Integrated omics profiling reveals FOXA1 and Ku70/Ku80 as the direct target of ivermectin for prostate carcinogenic inhibition
ABSTRACT: Here, we show that ivermectin suppress prostate cancer progression by inhibiting AR signaling pathway and attenuate cellular DNA damage repair capacity. We applied an integrated omics profiling including RNA-seq and Thermal proteome, that found pioneer factor Forkhead Box Protein A1 (FOXA1) and Non-homologous End Joining (NHEJ) repair executer Ku70/Ku80 was the direct target of Ivermectin in prostate cancer. Ivermectin binds to these two proteins and block their biological function, which results in blockade of AR signaling transcription and deficiency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair system, and thereby leads to G0/G1 arrest and trigger synthetic lethality Our findings demonstrate both the effect and target of Ivermectin in prostate cancer comprehensively and systemically, indicating that use of Ivermectin may constitute a new therapeutic approach for prostate cancer. Overall design: C4-2 and 22RV1 cells were treated with 8 or 12 μM ivermectin for 48 hours and the transcription profiling was analyzed by RNA-seq
Project description:ELL2 is an androgen-responsive gene that is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and is frequently down-regulated in prostate cancer. Deletion of Ell2 in the murine prostate induced murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ELL2 knockdown enhanced proliferation and migration in C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Here, knockdown of ELL2 sensitized prostate cancer cells to DNA damage and overexpression of ELL2 protected prostate cancer cells from DNA damage. Knockdown of ELL2 impaired non-homologous end joining repair but not homologous recombination repair. Transfected ELL2 co-immunoprecipitated with both Ku70 and Ku80 proteins. ELL2 could bind to and co-accumulate with Ku70/Ku80 proteins at sites of DNA damage. Knockdown of ELL2 dramatically inhibited Ku70 and Ku80 recruitment and retention at DNA double-strand break sites in prostate cancer cells. The impaired recruitment of Ku70 and Ku80 proteins to DNA damage sites upon ELL2 knockdown was rescued by re-expression of an ELL2 transgene insensitive to siELL2. This study suggests that ELL2 is required for efficient NHEJ repair via Ku70/Ku80 in prostate cancer cells.
Project description:Repair of damaged DNA is critical for maintenance of genetic information. In eukaryotes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are recognized by the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer, which then recruits proteins that mediate repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Prolonged retention of Ku70/80 at DSBs prevents completion of repair, however, with ubiquitylation of Ku80 having been implicated in Ku70/80 dissociation from DNA. Here, we identify RNF126 as a ubiquitin ligase that is recruited to DSBs and ubiquitylates Ku80, with UBE2D3 serving as an E2 enzyme. Knockdown of RNF126 prevented Ku70/80 dissociation from DSBs and inhibited break repair. Attenuation of Ku80 ubiquitylation by replacement of ubiquitylation site lysines with arginine residues delayed Ku70/80 release from chromatin after DSB induction by genotoxic insults. Together, our data indicate that RNF126 is a novel regulator of NHEJ that promotes completion of DNA repair by ubiquitylating Ku80 and releasing Ku70/80 from damaged DNA.
Project description:A novel role for HSF1 as an inhibitor of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair activity was identified. HSF1 interacted directly with both of the N-terminal sequences of the Ku70 and Ku86 proteins, which inhibited the endogenous heterodimeric interaction between Ku70 and Ku86. The blocking of the Ku70 and Ku86 interaction by HSF1 induced defective NHEJ repair activity and ultimately activated genomic instability after ionizing radiation (IR), which was similar to effects seen in Ku70 or Ku80 knockout cells. The binding activity between HSF1 and Ku70 or Ku86 was dependent on DNA damage response such as IR exposure, but not on the heat shock mediated transcriptional activation of HSF1. Moreover, the posttranslational modification such as phosphorylation, acetylation and sumoylation of HSF1 did not alter the binding activities of HSF1-Ku70 or HSF1-Ku86. Furthermore, the defect in DNA repair activity by HSF1 was observed regardless of p53 status. Rat mammary tumors derived using dimethylbenz(a)anthracence revealed that high levels of HSF1 expression which correlate with aggressive malignancy, interfered with the binding of Ku70-Ku80. This data suggests that HSF1 interacts with both Ku70 and Ku86 to induce defective NHEJ repair activity and genomic instability, which in turn suggests a novel mechanism of HSF1-mediated cellular carcinogenesis.
Project description:The Ku protein is involved in DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is crucial to the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammals. To study the role of Ku in NHEJ we developed a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system for the Ku70 and Ku80 subunits. Association of the Ku70 and Ku80 subunits buries a substantial amount of surface area (approximately 9000 A2 [J.R. Walker, R.A. Corpina, J. Goldberg, Structure of the Ku heterodimer bound to DNA and its implications for double-strand break repair, Nature 412 (2001) 607-614]), which suggests that herterodimerization may be important for protein stability. N-terminally His6-tagged Ku80 was soluble in the presence, but not in the absence, of bicistronically expressed untagged Ku70. In a 2-step purification, metal chelating affinity chromatography was followed by step-gradient elution from heparin-agarose. Co-purification of equimolar amounts of His6-tagged Ku80 and untagged Ku70 was observed, which indicated heterodimerization. Recombinant Ku bound dsDNA, activated the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PKcs) and functioned in NHEJ reactions in vitro. Our results demonstrate that while the heterodimeric interface of Ku is extensive it is nonetheless possible to produce biologically active Ku protein in E. coli.
