Plexin-B2 regulates mechanotension during multicellular organization
ABSTRACT: During multicellular organization, individual cells need to constantly adjust intracellular contractility and junctional adhesive properties in order to maintain tissue cohesion and mechanotension. The membrane receptors linking external biochemical cues and internal cell mechanics are incompletely understood. Here, we reveal that the axon guidance receptor Plexin-B2 regulates intracellular mechanotension, and this in turn impacts cell-cell/cell-matrix adhesiveness during self-assembly of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs) into epithelial structures. The altered tissue mechanics caused by Plexin-B2 deficiency or over expression affects stem cell behaviors as well as β-catenin and YAP mechanosensing. Strikingly, Plexin-B2 deficiency results in accelerated neuronal differentiation, while proper levels of Plexin-B2 activity are required for maintaining cytoarchitectural integrity of the neuroepithelium as modeled in cerebral organoids. Mechanistically, Plexin-B2 engages its extracellular and Ras-GAP domains for mechanoregulation via RAP1/2. Our studies establish mechanoregulation as a key function of Plexin-B2 during multicellular organization, thereby solidifying the principle of force- mediated regulation of stem cell biology and tissue morphogenesis. Overall design: RNA-sequencing of hESC colonies of WT, PLXNB2 KO, and PLXNB2 OE condition, with three independent replicates for each condition.
Project description:Infiltrative growth is a major cause of high lethality of malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM). We show here that GBM cells upregulate guidance receptor Plexin-B2 to gain invasiveness. Deletion of Plexin-B2 in GBM stem cells limited tumor spread and shifted invasion paths from axon fiber tracts to perivascular routes. On a cellular level, Plexin-B2 adjusts cell adhesiveness, migratory responses to different matrix stiffness, and actomyosin dynamics, thus empowering GBM cells to leave stiff tumor bulk and infiltrate softer brain parenchyma. Correspondingly, gene signatures affected by Plexin-B2 were associated with locomotor regulation, matrix interactions, and cellular biomechanics. On a molecular level, the intracellular Ras-GAP domain contributed to Plexin-B2 function, while the signaling relationship with downstream effectors Rap1/2 appeared variable between GBM stem cell lines, reflecting intertumoral heterogeneity. Our studies establish Plexin-B2 as a modulator of cell biomechanics that is usurped by GBM cells to gain invasiveness.
Project description:Rnd proteins are atypical members of the Rho GTPase family that induce actin cytoskeletal reorganization and cell rounding. Rnd proteins have been reported to bind to the intracellular domain of several plexin receptors, but whether plexins contribute to the Rnd-induced rounding response is not known. Here we show that Rnd3 interacts preferentially with plexin-B2 of the three plexin-B proteins, whereas Rnd2 interacts with all three B-type plexins, and Rnd1 shows only very weak interaction with plexin-B proteins in immunoprecipitations. Plexin-B1 has been reported to act as a GAP for R-Ras and/or Rap1 proteins. We show that all three plexin-B proteins interact with R-Ras and Rap1, but Rnd proteins do not alter this interaction or R-Ras or Rap1 activity. We demonstrate that plexin-B2 promotes Rnd3-induced cell rounding and loss of stress fibres, and enhances the inhibition of HeLa cell invasion by Rnd3. We identify the amino acids in Rnd3 that are required for plexin-B2 interaction, and show that mutation of these amino acids prevents Rnd3-induced morphological changes. These results indicate that plexin-B2 is a downstream target for Rnd3, which contributes to its cellular function.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an obstacle in cancer therapy and are a major cause of drug resistance, cancer recurrence, and metastasis. Available treatments, targeting proliferating cancer cells, are not effective in eliminating quiescent CSCs. Identification of CSC regulators will help design therapeutic strategies to sensitize drug-resistant CSCs for chemo-eradication. Here, we show that angiogenin and plexin-B2 regulate the stemness of prostate CSCs, and that inhibitors of angiogenin/plexin-B2 sensitize prostate CSCs to chemotherapy. Prostate CSCs capable of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumor initiation with a single cell inoculation were identified and shown to be regulated by angiogenin/plexin-B2 that promotes quiescence and self-renewal through 5S ribosomal RNA processing and generation of the bioactive 3'-end fragments of 5S ribosomal RNA, which suppress protein translation and restrict cell cycling. Monoclonal antibodies of angiogenin and plexin-B2 decrease the stemness of prostate CSCs and sensitize them to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Plexins are a family of genes (A,B,C, and D) that are expressed in many organ systems. Plexins expressed in the immune system have been implicated in cell movement and cell-cell interaction during the course of an immune response. In this study, the expression pattern of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 in dendritic cells (DCs), which are central in immune activation, was investigated. Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 are reciprocally expressed in myeloid and plasmacytoid DC populations. Plasmacytoid DCs have high Plexin-B2 but low Plexin-D1, while the opposite is true of myeloid DCs. Expression of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 is modulated upon activation of DCs by TLR ligands, TNF?, and anti-CD40, again in a reciprocal fashion. Semaphorin3E, a ligand for Plexin-D1 and Plexin-B2, is expressed by T cells, and interestingly, is dramatically higher on Th2 cells and on DCs. The expression of Plexins and their ligands on DCs and T cells suggest functional relevance. To explore this, we utilized chimeric mice lacking Plxnb2 or Plxnd1. Absence of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 on DCs did not affect the ability of these cells to upregulate costimulatory molecules or the ability of these cells to activate antigen specific T cells. Additionally, Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 were dispensable for chemokine-directed in-vitro migration of DCs towards key DC chemokines, CXCL12 and CCL19. However, the absence of either Plexin-B2 or Plexin-D1 on DCs leads to constitutive expression of IL-12/IL-23p40. This is the first report to show an association between Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 with the negative regulation of IL-12/IL-23p40 in DCs. This work also shows the presence of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 on mouse DC subpopulations, and indicates that these two proteins play a role in IL-12/IL-23p40 production that is likely to impact the immune response.
Project description:Invasive growth is a major determinant of the high lethality of malignant gliomas. Plexin-B2, an axon guidance receptor important for mediating neural progenitor cell migration during development, is upregulated in gliomas, but its function therein remains poorly understood. Combining bioinformatic analyses, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of patient samples, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 is consistently upregulated in all types of human gliomas and that its expression levels correlate with glioma grade and poor survival. Activation of Plexin-B2 by Sema4C ligand in glioblastoma cells induced actin-based cytoskeletal dynamics and invasive migration in vitro. This proinvasive effect was associated with activation of the cell motility mediators RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, costimulation of Plexin-B2 and the receptor tyrosine kinase Met led to synergistic Met phosphorylation. In intracranial glioblastoma transplants, Plexin-B2 knockdown hindered invasive growth and perivascular spreading, and resulted in decreased tumor vascularity. Our results demonstrate that Plexin-B2 promotes glioma invasion and vascularization, and they identify Plexin-B2 as a potential novel prognostic marker for glioma malignancy. Targeting the Plexin-B2 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach to curtail invasive growth of glioblastoma.
Project description:Semaphorins and Plexins are cognate ligand-receptor families that regulate important steps during nervous system development. The Plexin-B2 receptor is critically involved in neural tube closure and cerebellar granule cell development, however, its specific ligands have only been suggested by in vitro studies. Here, we show by in vivo and in vitro analyses that the two Semaphorin-4 family members Sema4C and Sema4G are likely to be in vivo ligands of Plexin-B2. The Sema4C and Sema4G genes are expressed in the developing cerebellar cortex, and Sema4C and Sema4G proteins specifically bind to Plexin-B2 expressing cerebellar granule cells. To further elucidate their in vivo function, we have generated and analyzed Sema4C and Sema4G knockout mouse mutants. Like Plexin-B2-/- mutants, Sema4C-/- mutants reveal exencephaly and subsequent neonatal lethality with partial penetrance. Sema4C-/- mutants that bypass exencephaly are viable and fertile, but display distinctive defects of the cerebellar granule cell layer, including gaps in rostral lobules, fusions of caudal lobules, and ectopic granule cells in the molecular layer. In addition to neuronal defects, we observed in Sema4C-/- mutants also ventral skin pigmentation defects that are similar to those found in Plexin-B2-/- mutants. The Sema4G gene deletion causes no overt phenotype by itself, but combined deletion of Sema4C and Sema4G revealed an enhanced cerebellar phenotype. However, Sema4C/Sema4G double mutants showed overall less severe cerebellar phenotypes than Plexin-B2-/- mutants, indicating that further ligands of Plexin-B2 exist. In explant cultures of the developing cerebellar cortex, Sema4C promoted migration of cerebellar granule cell precursors in a Plexin-B2-dependent manner, supporting the model that a reduced migration rate of granule cell precursors is the basis for the cerebellar defects of Sema4C-/- and Sema4C/Sema4G mutants.
