by TGF-?. TGF-?-induced Sox4 is thus geared to bolster progenitor identity, whereas simultaneous Smad4-dependent EMT strips Sox4 of an essential partner in oncogenesis. Our work demonstrates that TGF-? tumor suppression functions through an EMT-mediated disruption of a lineage-specific transcriptional network.
Project description:TGF-β is a major tumor suppressor in gastrointestinal (GI) and squamous carcinomas, which exhibit frequent genetic inactivation of Smad4, a key TGF-β signaling component. Apoptosis is implicated as an important mediator of the tumor suppressive function of TGF-β, although this process remains poorly understood. To address this long-standing question, we dissected the tumor suppressive action of TGF-β in naïve pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Here we show that TGF-β/Smad4 signaling triggers an EMT in Kras-mutant pancreatic progenitor cells but turns this process into a trigger of apoptosis by converting the progenitor cell transcription factor Sox4 from an enforcer of epithelial progenitor identity into an activator of apoptosis. This occurs as a result of the EMT-linked repression of the endodermal master regulator Klf5, which cooperates with Sox4 to promote epithelial progenitor identity, and loss of which unmasks a latent apoptotic transcriptional program driven by Sox4. By losing Smad4, Kras-mutant PDA cells avoid this fate and instead use Sox4 as a TGF-β-dependent enforcer of the epithelial progenitor cell state. In this study, 16 RNA-Seq samples and 6 ChIP-Seq samples are included.
Project description:The epithelial to mensenchymal transition program regulates various aspects of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, but aberrant activation of this pathway in cancer contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. TGF-b potently induces an epithelial to mensenchymal transition in cancers of epithelial origin by inducing transcriptional changes mediated by several key transcription factors. Here, we identify the developmental transcription factor SOX4 as a transcriptional target of TGF-b in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. SOX4 expression and activity are rapidly induced in the early stages of the TGF-b-induced epithelial to mensenchymal transition. We demonstrate that conditional activation of Sox4 is sufficient to induce the expression of N-cadherin and additional mesenchymal markers including vimentin and fibronectin, but fails to induce complete EMT as no changes are observed in the expression of E-cadherin and b-catenin. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SOX4 significantly delays TGF-b-induced mRNA and protein expression of mesenchymal markers. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-b-mediated increased expression of SOX4 is required for the induction of a mesenchymal phenotype during EMT in human mammary epithelial cells.
Project description:Expression of the transcription factor SOX4 is often elevated in human cancers, where it generally correlates with tumor-progression and poor-disease outcome. Reduction of SOX4 expression results in both diminished tumor-incidence and metastasis. In breast cancer, TGF-?-mediated induction of SOX4 has been shown to contribute to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which controls pro-metastatic events. Here, we identify SMAD3 as a novel, functionally relevant SOX4 interaction partner. Genome-wide analysis showed that SOX4 and SMAD3 co-occupy a large number of genomic loci in a cell-type specific manner. Moreover, SOX4 expression was required for TGF-?-mediated induction of a subset of SMAD3/SOX4-co-bound genes regulating migration and extracellular matrix-associated processes, and correlating with poor-prognosis. These findings identify SOX4 as an important SMAD3 co-factor controlling transcription of pro-metastatic genes and context-dependent shaping of the cellular response to TGF-?. Targeted disruption of the interaction between these factors may have the potential to disrupt pro-oncogenic TGF-? signaling, thereby impairing tumorigenesis.
Project description:Cancer cells acquire essential characteristics for metastatic dissemination through the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by gene expression and chromatin remodeling changes. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) to repress gene transcription. Here we report the functional roles of EZH2-catalyzed H3K27me3 during EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. TGF-?-induced EMT in SKOV3 OC cells was associated with decreased levels of EZH2 and H3K27me3 (P<0.05). These effects were delayed (~72 h relative to EMT initiation) and coincided with increased (>15-fold) expression of EMT-associated transcription factors ZEB2 and SNAI2. EZH2 knockdown (using siRNA) or enzymatic inhibition (by GSK126) induced EMT-like changes in OC cells. The EMT regulator ZEB2 was upregulated in cells treated with either approach. Furthermore, TGF-? enhanced expression of ZEB2 in EZH2 siRNA- or GSK126-treated cells (P<0.01), suggesting that H3K27me3 plays a role in TGF-?-stimulated ZEB2 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TGF-? treatment decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 to the ZEB2 promoter (P<0.05). In all, these results demonstrate that EZH2, by repressing ZEB2, is required for the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype in OC cells.