Project description:Ku70-dependent canonical nonhomologous end-joining (c-NHEJ) DNA repair system is fundamental to the genome maintenance and B-cell lineage. c-NHEJ is upregulated and error-prone in incurable forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia which also displays telomere dysfunction, multiple chromosomal aberrations and the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We identify in these cells a novel DNA damage inducible form of phospho-Ku70. In vitro in different cancer cell lines, Ku70 phosphorylation occurs in a heterodimer Ku70/Ku80 complex within minutes of genotoxic stress, necessitating its interaction with DNA damage-induced kinase pS2056-DNA-PKcs and/or pS1981-ATM. The mutagenic effects of phospho-Ku70 are documented by a defective S/G2 checkpoint, accelerated disappearance of ?-H2AX foci and kinetics of DNA repair resulting in an increased level of genotoxic stress-induced chromosomal aberrations. Together, these data unveil an involvement of phospho-Ku70 in fast but inaccurate DNA repair; a new paradigm linked to both the deregulation of c-NHEJ and the resistance of malignant cells.
Project description:The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homolog (WASH), an actin nucleation-promoting factor, is present in the nucleus where it regulates gene transcription and maintains nuclear organization. Here, we show that WASH interacts with core non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors including Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PKcs, and Ku70/Ku80 is involved in the recruitment of WASH to the sites of DNA double-stranded break (DSB). WASH depletion leads to increased cell sensitivity and impaired DNA repair capacity in response to etoposide-induced DSBs and reduces NHEJ efficiency. Mechanistically, we show that loss of WASH inhibits the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, H2AX, and KAP1 after DSB induction and reduces chromatin relaxation and the recruitment of several downstream NHEJ factors to DSBs. Moreover, WASH role in DSB repair depends on its conserved C-terminal VCA domain and Arp2/3 activation. Our findings reveal a function and mechanistic insight for WASH in DNA DSB repair by the NHEJ pathway.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious type of DNA lesions because they cause loss of genetic information if not properly repaired. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are required for DSB repair. However, the relationship of HR and NHEJ in DNA damage stress is unknown in the radiation-resistant fungus <i>Cryptococcus neoformans</i>. In this study, we found that the expression levels of HR- and NHEJ-related genes were highly induced in a Rad53-Bdr1 pathway-dependent manner under genotoxic stress. Deletion of <i>RAD51</i>, which is one of the main components in the HR, resulted in growth under diverse types of DNA damage stress, whereas perturbations of <i>KU70</i> and <i>KU80</i>, which belong to the NHEJ system, did not affect the genotoxic stresses except when bleomycin was used for treatment. Furthermore, deletion of both <i>RAD51</i> and <i>KU70</i>/<i>80</i> renders cells susceptible to oxidative stress. Notably, we found that deletion of <i>RAD51</i> induced a hypermutator phenotype in the fluctuation assay. In contrast to the fluctuation assay, perturbation of <i>KU70</i> or <i>KU80</i> induced rapid microevolution similar to that induced by the deletion of <i>RAD51</i>. Collectively, Rad51-mediated HR and Ku70/Ku80-mediated NHEJ regulate the DNA damage response and maintain genome stability.
Project description:DNA-PK is a heterotrimeric complex that consists of Ku70 (XRCC6), Ku80 (XRCC5) and DNA-PKcs (PRKDC) subunits. The complex is a major player in the repair of DNA double strand break (DSB) via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. This process requires all DNA-PK subunits, since Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer firstly binds to DNA ends at DSB and then recruits DNA-PKcs. Recruitment of the DNA-PKcs subunit to DSB leads to phosphorylation events near DSB and recruitment of other NHEJ-related proteins that restore DNA integrity. However, today a lot of evidence demonstrates participation of the DNA-PK components in other cellular processes, e.g. telomere length maintenance, transcription, metabolism regulation, cytosolic DNA sensing, apoptosis, cellular movement and adhesion. It is important to note that not all the subunits of the DNA-PK complex are necessary for these processes, and the largest number of independent functions has been shown for the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer and especially the Ku70 subunit. To better understand the role of each DNA-PK subunit in the cell life, we have analyzed transcriptome changes in HEK293T cells depleted of Ku70, Ku80 or DNA-PKcs using NGS-sequencing. Here, for the first time, we present the data obtained from the transcriptome analysis.
Project description:Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which can promote genomic instability when dysfunctional, is a major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. Although ubiquitylation of the core NHEJ factor, Ku (Ku70-Ku80), which senses broken DNA ends, is important for its removal from sites of damage upon completion of NHEJ, the mechanism regulating Ku ubiquitylation remains elusive. We provide evidence showing that the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) interacts with and directly deubiquitylates one of the Ku heterodimer subunits, Ku80. Additionally, depleting UCHL3 resulted in reduced Ku80 foci formation, Ku80 binding to chromatin after DSB induction, moderately sensitized cells to ionizing radiation and decreased NHEJ efficiencies. Mechanistically, we show that DNA damage induces UCHL3 phosphorylation, which is dependent on ATM, downstream NHEJ factors and UCHL3 catalytic activity. Furthermore, this phosphorylation destabilizes UCHL3, despite having no effect on its catalytic activity. Collectively, these data suggest that UCHL3 facilitates cellular viability after DSB induction by antagonizing Ku80 ubiquitylation to enhance Ku80 retention at sites of damage.