Effect of BDNF on the APP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
ABSTRACT: We examined transgenic (TG) mice expressing human APP695 bearing the double Swedish (671KM>NL) and Indiana (717V>F) amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations. Lentiviral vectors constitutively expressing BDNF-GFP under control of the CMV/ß-actin hybrid promoter or GFP alone were injected into the entorhinal cortices of TG mice bilaterally at age 6 months, a time point by which neuropathological degeneration and cell loss are established. Age-matched wild-type littermates underwent sham surgery or injection of lentivirus expressing GFP into the entorhinal cortices bilaterally. Keywords: Treatment effect Overall design: 26 Samples total: 4 biological replicates of APP transgenic mice BDNF treated, 4 biological replicates of APP transgenic mice GFP treated, 3 biological replicates of non-trangenic mice sham lesion and 2 biological replicates of non-transgenic mice GFP treated for both tissues: Entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.
Project description:We examined transgenic (TG) mice expressing human APP695 bearing the double Swedish (671KM>NL) and Indiana (717V>F) amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations. Lentiviral vectors constitutively expressing BDNF-GFP under control of the CMV/ß-actin hybrid promoter or GFP alone were injected into the entorhinal cortices of TG mice bilaterally at age 6 months, a time point by which neuropathological degeneration and cell loss are established. Age-matched wild-type littermates underwent sham surgery or injection of lentivirus expressing GFP into the entorhinal cortices bilaterally. Experiment Overall Design: 26 Samples total: 4 biological replicates of APP transgenic mice BDNF treated, 4 biological replicates of APP transgenic mice GFP treated, 3 biological replicates of non-trangenic mice sham lesion and 2 biological replicates of non-transgenic mice GFP treated for both tissues: Entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.
Project description:The entorhinal cortices in the temporal lobe of the brain are key structures relaying memory related information between the neocortex and the hippocampus. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) routes spatial information, whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) routes predominantly olfactory information to the hippocampus. Gamma oscillations are known to coordinate information transfer between brain regions by precisely timing population activity of neuronal ensembles. Here, we studied the organization of in vitro gamma oscillations in the MEC and LEC of the transgenic (tg) amyloid precursor protein (APP)-presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at 4-5 months of age. In vitro gamma oscillations using the kainate model peaked between 30-50 Hz and therefore we analyzed the oscillatory properties in the 20-60 Hz range. Our results indicate that the LEC shows clear alterations in frequency and power of gamma oscillations at an early stage of AD as compared to the MEC. The gamma-frequency oscillation slows down in the LEC and also the gamma power in dorsal LEC is decreased as early as 4-5 months in the tg APP-PS1 mice. The results of this study suggest that the timing of olfactory inputs from LEC to the hippocampus might be affected at an early stage of AD, resulting in a possible erroneous integration of the information carried by the two input pathways to the hippocampal subfields.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally defined as the aberrant production of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which are deposited in β-amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), respectively. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been detected in patients with AD compared to control subjects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the downregulation of the BDNF remain unknown. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying the regulation of BDNF in the neurons of APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice, an AD experimental model. Using the APP/PS1 Tg mice, we found that BDNF expression was markedly downregualted at the age of 3- and 9-month-old. After cerebroventricular injection (i.c.v) of Aβ1-42 oligomers into the mice, BDNF was also found to be decreased, which demonstrated the critical roles of the Aβ1-42 oligomers in regulating the expression of BDNF. In neuronal culture, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) were found to be downregulated by treatment with the Aβ1-42 oligomers. In addition, overexpression of either PGC-1α or FNDC5 reversed the suppressive effects of the Aβ1-42 oligomers on the expression of BDNF in neuroblastoma 2a (n2a) cells. More importantly, elevating the levels of PGC-1α, FNDC5 or BDNF in the n2a cells counteracted the effects of the Aβ1-42 oligomers on neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, intranasal administration BDNF in the APP/PS1 Tg mice decreased the Aβ deposition and reduced the cognitive decline of the mice.
