Imortalized mouse preadipocyte response to Il13 pre-treatment
ABSTRACT: RNA-seq analysis of Il13 pre-treated imortalized mouse pre-adipocyte. Overall design: Differential expression of mRNA from Il13 pre-treated imortalized mouse preadipocyte, 4 samples from each groups was analyzed.
Project description:The worldwide epidemic of obesity has increased the urgency to develop a deeper understanding of physiological systems related to energy balance and energy storage, including the mechanisms controlling the development of fat cells (adipocytes). The differentiation of committed preadipocytes to adipocytes is controlled by PPARgamma and several other transcription factors, but the molecular basis for preadipocyte determination is not understood. Using a new method for the quantitative analysis of transcriptional components, we identified the zinc-finger protein Zfp423 as a factor enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts. Ectopic expression of Zfp423 in non-adipogenic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts robustly activates expression of Pparg in undifferentiated cells and permits cells to undergo adipocyte differentiation under permissive conditions. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated reduction of Zfp423 expression in 3T3-L1 cells blunts preadipocyte Pparg expression and diminishes the ability of these cells to differentiate. Furthermore, both brown and white adipocyte differentiation is markedly impaired in Zfp423-deficient mouse embryos. Zfp423 regulates Pparg expression, in part, through amplification of the BMP signalling pathway, an effect dependent on the SMAD-binding capacity of Zfp423. This study identifies Zfp423 as a transcriptional regulator of preadipocyte determination.
Project description:AIM:The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. METHODS:Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Preadipocytes were isolated, and cultured in the presence or absence of CD14+ macrophages obtained from the same adipose tissue sample. Adipocyte differentiation was quantified after 14 days via immunofluorescence, Oil-Red O, and adipogenic gene expression. Cytokine secretion by mature adipocytes cultured with or without CD14+macrophages was quantified. RESULTS:Adipocyte differentiation was significantly lower in VAT than SAT by all measures (p<0.001). With macrophage removal, SAT preadipocyte differentiation increased significantly as measured by immunofluorescence and gene expression, whereas VAT preadipocyte differentiation was unchanged. Adipocyte-secreted proinflammatory cytokines were higher and adiponectin lower in media from VAT vs SAT: macrophage removal reduced inflammatory cytokine and increased adiponectin secretion from both SAT and VAT adipocytes. Differentiation of preadipocytes from SAT but not VAT correlated inversely with systemic insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS:The current results reveal that proinflammatory immune cells in human SAT are causally-related to impaired preadipocyte differentiation, which in turn is associated with systemic insulin resistance. In VAT, preadipocyte differentiation is poor even in the absence of tissue macrophages, pointing to inherent differences in fat storage potential between the two depots.
Project description:Adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism have important regulatory effects on the quality of meat from livestock. A variety of transcription factors regulate preadipocyte differentiation. Several studies have revealed that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?1) may play a key role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, little is known about the effects of TGF-?1 treatment on porcine preadipocytes. To explore the role of TGF-?1 in porcine adipocyte differentiation, porcine preadipocytes were treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-?1, and two libraries were constructed for RNA-seq. We chose an abundant and differentially expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which we named fat deposition-associated long noncoding RNA1 (FDNCR1), for further study. RT-qPCR was used to detect mRNA levels of genes related to adipocyte differentiation. Triglyceride assay kits were used to detect lipid droplet deposition. TGF-?1 significantly suppressed porcine preadipocyte differentiation. We identified 8158 lncRNAs in total and 39 differentially expressed lncRNAs. After transfection with FDNCR1 siRNA, the mRNA expression of aP2, C/EBP?, and PPAR? and triglyceride levels significantly increased. Transfection with FDNCR1 siRNA significantly decreased protein levels of p-Smad2/Smad2 and p-Smad3/Smad3. These results demonstrate that FDNCR1 suppresses porcine preadipocyte differentiation via the TGF-? signaling pathway.
Project description:Adipogenesis is a complex biological process and the main cause of obesity. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, have been proven to play an important role in adipogenesis by the post-transcriptional regulation of target genes. In this current study, we observed an increment of miR-152 expression during the process of 3T3-L1 cell audiogenic differentiation. A functional analysis indicated that the overexpression of miR-152 inhibited pre-adipocyte proliferation and suppressed the expression of some cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-152 promoted lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes accompanied by increase of the expression of some pro-audiogenic genes. Additionally, a dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was a direct target gene of miR-152 during preadipocyte differentiation. Further analysis showed that miR-152 was positively correlated with adipogenesis and intramuscular fat formation in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-152 could suppress 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation, whereas it could promote 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation by negatively regulating LPL. The findings indicate that miR-152 might have a therapeutic significance for obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome.
