ABSTRACT: To identify the molecular pathway regulated by Scribble (SCRIB) in primary hunan endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) decidualization, high-throughput RNA-seq was performed to analyze the transcriptome profile in si-Ctrl or si-SCRIB transfected decidualized ESCs (dESCs). Overall design: mRNA profiles of si-Ctrl or si-SCRIB tranfected dESCs.
Project description:The Scribble protein complex genes, consisting of lethal giant larvae (Lgl), discs large (Dlg) and scribble (Scrib) genes, are components of an evolutionarily conserved genetic pathway that links the cell polarity in cells of humans and Drosophila. The tissue expression and developmental changes of the Scribble protein complex genes were documented using qRT-RCR method. The Lgl and Scrib genes could be detected in all the experimental tissues, including fat body, midgut, testis/ovary, wingdisc, trachea, malpighian tubule, hemolymph, prothoracic gland and silk gland. The Dlg gene, mainly expressed only in testis/ovary, could not be detected in prothoracic gland and hemolymph. In fat body, there were two higher expression stages of the three genes. The highest peak of the expression of the Lgl and Scrib genes in wingdisc lay at the 1st day of the 5th instar, but the Dlg gene was at 3rd day of 5th instar. The above results indicate that Scribble complex genes are involved in the process of molting and development of the wingdisc in the silkworm. This will be useful in the future for the elucidation of the detailed biological function of the three genes Scrib, Dlg and Lgl in B. mori.
Project description:Loss of cellular polarity is a hallmark of epithelial cancers, raising the possibility that regulators of polarity have a role in suppressing tumorigenesis. The Scribble complex is one of at least three interacting protein complexes that have a critical role in establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. In human colorectal, breast, and endometrial cancers, expression of the Scribble complex member SCRIB is often mislocalized and deregulated. Here, we report that Scrib is indispensable for prostate homeostasis in mice. Scrib heterozygosity initiated prostate hyperplasia, while targeted biallelic Scrib loss predisposed mice to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Mechanistically, Scrib was shown to negatively regulate the MAPK cascade to suppress tumorigenesis. Further analysis revealed that prostate-specific loss of Scrib in mice combined with expression of an oncogenic Kras mutation promoted the progression of prostate cancer that recapitulated the human disease. The clinical significance of the work in mice was highlighted by our observation that SCRIB deregulation strongly correlated with poor survival in human prostate cancer. These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:A polarized architecture is central to both epithelial structure and function. In many cells, polarity involves mutual antagonism between the Par complex and the Scribble (Scrib) module. While molecular mechanisms underlying Par-mediated apical determination are well-understood, how Scrib module proteins specify the basolateral domain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate dependent and independent activities of Scrib, Discs-large (Dlg), and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) using the Drosophila follicle epithelium. Our data support a linear hierarchy for localization, but rule out previously proposed protein-protein interactions as essential for polarization. Cortical recruitment of Scrib does not require palmitoylation or polar phospholipid binding but instead an independent cortically stabilizing activity of Dlg. Scrib and Dlg do not directly antagonize atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), but may instead restrict aPKC localization by enabling the aPKC-inhibiting activity of Lgl. Importantly, while Scrib, Dlg, and Lgl are each required, all three together are not sufficient to antagonize the Par complex. Our data demonstrate previously unappreciated diversity of function within the Scrib module and begin to define the elusive molecular functions of Scrib and Dlg.
