Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells
ABSTRACT: Identification of cellular functions and signalling pathways of intestinal epithelial cells modulated by enteric glial cells Keywords: Transcriptome regulation Overall design: Two-condition experiment (intestinal epithelial cells cultured in absence or in presence of enteric glial cells) with 3 time points (t=0, 8 and 24h). 4 Biological replicates/condition. Every replicate was hybridized against a reference pool composed by a mix of the 4 replicates of t=0 condition in equal quantity.
INSTRUMENT(S): Human oligo array from MWG cancerochips_v2009
Project description:Identification of cellular functions and signalling pathways of intestinal epithelial cells modulated by enteric glial cells Keywords: Transcriptome regulation Two-condition experiment (intestinal epithelial cells cultured in absence or in presence of enteric glial cells) with 3 time points (t=0, 8 and 24h). 4 Biological replicates/condition. Every replicate was hybridized against a reference pool composed by a mix of the 4 replicates of t=0 condition in equal quantity.
Project description:Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility. We tested our hypothesis by recording the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission in tissue samples from mice, pigs, and humans and investigated specific mechanisms using novel mutant mice, selective drugs, cellular imaging, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exogenous ammonia increased neurogenic contractions and decreased neurogenic relaxations in segments of mouse, pig, and human intestine. Enteric glial cells responded to ammonia with intracellular Ca2+ responses. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase and the deletion of glial connexin-43 channels in hGFAP::CreERT2+/-/connexin43f/f mice potentiated the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission. The effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission were blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, and ammonia drove substantive GABA release as did the selective pharmacological activation of enteric glia in GFAP::hM3Dq transgenic mice. We propose a novel mechanism whereby local ammonia is operational through GABAergic glial signaling to influence enteric neuromuscular circuits that regulate intestinal motility. Therapeutic manipulation of these mechanisms may benefit a number of neurological, hepatic, and renal disorders manifesting hyperammonemia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose that local circuits in the enteric nervous system sense and regulate intestinal ammonia. We show that ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission to increase motility in human, pig, and mouse intestine model systems. The mechanisms underlying the effects of ammonia on enteric neurotransmission include GABAergic pathways that are regulated by enteric glial cells. Our new data suggest that myenteric glial cells sense local ammonia and directly modify neurotransmission by releasing GABA.
Project description:Wound healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa is essential for the maintenance of gut homeostasis and integrity. Enteric glial cells play a major role in regulating intestinal barrier function, but their role in mucosal barrier repair remains unknown. The impact of conditional ablation of enteric glia on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mucosal damage and on healing of diclofenac-induced mucosal ulcerations was evaluated in vivo in GFAP-HSVtk transgenic mice. A mechanically induced model of intestinal wound healing was developed to study glial-induced epithelial restitution. Glial-epithelial signaling mechanisms were analyzed by using pharmacological inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, and genetically engineered intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glial cells were shown to be abundant in the gut mucosa, where they associate closely with intestinal epithelial cells as a distinct cell population from myofibroblasts. Conditional ablation of enteric glia worsened mucosal damage after DSS treatment and significantly delayed mucosal wound healing following diclofenac-induced small intestinal enteropathy in transgenic mice. Enteric glial cells enhanced epithelial restitution and cell spreading in vitro. These enhanced repair processes were reproduced by use of glial-conditioned media, and soluble proEGF was identified as a secreted glial mediator leading to consecutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Our study shows that enteric glia represent a functionally important cellular component of the intestinal epithelial barrier microenvironment and that the disruption of this cellular network attenuates the mucosal healing process.
