Siah2-dependent concerted activity of HIF and FoxA2 regulates formation of neuroendocrine prostate tumors
ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma and NE differentiation (NED) of human prostate tumor are hallmarks of aggressive human prostate cancer. Here we reveal that HIF-1a cooperation with FoxA2, a transcription factor expressed in NE tissue, is required for determining NE phenotype. Reduced HIF-1a expression, as seen in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 mutant mice, converted NE tumors to atypical hyperplasia when crossed with the TRAMPTg mice. Significantly, HIF-1a cooperation with FoxA2 enables the trans-activation of select HRE-regulated genes such as Hes6, Plod2 and Jmjd1a, whose expression is notably higher in metastatic prostate adenocarcinomas. Our findings disclose the requirement for spatial and timely regulation of FoxA2 and HIF-1a for NE/NED in prostate tumors. Overall design: 12 prostate tumor samples were analyzed during normoxia and hypoxia, with different FOX/HIF genotypes. The pivotal samples are represented as duplicates.
Project description:Neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma and NE differentiation (NED) of human prostate tumor are hallmarks of aggressive human prostate cancer. Here we reveal that HIF-1a cooperation with FoxA2, a transcription factor expressed in NE tissue, is required for determining NE phenotype. Reduced HIF-1a expression, as seen in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 mutant mice, converted NE tumors to atypical hyperplasia when crossed with the TRAMPTg mice. Significantly, HIF-1a cooperation with FoxA2 enables the trans-activation of select HRE-regulated genes such as Hes6, Plod2 and Jmjd1a, whose expression is notably higher in metastatic prostate adenocarcinomas. Our findings disclose the requirement for spatial and timely regulation of FoxA2 and HIF-1a for NE/NED in prostate tumors. 12 prostate tumor samples were analyzed during normoxia and hypoxia, with different FOX/HIF genotypes. The pivotal samples are represented as duplicates.
Project description:Analysis of gene expresssion altered upon knockdown of histone demethylase JMJD1A in human prostate cancer cells. The objective is to elucidate the transcriptional programs that are controlled by JMJD1A in human prostate cancer. CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells were transduced with lentiviral particles encoding control pLKO.1 or JMJD1A shRNA (shJMJD1A). After 48 h, total RNAs were collected for the microarray analysis to determine the differentially expressed genes between Rv1 pLKO.1 and Rv1 shJMJD1A samples.
Project description:Based on the results of numerous clinical and preclinical analyses, the transcription factor HIF-1a has been identified as an important tumor-promoting factor and is considered to be an attractive target for cancer therapy. To further deconstruct the molecular nature of HIF-1a’s role in tumorigenesis, we have applied lentiviral shRNA transduction to establish HIF-1a-deficient gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, functional analyses failed to show a significant growth defect of HIF-1a-deficient gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These observations led us to propose that stable inactivation of HIF-1a resulted in efficient compensation enabling cell growth and, ultimately, tumor progression in a HIF-1a-independent manner. To better understand the mechanisms that control this compensation, we performed transcriptomics of control (“scrambled” (SCR)) and HIF-1a-deficient (HIF) gastric cancer cells. Analysis of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a)-deficient gastric cancer cells under normoxia. The transcription factor HIF-1a is a key regulator of oxygen homeostasis and has been identified as an important tumor-promoting factor. Results provide insight into the role of HIF-1a in gastric carcinogenesis. Overall design: Gastric cancer AGS cells were lentiviral and stably transduced with a small hairpin RNA targeting human HIF-1a or a control shRNA. RNA was extracted from control and HIF-1a-deficient cells. Each cell line was analyzed in triplicate for a total of six samples.
Project description:Transcription mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) contributes to tumor angiogenesis and metastasis but is also involved in the activation of cell-death pathways and normal physiological processes. Given the complexity of HIF-1 signaling it could be advantageous to target a subset of HIF-1 effectors rather than the entire pathway. We compared the genome-wide effects of three molecules that each interfere with the HIF-1-DNA interaction: a polyamide targeted to the hypoxia response element (HRE), siRNA targeted to HIF-1α, and echinomycin, a DNA binding natural product with a similar but less specific sequence preference to the polyamide. The polyamide affects a subset of hypoxia-induced genes that are consistent with the binding site preferences of the polyamide. For comparison, siRNA targeted to HIF-1α and echinomycin each affect the expression of nearly every gene induced by hypoxia. Remarkably, the total number of genes affected by either polyamide or HIF-1α siRNA over a range of thresholds is comparable. The data shows how polyamides can be used to affect a subset of a pathway regulated by a transcription factor. In addition, this study offers a unique comparison of three complementary approaches towards exogenous control of endogenous gene expression. Keywords: Gene expression changes in cultured U251 cells after DFO-stimulation and various treatment conditions Overall design: Hypoxia-mimetic DFO (deferoxamine)-stimulated U251 cells that were treated with polyamide 1, HIF-1a siRNA, and echinomycin were compared to control cells that were also DFO-stimulated. Cells not stimulated with DFO were also compared to the DFO-stimulated controls. Three biological replicates were included for each treatment/condition.