Project description:Scribble was originally identified as a Drosophila protein that regulates epithelial polarity and formation of the basolateral surface. The mammalian orthologue, Scrib, is evolutionarily conserved, but does not appear to be necessary for apical-basolateral epithelial polarity. Instead, it is implicated in the regulation of cell survival, protein trafficking, adhesion and migration. A key issue is to understand the molecular pathway by which Scrib participates in these processes. We have investigated Scrib using a three-dimensional epithelial cell culture system. We show a novel association between the leucine-rich repeat domain of Scrib and the co-chaperone Sgt1 and demonstrate that these proteins are necessary for epithelial morphogenesis and tubulogenesis following hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. The molecular chaperone HSP90 is also required for Sgt1 association with Scrib, and both Sgt1 and HSP90 are needed to ensure proper Scrib protein levels. Furthermore, reduced Scrib stability, following inhibition of Sgt1-HSP90, lowers the cellular abundance of the Scrib-?Pix-PAK complex. Inhibition of any member of this complex, Scrib, ?Pix or PAK, is sufficient to block HGF-mediated epithelial morphogenesis. The identification of Scrib as an Sgt1-HSP90 client protein required for three-dimensional cell migration suggests that chaperone-mediated regulation of polarity protein stability and homeostasis is an unappreciated mechanism underlying dynamic rearrangements during morphogenesis.
Project description:During epithelial morphogenesis, a complex comprising the ?PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor ?) and class I PAKs (p21-activated kinases) is recruited to adherens junctions. Scrib, the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila polarity determinant and tumor suppressor Scribble, binds ?PIX directly. Scrib is also targeted to adherens junctions by E-cadherin, where Scrib strengthens cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Although a role for the Scrib-?PIX-PAK signaling complex in promoting membrane protrusion at wound edges has been elucidated, a function for this complex at adherens junctions remains unknown.Here, we establish that Scrib targets ?PIX and PAK2 to adherens junctions where a ?PIX-PAK2 complex counterbalances apoptotic stimuli transduced by Scrib and elicited by cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, we show that this signaling pathway regulates cell survival in response to osmotic stress. Finally, we determine that in suspension cultures, the Scrib-?PIX-PAK2 complex functions to regulate anoikis elicited by cadherin engagement, with Scrib promoting and the ?PIX-PAK2 complex suppressing anoikis, respectively.Our findings demonstrate that the Scrib-?PIX-PAK2 signaling complex functions as an essential modulator of cell survival when localized to adherens junctions of polarized epithelia. The activity of this complex at adherens junctions is thereby essential for normal epithelial morphogenesis and tolerance of physiological stress. Furthermore, when localized to adherens junctions, the Scrib-?PIX-PAK2 signaling complex serves as a key determinant of anoikis sensitivity, a pivotal mechanism in tumor suppression. Thus, this work also reveals the need to expand the definition of anoikis to include a central role for adherens junctions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During decidualization in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), expressions of a number of genes and epigenetic modifications of histones are altered. However, there is little information about whether DNA methylation, which is another epigenetic mechanism, also changes during decidualization. Here, we examined the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in ESCs during decidualization and their associations with the changes of gene expressions and histone modifications. RESULTS:ESCs were incubated with estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14?days to induce decidualization. The genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were compared between the non-decidualized ESCs and the decidualized ESCs. Of 482,005 CpGs, only 23 CpGs (0.0048%) showed different DNA methylation statuses. The DNA methylation statuses of the differentially expressed genes and the regions with different histone modifications (H3K4 tri-methylation and H3K27 acetylation) were also compared between the ESCs. In the upregulated and downregulated genes in decidualized ESCs, DNA methylation statuses around the promoter region of the genes did not significantly differ between the ESCs. In the regions with different histone modification, DNA methylation statuses did not differ between the ESCs. The differentially expressed genes and the differential histone modification regions were hypomethylated. CONCLUSIONS:Culturing ESCs with estrogen/progesterone did not distort the physiological pattern of DNA methylation, although mRNA expression and histone modifications were dynamically altered. A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed stable DNA methylation statuses during decidualization in human endometrial stromal cells. DNA hypomethylation is maintained for the variable changes of histone modifications and gene expression during decidualization.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the posterior follicle cell (PFC) fate induction at mid-oogenesis. Here we explore the role of another two tumor suppressor genes, scribble (scrib) and discs large (dlg), in the epithelial patterning. RESULTS: We found that removal of scrib or dlg function from the follicle cells at posterior terminal of the egg chamber causes a complete loss of the PFC fate. Aberrant specification and differentiation of the PFCs in the mosaic clones can be ascribed to defects in coordinated activation of the EGFR, JAK and Notch signaling pathways in the multilayered cells. Meanwhile, the clonal analysis revealed that loss-of-function mutations in scrib/dlg at the anterior domains result in a partially penetrant phenotype of defective induction of the stretched and centripetal cell fate, whereas specification of the border cell fate can still occur in the most anterior region of the mutant clones. Further, we showed that scrib genetically interacts with dlg in regulating posterior patterning of the epithelium. CONCLUSION: In this study we provide evidence that scrib and dlg function differentially in anterior and posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicates that scrib and dlg act in a common pathway to regulate PFC fate induction. This study may open another window for elucidating role of scrib/dlg in controlling epithelial polarity and cell proliferation during development.