Project description:During differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, the transcription of adipocyte genes, including the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene, is activated. Transfection experiments with chimeric SCD2 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs revealed a preadipocyte repressor element (PRE) capable of repressing transcription of the reporter gene in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. DNase I protection and gel retardation analyses were used to localize the PRE site between nucleotides -435 and -410 of the SCD2 promoter and to identify a nuclear PRE binding protein present at high levels in preadipocytes and HeLa cells but lacking or inactive in adipocytes. Southwestern blot analysis indicated that the PRE binding protein has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 58 kDa. A single copy of the PRE site, inserted upstream of the simian virus 40 enhancer/promoter of pSV2CAT, was capable of strongly repressing transcription of the reporter gene in preadipocytes and HeLa cells but not in adipocytes. Taken together these results suggest that the PRE site and binding protein may regulate transcription of SCD2 and possibly other adipocyte genes by inhibiting their transcription in preadipocytes.
Project description:Adipocytes are the primary cells in adipose tissue, and adipocyte dysfunction causes lipodystrophy, obesity and diabetes. The dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 family includes four enzymes, DPP4, DPP8, DPP9 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). DPP4 family inhibitors have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients, but their role in adipocyte formation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the DPP8/9 selective inhibitor 1G244 blocks adipogenesis in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F422A, while DPP4 and FAP inhibitors have no effect. In addition, knockdown of DPP8 or DPP9 significantly impairs adipocyte differentiation in preadipocytes. We further uncovered that blocking the expression or activities of DPP8 and DPP9 attenuates PPAR?2 induction during preadipocyte differentiation. Addition of PPAR? agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs), or ectopic expression of PPAR?2, is able to rescue the adipogenic defect caused by DPP8/9 inhibition in preadipocytes. These results indicate the importance of DPP8 and DPP9 on adipogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adipocyte renewal from preadipocytes occurs throughout the lifetime and contributes to obesity. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that control preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Prokineticin-2 is an angiogenic and anorexigenic hormone that activate two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticin-2 regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms (PKR2). The peripheral effect of prokineticin-2 on adipocytes/preadipocytes has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since adipocytes and preadipocytes express mainly prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1), here, we explored the role of PKR1 in adipose tissue expansion, generating PKR1-null (PKR1(-/-)) and adipocyte-specific (PKR1(ad-/-)) mutant mice, and using murine and human preadipocyte cell lines. Both PKR1(-/-) and PKR1(ad-/-) had excessive abdominal adipose tissue, but only PKR1(-/-) mice showed severe obesity and diabetes-like syndrome. PKR1(ad-/-)) mice had increased proliferating preadipocytes and newly formed adipocyte levels, leading to expansion of adipose tissue. Using PKR1-knockdown in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we show that PKR1 directly inhibits preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. These PKR1 cell autonomous actions appear targeted at preadipocyte cell cycle regulatory pathways, through reducing cyclin D, E, cdk2, c-Myc levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest PKR1 to be a crucial player in the preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data should facilitate studies of both the pathogenesis and therapy of obesity in humans.
Project description:Preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) is an EGF-repeat-containing transmembrane protein that inhibits adipogenesis. The extracellular domain of Pref-1 is cleaved by TNF-? converting enzyme to generate the biologically active soluble form of Pref-1. The role of Pref-1 in adipogenesis has been firmly established by in vitro and in vivo studies. Pref-1 activates ERK/MAPK and upregulates Sox9 expression to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Sox9 directly binds to the promoter regions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-? in order to suppress their promoter activities in preventing adipocyte differentiation. Here, we describe the function of Pref-1 in adipocyte differentiation and the recent findings on the mechanisms by which Pref-1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation.
Project description:Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta, S., Simon, M., Rey, A., Sibrac, D., Girard, A., Lafontan, M., Valet, P., and Saulnier-Blache, J. S. (2002) J. Lipid Res. 43, 904-910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase d-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A adipocyte-conditioned medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase, autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in a primary culture of mouse preadipocytes. Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX-expressing COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared with their lean siblings. In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies.
Project description:The preadipocyte differentiation biological process involves a cascade of transcriptional events that culminates in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. The differentiation cocktail [insulin (INS), dexamethasone (DEX) and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)] can induce preadipocyte differentiation in mammals, but it is insufficient for chicken (Gallus gallus) adipogenesis. Oleate can induce chicken preadipocyte differentiation, but these differentiated preadipocytes may not be fully functional. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether chicken preadipocytes can be induced to mature adipocytes by a novel induction method using differentiation cocktail supplemented with PPAR? agonist(s). Chicken preadipocytes cultured in cocktail supplemented with rosiglitazone or troglitazone resulted in a marked increase in lipid droplet accumulation (P<0.05), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity (P<0.05), mRNA expression level of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2; P<0.05), G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2; P<0.05) and lipolysis (P<0.05). In addition, supplementation of the cocktail with rosiglitazone promoted PPAR? mRNA expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, our data indicated that chicken preadipocytes can be induced to mature adipocytes using differentiation cocktail supplemented with rosiglitazone. The results of the present study provide a novel induction method for in vitro chicken preadipocyte differentiation.