Project description:GATA3 is a basic and essential transcription factor that regulates many pathophysiological processes and is required for the development of mammary luminal epithelial cells. Loss-of-function GATA3 alterations in breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. Here, we sought to understand the tumor-suppressive functions GATA3 normally performs. We discovered a role for GATA3 in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer by activating miR-455-3p expression. Enforced expression of miR-455-3p alone partially prevented EMT induced by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) both in cells and tumor xenografts by directly inhibiting key components of TGF-? signaling. Pathway and biochemical analyses showed that one miRNA-455-3p target, the TGF-?-induced protein ZEB1, recruits the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex to the promotor region of miR-455 to strictly repress the GATA3-induced transcription of this microRNA. Considering that ZEB1 enhances TGF-? signaling, we delineated a double-feedback interaction between ZEB1 and miR-455-3p, in addition to the repressive effect of miR-455-3p on TGF-? signaling. Our study revealed that a feedback loop between these two axes, specifically GATA3-induced miR-455-3p expression, could repress ZEB1 and its recruitment of NuRD (MTA1) to suppress miR-455, which ultimately regulates TGF-? signaling. In conclusion, we identified that miR-455-3p plays a pivotal role in inhibiting the EMT and TGF-? signaling pathway and maintaining cell differentiation. This forms the basis of that miR-455-3p might be a promising therapeutic intervention for breast cancer.
Project description:Histone methylation plays a crucial role in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we discovered that JARID2, an interacting component of Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) that catalyzes methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), was involved in Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-ß)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 lung cancer cell line and HT29 colon cancer cell line. The expression of JARID2 was increased during TGF-ß-induced EMT of these cell lines and knockdown of JARID2 inhibited TGF-ß-induced morphological conversion of the cells associated with EMT. JARID2 knockdown itself had no effect in the expression of EMT-related genes but antagonized TGF-ß-dependent expression changes of EMT-related genes such as CDH1, ZEB family and microRNA-200 family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that JARID2 was implicated in TGF-ß-induced transcriptional repression of CDH1 and microRNA-200 family genes through the regulation of histone H3 methylation and EZH2 occupancies on their regulatory regions. Our study demonstrated a novel role of JARID2 protein, which may control PRC2 recruitment and histone methylation during TGF-ß-induced EMT of lung and colon cancer cell lines.
Project description:The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression and has been associated with the epithelial stem-cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated SMAD3 as the major effector. TGF-β-induced SMAD3 activation is inhibited by SMAD7 and to a lesser extent by SMAD6, and SMAD6 and SMAD7 both inhibit SMAD1 and SMAD5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). We previously reported that, in response to BMP, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylates SMAD6 at the BMP receptor complex, thereby promoting its dissociation from the receptors and enabling BMP-induced SMAD1 and SMAD5 activation. We now provide evidence that PRMT1 also facilitates TGF-β signaling by methylating SMAD7, which complements SMAD6 methylation. We found that PRMT1 is required for TGF-β-induced SMAD3 activation, through a mechanism similar to that of BMP-induced SMAD6 methylation, and thus promotes the TGF-β-induced EMT and epithelial stem-cell generation. This critical mechanism positions PRMT1 as an essential mediator of TGF-β signaling that controls the EMT and epithelial cell stemness through SMAD7 methylation.
Project description:Inappropriate activation of developmental pathways is a well-recognized tumor-promoting mechanism. Here we show that overexpression of the homeoprotein Six1, normally a developmentally restricted transcriptional regulator, increases TGF-beta signaling in human breast cancer cells and induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is in part dependent on its ability to increase TGF-beta signaling. TGF-beta signaling and EMT have been implicated in metastatic dissemination of carcinoma. Accordingly, we used spontaneous and experimental metastasis mouse models to demonstrate that Six1 overexpression promotes breast cancer metastasis. In addition, we show that, like its induction of EMT, Six1-induced experimental metastasis is dependent on its ability to activate TGF-beta signaling. Importantly, in human breast cancers Six1 correlated with nuclear Smad3 and thus increased TGF-beta signaling. Further, breast cancer patients whose tumors overexpressed Six1 had a shortened time to relapse and metastasis and an overall decrease in survival. Finally, we show that the effects of Six1 on tumor progression likely extend beyond breast cancer, since its overexpression correlated with adverse outcomes in numerous other cancers including brain, cervical, prostate, colon, kidney, and liver. Our findings indicate that Six1, acting through TGF-beta signaling and EMT, is a powerful and global promoter of cancer metastasis.