Project description:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in expressing various neural functions including memory consolidation. Alterations of BDNF levels in the brain are associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand how levels of BDNF are controlled. Recently we generated a novel transgenic mouse strain, termed the Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic (Bdnf-Luc Tg) mouse, to monitor changes in Bdnf expression. In the present study, we detected the bioluminescence signal from living Bdnf-Luc Tg mice after intraperitoneal administration of d-luciferin. Despite high levels of Bdnf expression in the brain, it was difficult to detect a signal from the brain region, probably because of its poorly penetrable (short-wavelength) bioluminescence. However, we could detect the changes in the bioluminescence signal in the brain region using a luciferin analogue generating a near-infrared wavelength of bioluminescence. We also found a strong correlation between increases in body weight and bioluminescence signal in the abdominal region of Tg mice fed a high-fat diet. These results show that changes in Bdnf expression can be visualized using living mice, and that the Tg mouse could be a powerful tool for clarification of the role of Bdnf expression in pathophysiological and physiological conditions.
Project description:The glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) pathway plays an important role in mediating neuronal fate and synaptic plasticity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), abnormal activation of this pathway might play an important role in neurodegeneration, and compounds such as lithium that modulate GSK3beta activity have been shown to reduce amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (tg) mice. However, it is unclear whether regulation of GSK3beta is neuroprotective in APP tg mice. In this context, the main objective of the present study was to determine whether pharmacological or genetic manipulations that block the GSK3beta pathway might ameliorate the neurodegenerative alterations in APP tg mice and to better understand the mechanisms involved. For this purpose, two sets of experiments were performed. First, tg mice expressing mutant human APP under the Thy1 promoter (hAPP tg) were treated with either lithium chloride or saline alone. Second, hAPP tg mice were crossed with GSK3beta tg mice, in which overexpression of this signaling molecule results in a dominant-negative (DN) effect with inhibition of activity. hAPP tg mice that were treated with lithium or that were crossed with DN-GSK3beta tg mice displayed improved performance in the water maze, preservation of the dendritic structure in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, and decreased tau phosphorylation. Moreover, reduced activation of GSK3beta was associated with decreased levels of APP phosphorylation that resulted in decreased amyloid-beta production. In conclusion, the present study showed that modulation of the GSK3beta signaling pathway might also have neuroprotective effects in tg mice by regulating APP maturation and processing and further supports the notion that GSK3beta might be a suitable target for the treatment of AD.
Project description:The involvement of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in the neurodegenerative disease, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), has received wide consideration, however, outcomes from several researches have not shown consistency. In this study, we determined whether RF-EMF influenced AD pathology in vivo using Tg-5xFAD mice as a model of AD-like amyloid ? (A?) pathology. The transgenic (Tg)-5xFAD and wild type (WT) mice were chronically exposed to RF-EMF for 8 months (1950 MHz, SAR 5W/kg, 2 hrs/day, 5 days/week). Notably, chronic RFEMF exposure significantly reduced not only A? plaques, APP, and APP carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) in whole brain including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also the ratio of A?42 and A?40 peptide in the hippocampus of Tg-5xFAD mice. We also found that parenchymal expression of ?