Project description:EZH2 mediates the humoral immune response and drives lymphomagenesis through de novo formation of bivalent chromatin domains and critical germinal center (GC) B cell promoters. We show that such formation is dependent on the presense of BCL6 and the presence of non-canonical PRC1-BCOR complex. We observe that BCL6 and EZH2 cooperate to accelerate diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development and combinatorial targeting of these repressors results in enhanced anti-lymphoma activity in vitro, in vivo, and in primary human DLBCLs. DLBCL cell lines treated with BCL6 inhibitor 79-6.1085
Project description:The EZH2 histone methyltransferase mediates the humoral immune response and drives lymphomagenesis through de novo formation of bivalent chromatin domains at critical germinal center (GC) B cell promoters. Herein we show that the actions EZH2 in driving GC formation and lymphoma precursor lesions are dependent on the presence of the BCL6 transcriptional repressor, both of which are in turn dependent on the presence of non-canonical PRC1-BCOR complex. BCL6-BCOR complexes assemble preferentially at bivalent promoters in an H3K27me3-dependent manner. We observe specific induction of the CBX8 chromodomain protein in GC B cells. CBX8 binds to H3K27me3 at bivalent promoters and is required for stable association of BCOR complex and its histone modifications. CBX8 loss of function in B cells phenocopies loss of EZH2 and H3K27me3. Moreover, oncogenic BCL6 and EZH2 cooperate to accelerate diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development and combinatorial targeting of these repressors results in enhanced anti-lymphoma activity in vitro, in vivo and in primary human DLBCLs. KDM2B ChIP-sequencing of OCI-Ly1 cells
Project description:Identification of BCL6 target genes in primary follicular lymphomas by ChIP-on-chip. Overall design: ChIP-on-Chip was performed on four follicular lymphoma (FL) primary samples (WC15, WC16, WC17 and WC18) using an anti-BCL6 antibody.
Project description:The transcription factor Bcl6 orchestrates the germinal center reaction through its actions in B and T cells, and regulates inflammatory signaling in macrophages. We report that genetic replacement by mutant Bcl6, which cannot bind corepressors to its BTB domain, disrupted germinal center formation and immunoglobulin affinity maturation, due to a defect in B cell proliferation and survival. In contrast, BTB loss of function had no effect on T follicular helper cell differentiation and function, nor other T helper subsets. Bcl6 null mice displayed a lethal inflammatory phenotype, whereas BTB mutant mice experienced normal healthy lives with no inflammation. Bcl6 repression of inflammatory responses in macrophages was accordingly independent of the BTB domain repressor function. Bcl6 thus mediates its actions through lineage-specific biochemical functions. ChIP-seq for Bcl6, SMRT and BCOR in germinal center B cells
Project description:BCL6 is crucial for B-cell activation and lymphomagenesis. We used integrative genomics to explore BCL6 mechanism in normal and malignant B-cells. Surprisingly, BCL6 assembled distinct complexes at enhancers vs. promoters. At enhancers BCL6 preferentially recruited SMRT, which mediated H3K27 deacetylation through HDAC3, antagonized p300 activity and repressed transcription, but without decommissioning enhancers. This provides a biochemical basis for toggling enhancers from the active to poised state. Virtually all SMRT was bound with BCL6 suggesting that in B-cells BCL6 uniquely sequesters SMRT from other factors. In promoters BCL6 preferentially recruited BCOR, but most potently repressed promoters where it formed a distinctive ternary complex with SMRT and BCOR. Promoter repression was associated with decreased H3K36me3, H3K79me2 and Pol II elongation, linking BCL6 to transcriptional pausing. Overall design: We identified the binding patterns of BCL6, SMRT, NCOR and BCOR corepressors in normal germinal center B cells and a DLBCL cell line (OCI-Ly1) using ChIP-seq. Additionally we treated lymphoma cells with siRNA against BCL6 and a non-targeted siRNA (NT control) and performed RNA-seq to identify the genes bound and repressed by BCL6. RNA-seq experiments were performed at 24h and 48h after siRNA treatments. Additional biological triplicate RNA-seq experiments were performed at 48h after BCL6 knockdown. Furthermore, a series of histone mark ChIP-seq and RNA polymerase ChIP-seq (total, Ser5-P and Ser2-P) were preformed to capture the chromatin states associated with the formation of BCL6 corepressor complexes.
Project description:Tfh cells are required for T cell help to B cells, and BCL6 is the defining transcription factor of Tfh cells. However, the functions of Bcl6 in Tfh have largely remained unclear. Here we defined the BCL6 cistrome in primary human germinal center Tfh cells to assess mechanisms of BCL6 regulation of CD4 T cells, comparing and contrasting BCL6 function in T and B cells. BCL6 primarily acts as a repressor in Tfh cells, and BCL6 binding was associated with control of Tfh cell migration, TCR signaling, and repression of alternative cell fates. Interestingly, although some BCL6 bound genes possessed BCL6 DNA binding motifs, many BCL6-bound loci were instead characterized by the presence of DNA motifs for AP1 or STAT. AP1 complexes are key positive downstream mediators of TCR signaling and external stimuli. We show that BCL6 can directly bind AP1, and AP1 and BCL6 co-occupied BCL6 binding sites with AP1 motifs, suggesting that BCL6 subverts AP1 activity. These findings reveal that BCL6 has broad and multifaceted effects on Tfh biology, and provide insight into how this master regulator mediates distinct cell-context dependent phenotypes. Overall design: ChIP-seq experiments to identify the genome wide targets of BCL6 and the profiles of histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac in CXCR5hi Tfh cells isolated from human tonsils.
Project description:The transcription factor Bcl6 is required for germinal center formation and deregulated expression of Bcl6 has been observed in lymphomas. To gain insight to the function of Bcl6 in terminal differentiation of B cells to plasma cells and to investigate the targets of Bcl6, we established a Bcl6 deficient DT40 B cell line.
Project description:B cell differentiation stage specific histone modifications detected within and upstream of genes that play critical roles in B cell differentation. Germinal center B cell stage specific activating histone marks in regions far upstream of the BCL6 promoter regulate BCL6 expression. Overall design: comparison of histone modifications of genes having a role in B cell differentiation in human primary tonsillar naïve B-cells and germinal center B-cells and in CL01, SUDHL16 and U266 cell lines.
Project description:Rationale: The BCL6 oncogene is constitutively activated by chromosomal translocations and amplification in ABC-DLBCLs, a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies. Yet the role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. BCL6 mediates its effects by recruiting corepressors to an extended groove motif. Development of effective BCL6 inhibitors requires compounds exceeding the binding affinity of these corepressors. Objectives: To design small molecule inhibitors with superior potency vs. endogenous BCL6 ligands for unmet putative therapeutic needs such as targeting ABC-DLBCL. Findings: We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor with 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors. The compound, called FX1, binds in such a way as to occupy an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupts BCL6 repression complex formation, reactivates BCL6 target genes, and mimics the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with lateral groove mutations. This compound eradicated established DLBCLs xenografts at low doses. Most strikingly, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. Conclusions: ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6 dependent disease that can be targeted by novel inhibitors able to exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands. Overall design: gene expression profiles of DLBCL cases