Project description:In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that phycotoxins can impact intestinal epithelial cells and can cross the intestinal barrier to some extent. Therefore, phycotoxins can reach cells underlying the epithelium, such as enteric glial cells (EGCs), which are involved in gut homeostasis, motility, and barrier integrity. This study compared the toxicological effects of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), 13-desmethyl-spirolide C (SPX), and palytoxin (PlTX) on the rat EGC cell line CRL2690. Cell viability, morphology, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell cycle, and specific glial markers were evaluated using RT-qPCR and high content analysis (HCA) approaches. PTX2, YTX, OA, AZA1, and PlTX induced neurite alterations, oxidative stress, cell cycle disturbance, and increase of specific EGC markers. An inflammatory response for YTX, OA, and AZA1 was suggested by the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and induction of DNA double strand breaks (γH2AX) were also observed with PTX2, YTX, OA, and AZA1. These findings suggest that PTX2, YTX, OA, AZA1, and PlTX may affect intestinal barrier integrity through alterations of the human enteric glial system. Our results provide novel insight into the toxicological effects of phycotoxins on the gut.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:When the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is used to express cellular toxins that eliminate glia in mice, intestinal epithelial permeability and proliferation increase; this led to the concept that glia are required for maintenance of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Many enteric glia, however, particularly in the mucosa, do not express GFAP. In contrast, virtually all enteric glia express proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). We investigated whether elimination of PLP1-expressing cells compromises epithelial maintenance or gastrointestinal motility. METHODS:We generated mice that express tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under control of the Plp1 promoter and carry the diptheria toxin subunit A (DTA) transgene in the Rosa26 locus (Plp1CreER;Rosa26DTA mice). In these mice, PLP1-expressing glia are selectively eliminated without affecting neighboring cells. We measured epithelial barrier function and gastrointestinal motility in these mice and littermate controls, and analyzed epithelial cell proliferation and ultrastructure from their intestinal tissues. To compare our findings with those from previous studies, we also eliminated glia with ganciclovir in GfapHSV-TK mice. RESULTS:Expression of DTA in PLP1-expressing cells selectively eliminated enteric glia from the small and large intestines, but caused no defects in epithelial proliferation, barrier integrity, or ultrastructure. In contrast, administration of ganciclovir to GfapHSV-TK mice eliminated fewer glia but caused considerable non-glial toxicity and epithelial cell death. Elimination of PLP1-expressing cells did not reduce survival of neurons in the intestine, but altered gastrointestinal motility in female, but not male, mice. CONCLUSIONS:Using the Plp1 promoter to selectively eliminate glia in mice, we found that enteric glia are not required for maintenance of the intestinal epithelium, but are required for regulation of intestinal motility in females. Previous observations supporting the concept that maintenance of the intestinal epithelium requires enteric glia can be attributed to non-glial toxicity in GfapHSV-TK mice and epithelial-cell expression of GFAP. Contrary to widespread notions, enteric glia are therefore not required for epithelial homeostasis. However, they regulate intestinal motility in a sex-dependent manner.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) manifests as an etiologically complicated and relapsing gastrointestinal disease. The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a pivotal role in rectifying and orchestrating the inflammatory responses in gut tract. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is known as its anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects in experimental colitis. However, little research focused on its regulatory function on ENS. Therefore, we set out to explore the pathological role of neurogenic inflammation in UC and the modulating effects of berberine on neuro-immune interactions. Functional defects of enteric glial cells (EGCs), with decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and increased substance P expression, were observed in DSS-induced murine UC. Administration of berberine can obviously ameliorate the disease severity and restore the mucosal barrier homeostasis of UC, closely accompanying by maintaining the residence of EGCs and attenuating inflammatory infiltrations and immune cells overactivation. In vitro, berberine showed direct protective effects on monoculture of EGCs, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), T cells, and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the simulated inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, berberine could modulate gut EGCs-IECs-immune cell interactions in the co-culture systems. In summary, our study indicated the EGCs-IECs-immune cell interactions might function as a crucial paradigm in mucosal inflammation and provided an infusive mechanism of berberine in regulating enteric neurogenic inflammation.