Project description:Plexins are cell surface receptors widely studied in the nervous system, where they mediate migration and morphogenesis though the Rho family of small GTPases. More recently, plexins have been implicated in immune processes including cell-cell interaction, immune activation, migration, and cytokine production. Plexin-B2 facilitates ligand induced cell guidance and migration in the nervous system, and induces cytoskeletal changes in overexpression assays through RhoGTPase. The function of Plexin-B2 in the immune system is unknown. This report shows that Plexin-B2 is highly expressed on cells of the innate immune system in the mouse, including macrophages, conventional dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. However, Plexin-B2 does not appear to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis of a variety of targets, or directional migration towards chemoattractants or extracellular matrix in mouse macrophages. Instead, Plxnb2(-/-) macrophages have greater cellular motility than wild type in the unstimulated state that is accompanied by more active, GTP-bound Rac and Cdc42. Additionally, Plxnb2(-/-) macrophages demonstrate faster in vitro wound closure activity. Studies have shown that a closely related family member, Plexin-B1, binds to active Rac and sequesters it from downstream signaling. The interaction of Plexin-B2 with Rac has only been previously confirmed in yeast and bacterial overexpression assays. The data presented here show that Plexin-B2 functions in mouse macrophages as a negative regulator of the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and as a negative regulator of basal cell motility and wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plexins, known to date as receptors of semaphorins, are implicated in semaphorin-mediated axon repulsion and growth cone collapse. However, subtype-specific functions of the majority of the nine members of the mammalian plexin family are largely unknown. In order to investigate functional properties of B-plexins, we analyzed the expression of human and murine plexin B3 and expressed full-length human plexins B2 (B2) and B3 (B3) in NIH-3T3 cells. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, B3 strongly and B2 moderately stimulate neurite outgrowth of primary murine cerebellar neurons. Both plexins mediate Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent cell aggregation due to homophilic trans-interaction, which is strong in the case of B3 and moderate for B2. Using different deletion constructs we show that the sema domain of B3 is essential for homophilic interaction. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified the neuron-specific and calmodulin-binding Ras-related GTPase Rin as an interaction partner of the intracellular part of B3, but not of B2. Rin, also known for its neurite outgrowth-inducing characteristics, co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with B3 in co-transfected COS-7 cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest an involvement of homophilic interaction of B3 in semaphorin-independent signaling mechanisms positively influencing neuronal morphogenesis or function. Furthermore the neuron-specific small GTPase Rin is involved in downstream signaling of plexin B3.
Project description:The Rnd family of proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3, are atypical Rho family GTPases, which bind to but do not hydrolyse GTP. They interact with plexins, which are receptors for semaphorins, and are hypothesised to regulate plexin signalling. We recently showed that each Rnd protein has a distinct profile of interaction with three plexins, Plexin-B1, Plexin-B2 and Plexin-B3, in mammalian cells, although it is unclear which region(s) of these plexins contribute to this specificity. Here we characterise the binary interactions of the Rnd proteins with the Rho-binding domain (RBD) of Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 using biophysical approaches. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments for each of the Rnd proteins with Plexin-B1-RBD and Plexin-B2-RBD showed similar association constants for all six interactions, although Rnd1 displayed a small preference for Plexin-B1-RBD and Rnd3 for Plexin-B2-RBD. Furthermore, mutagenic analysis of Rnd3 suggested similarities in its interaction with both Plexin-B1-RBD and Plexin-B2-RBD. These results suggest that Rnd proteins do not have a clear-cut specificity for different Plexin-B-RBDs, possibly implying the contribution of additional regions of Plexin-B proteins in conferring functional substrate selection.