Project description:An increasing body of evidence suggests that tumors might originate from a few transformed cells that share many properties with normal stem cells. However, it remains unclear how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we demonstrated that mutations causing the loss of tumor suppressor Salvador (Sav) or Scribble (Scrib) or activation of the oncogene Ras transform normal stem cells into CSCs through a multistep process in the adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules (MTs). In wild-type MTs, each stem cell generates one self-renewing and one differentiating daughter cell. However, in flies with loss-of-function sav or scrib or gain-of-function Ras mutations, both daughter cells grew and behaved like stem cells, leading to the formation of tumors in MTs. Ras functioned downstream of Sav and Scrib in regulating the stem-cell transformation. The Ras-transformed stem cells exhibited many of the hallmarks of cancer, such as increased proliferation, reduced cell death, and failure to differentiate. We further demonstrated that several signal transduction pathways (including MEK/MAPK, RhoA, PKA, and TOR) mediate Ras' function in the stem-cell transformation. Therefore, we have identified a molecular mechanism that regulates stem-cell transformation, and this finding may lead to strategies for preventing tumor formation in certain organs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: At sites of cell adhesion, proteins exist that not only perform structural tasks but also have a signaling function. Previously, we found that the Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP) protein is localized at sites of cell adhesion such as focal adhesions and cell-cell contacts, and shuttles to the nucleus where it has transcriptional activation capacity. LPP is a member of the zyxin family of proteins, which contains five members: ajuba, LIMD1, LPP, TRIP6 and zyxin. LPP has three LIM domains (zinc-finger protein interaction domains) at its carboxy-terminus, which are preceded by a proline-rich pre-LIM region containing a number of protein interaction domains. RESULTS: To catch the role of LPP at sites of cell adhesion, we made an effort to identify binding partners of LPP. We found the tumor suppressor protein Scrib, which is a component of cell-cell contacts, as interaction partner of LPP. Human Scrib, which is a functional homologue of Drosophila scribble, is a member of the leucine-rich repeat and PDZ (LAP) family of proteins that is involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, cell shape and polarity. In addition, Scrib displays tumor suppressor activity. The binding between Scrib and LPP is mediated by the PDZ domains of Scrib and the carboxy-terminus of LPP. Both proteins localize in cell-cell contacts. Whereas LPP is also localized in focal adhesions and in the nucleus, Scrib could not be detected at these locations in MDCKII and CV-1 cells. Furthermore, our investigations indicate that Scrib is dispensable for targeting LPP to focal adhesions and to cell-cell contacts, and that LPP is not necessary for localizing Scrib in cell-cell contacts. We show that all four PDZ domains of Scrib are dispensable for localizing this protein in cell-cell contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we identified an interaction between one of zyxin's family members, LPP, and the tumor suppressor protein Scrib. Both proteins localize in cell-cell contacts. This interaction links Scrib to a communication pathway between cell-cell contacts and the nucleus, and implicates LPP in Scrib-associated functions.