Project description:Disturbances in the control of ion transport lead to epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with colitis. Enteric glia regulate intestinal barrier function and colonic ion transport. However, it is not clear whether enteric glia are involved in epithelial hyporesponsiveness. We investigated enteric glial regulation of ion transport in mice with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- or dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and in Il10(-/-) mice.Electrically evoked ion transport was measured in full-thickness segments of colon from CD1 and Il10(-/-) mice with or without colitis in Ussing chambers. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed using amperometry. Bacterial translocation was investigated in the liver, spleen, and blood of mice.Electrical stimulation of the colon evoked a tetrodotoxin-sensitive chloride secretion. In mice with colitis, ion transport almost completely disappeared. Inhibiting inducible NO synthase (NOS2), but not neuronal NOS (NOS1), partially restored the evoked secretory response. Blocking glial function with fluoroacetate, which is not a NOS2 inhibitor, also partially restored ion transport. Combined NOS2 inhibition and fluoroacetate administration fully restored secretion. Epithelial responsiveness to vasoactive intestinal peptide was increased after enteric glial function was blocked in mice with colitis. In colons of mice without colitis, NO was produced in the myenteric plexus almost completely via NOS1. NO production was increased in mice with colitis, compared with mice without colitis; a substantial proportion of NOS2 was blocked by fluoroacetate administration. Inhibition of enteric glial function in vivo reduced the severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis and associated bacterial translocation.Increased production of NOS2 in enteric glia contributes to the dysregulation of intestinal ion transport in mice with colitis. Blocking enteric glial function in these mice restores epithelial barrier function and reduces bacterial translocation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently unknown. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying the impact of EGC upon IEC transcriptome by performing microarray studies. RESULTS: EGC induced significant changes in gene expression profiling of proliferating IEC after 24 hours of co-culture. 116 genes were identified as differentially expressed (70 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) in IEC cultured with EGC compared to IEC cultured alone. By performing functional analysis of the 116 identified genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we showed that EGC induced a significant regulation of genes favoring both cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion as well as cell differentiation. Consistently, functional studies showed that EGC induced a significant increase in cell adhesion. EGC also regulated genes involved in cell motility towards an enhancement of cell motility. In addition, EGC profoundly modulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival, although no clear functional trend could be identified. Finally, important genes involved in lipid and protein metabolism of epithelial cells were shown to be differentially regulated by EGC. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the emerging concept that EGC have major protective effects upon the IEB. EGC have a profound impact upon IEC transcriptome and induce a shift in IEC phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. This concept needs to be further validated under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Project description:Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the intestinal epithelial barrier essential for regulating the enteric nervous system. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, toxin B (TcdB) being the major virulence factor, due to its ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and to act on other cell types. Here we investigated TcdB effects on EGCs and the activated molecular mechanisms. Already at 2?hours, TcdB triggered ROS formation originating from NADPH-oxidase, as demonstrated by their reduction in the presence of the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor ML171. Although EGCs mitochondria support almost completely the cellular ATP need, TcdB exerted weak effects on EGCs in terms of ATP and mitochondrial functionality, mitochondrial ROS production occurring as a late event. ROS activated the JNK signalling and overexpression of the proapoptotic Bim not followed by cytochrome c or AIF release to activate the downstream apoptotic cascade. EGCs underwent DNA fragmentation through activation of the ROS/JNK/caspase-3 axis, evidenced by the ability of ML171, N-acetylcysteine, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 to inhibit caspase-3 or to contrast apoptosis. Therefore, TcdB aggressiveness towards EGCs is mainly restricted to the cytosolic compartment, which represents a peculiar feature, since TcdB primarily influences mitochondria in other cellular types.
Project description:The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the coordinated migration, expansion and differentiation of vagal and sacral neural crest progenitor cells. During development, vagal neural crest cells enter the foregut and migrate in a rostro-to-caudal direction, colonizing the entire gastrointestinal tract and generating the majority of the ENS. Sacral neural crest contributes to a subset of enteric ganglia in the hindgut, colonizing the colon in a caudal-to-rostral wave. During this process, enteric neural crest-derived progenitors (ENPs) self-renew and begin expressing markers of neural and glial lineages as they populate the intestine. Our earlier work demonstrated that the transcription factor Foxd3 is required early in neural crest-derived progenitors for self-renewal, multipotency and establishment of multiple neural crest-derived cells and structures including the ENS. Here, we describe Foxd3 expression within the fetal and postnatal intestine: Foxd3 was strongly expressed in ENPs as they colonize the gastrointestinal tract and was progressively restricted to enteric glial cells. Using a novel Ednrb-iCre transgene to delete Foxd3 after vagal neural crest cells migrate into the midgut, we demonstrated a late temporal requirement for Foxd3 during ENS development. Lineage labeling of Ednrb-iCre expressing cells in Foxd3 mutant embryos revealed a reduction of ENPs throughout the gut and loss of Ednrb-iCre lineage cells in the distal colon. Although mutant mice were viable, defects in patterning and distribution of ENPs were associated with reduced proliferation and severe reduction of glial cells derived from the Ednrb-iCre lineage. Analyses of ENS-lineage and differentiation in mutant embryos suggested activation of a compensatory population of Foxd3-positive ENPs that did not express the Ednrb-iCre transgene. Our findings highlight the crucial roles played by Foxd3 during ENS development including progenitor proliferation, neural patterning, and glial differentiation and may help delineate distinct molecular programs controlling vagal versus sacral neural crest development.