-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1) and neuroinflammation were inhibited by RF-EMF exposure in Tg-5xFAD. In addition, RF-EMF was shown to rescue memory impairment in Tg-5xFAD. Moreover, gene profiling from microarray data using hippocampus of WT and Tg- 5xFAD following RF-EMF exposure revealed that 5 genes (Tshz2, Gm12695, St3gal1, Isx and Tll1), which are involved in A?, are significantly altered inTg-5xFAD mice, exhibiting different responses to RF-EMF in WT or Tg-5xFAD mice; RF-EMF exposure in WT mice showed similar patterns to control Tg-5xFAD mice, however, RF-EMF exposure in Tg- 5xFAD mice showed opposite expression patterns. These findings indicate that chronic RF-EMF exposure directly affects A? pathology in AD but not in normal brain. Therefore, RF-EMF has preventive effects against AD-like pathology in advanced AD mice with a high expression of A?, which suggests that RF-EMF can have a beneficial influence on AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to be the most common cause of cognitive and motor alterations in the aging population. Accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta)-protein oligomers and the microtubule associated protein-TAU might be responsible for the neurological damage. We have previously shown that Cerebrolysin (CBL) reduces the synaptic and behavioral deficits in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (tg) mice by decreasing APP phosphorylation via modulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) and cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) activity. These kinases also regulate TAU phosphorylation and are involved in promoting neurofibrillary pathology. In order to investigate the neuroprotective effects of CBL on TAU pathology, a new model for neurofibrillary alterations was developed using somatic gene transfer with adeno-associated virus (AAV2)-mutant (mut) TAU (P301L). The Thy1-APP tg mice (3 m/o) received bilateral injections of AAV2-mutTAU or AAV2-GFP, into the hippocampus. After 3 months, compared to non-tg controls, in APP tg mice intra-hippocampal injections with AAV2-mutTAU resulted in localized increased accumulation of phosphorylated TAU and neurodegeneration. Compared with vehicle controls, treatment with CBL in APP tg injected with AAV2-mutTAU resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of TAU phosphorylation at critical sites dependent on GSK3beta and CDK5 activity. This was accompanied by amelioration of the neurodegenerative alterations in the hippocampus. This study supports the concept that the neuroprotective effects of CBL may involve the reduction of TAU phosphorylation by regulating kinase activity.
Project description:Profound neuronal dysfunction in the entorhinal cortex contributes to early loss of short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Here we show broad neuroprotective effects of entorhinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) administration in several animal models of Alzheimer's disease, with extension of therapeutic benefits into the degenerating hippocampus. In amyloid-transgenic mice, BDNF gene delivery, when administered after disease onset, reverses synapse loss, partially normalizes aberrant gene expression, improves cell signaling and restores learning and memory. These outcomes occur independently of effects on amyloid plaque load. In aged rats, BDNF infusion reverses cognitive decline, improves age-related perturbations in gene expression and restores cell signaling. In adult rats and primates, BDNF prevents lesion-induced death of entorhinal cortical neurons. In aged primates, BDNF reverses neuronal atrophy and ameliorates age-related cognitive impairment. Collectively, these findings indicate that BDNF exerts substantial protective effects on crucial neuronal circuitry involved in Alzheimer's disease, acting through amyloid-independent mechanisms. BDNF therapeutic delivery merits exploration as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:We report that neuronal overexpression of the endogenous inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin (CAST), in a mouse model of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) ?-amyloidosis, the APP23 mouse, reduces ?-amyloid (A?) pathology and A? levels when comparing aged, double transgenic (tg) APP23/CAST with APP23 mice. Concurrent with A? plaque deposition, aged APP23/CAST mice show a decrease in the steady-state brain levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs) when compared with APP23 mice. This CAST-dependent decrease in APP metabolite levels was not observed in single tg CAST mice expressing endogenous APP or in younger, A? plaque predepositing APP23/CAST mice. We also determined that the CAST-mediated inhibition of calpain activity in the brain is greater in the CAST mice with A? pathology than in non-APP tg mice, as demonstrated by a decrease in calpain-mediated cytoskeleton protein cleavage. Moreover, aged APP23/CAST mice have reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and tau phosphorylation when compared with APP23 mice. In summary, in vivo calpain inhibition mediated by CAST transgene expression reduces A? pathology in APP23 mice, with our findings further suggesting that APP metabolism is modified by CAST overexpression as the mice develop A? pathology. Our results indicate that the calpain system in neurons is more responsive to CAST inhibition under conditions of A? pathology, suggesting that in the disease state neurons may be more sensitive to the therapeutic use of calpain inhibitors.