Project description:HIF-1a activates genes under hypoxia and was hypothesized to regulate bone regeneration. Surprisingly, HET HIF-1a fracture calluses are larger, stronger and stiffer than WT HIF-1a calluses due to decreased apoptosis. These data identify apoptosis inhibition as a means to enhance bone regeneration. Introduction: Bone regeneration subsequent to fracture involves the synergistic activation of multiple signaling pathways. Localized hypoxia following fracture activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1a) leading to increased expression of HIF-1 target genes. We therefore hypothesized that HIF-1a is a key regulator of bone regeneration Materials and Methods: Fixed femoral fractures were generated in mice with partial HIF-1a deficiency (HET HIF-1a) and wild type littermates (WT HIF-1a). Fracture calluses and intact contralateral femurs from post fracture day (PFD) 21 and 28 (N=5-10) were subjected to MicroCT evaluation and 4-point bending in order to assess morphometric and mechanical properties. Molecular analyses were carried out on PFD 7, 10 and 14 samples (N=3) to determine differential gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Finally, TUNEL staining was performed on PFD 14 samples (N=2) to elucidate differential apoptosis. Results: Surprisingly, fracture calluses from HET HIF-1a mice exhibit greater mineralization and are larger, stronger and stiffer. Microarray analyses focused on hypoxia-induced genes revealed differential expression (between genotypes) of several genes associated with the apoptotic pathway. Real-time PCR confirmed these results, demonstrating higher expression of pro-apoptotic PP2A and lower expression of anti-apoptotic BCL2 in WT HIF-1a calluses. Subsequent TUNEL staining demonstrates that WT HIF-1a calluses contain larger numbers of TUNEL positive chondrocytes and osteoblasts than HET HIF-1a calluses. Conclusions: We conclude that partial HIF-1a deficiency results in decreased chondrocytic and osteoblastic apoptosis; thereby allowing the development of larger, stiffer calluses and enhancing bone regeneration. Furthermore, apoptosis inhibition may be a promising target for developing new treatments to accelerate bone regeneration. Keywords: Bone, Fracture, Apoptosis, Hypoxia, Microarray Overall design: Unilateral femoral fractures were induced in WT HIF-1a and HET HIF-1a mice. Total RNA from fracture calluses corresponding to post fracture day (PFD) 7, 10 and 14 was analyzed. Comparisons were made between genotypes at each time point. Focused microarrays for hypoxia-induced and angiogenesis related genes were utilized.
Project description:Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations predispose to renal cysts cancer. These cancers overexpress hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha (Hif-1a). We have generated a conditional Fh1 (mouse FH) knockout mice that develop renal cysts and overexpress Hif-1a. In order to identify the contribution of Hif-1a to cyst formation we have intercrossed our mice with conditional HIf-1a KO mice. We intercrossed Fh1/Hif1a mice with kidney specific cre recombinase (Ksp-Cre) and analysed kidney cyst formation. RNA was extracted from cysts from 4xFh1 KO, 4xFh1/Hif-1a KO and 4 control mice. For each comparison littermates were used and the animals were aged 15 weeks i.e. early cystic disease.
Project description:Recently, hypoxia via the transcription factor HIF-1a has been implicated to play an important role for the fate of the adaptive immune response by regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper 17 cells (TH17) in the mouse model. However, the reports on the effect of HIF-1a are conflicting and so far no functional data in the human system are available. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of hypoxia and HIF-1a on Treg and TH17 in the human system. FACS, western blot and reporter assays clearly demonstrated that hypoxia does not up-regulate the level of HIF-1a in CD4+ T cells (THC) and microarray analysis revealed no change of the transcriptome comparing normoxia vs. hypoxia. Furthermore, we could show that HIF-1a is almost exclusively regulated via NF-kB and NFAT, whereas hydroxylation and subsequent degradation of HIF-1a had little to no effect. In addition, we showed that HIF-1a is essential for nTreg mediated suppression and for IL-17A secretion of TH17, but not for TH17 lineage commitment measured by RORγt expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that THC have a distinct regulation of HIF-1a protein levels, which was absolutely essential for Treg and TH17 function. 3 patients, 2 cell type, 2 treatments = 12 arrays
Project description:Mitochondria fulfill vital metabolic functions and act as crucial cellular signaling hubs integrating their metabolic status into the cellular context. Here, we show that defective cardiolipin-remodeling, upon loss of the cardiolipin acyl transferase Tafazzin, mutes HIF-1a signaling in hypoxia. Tafazzin-deficiency does not affect posttranslational HIF-1a regulation but rather HIF-1a gene-expression, a dysfunction recapitulated in iPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes from Barth Syndrome patients with Tafazzin-deficiency. RNAseq analyses confirmed drastically altered signaling in Tafazzin mutant cells. In hypoxia, Tafazzin-deficient cells display reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) perturbing NF-kB activation and concomitantly HIF-1a gene-expression. In agreement, Tafazzin-deficient mice hearts display reduced HIF-1a levels and undergo maladaptive hypertrophy with heart failure in response to pressure overload challenge. We conclude that defective mitochondrial cardiolipin-remodeling dampens HIF-1a signaling through inactivation of a non-canonical signaling pathway: Lack of NF-kB activation through reduced mitochondrial ROS production diminishes HIF-1a transcription. Overall design: Cells lacking tafazzin were subjected to hypoxia and compared to the ones at normoxia or isogenic WT cells either at hypoxia or nomoxia
Project description:General activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways is classically associated with adverse prognosis in cancer and has been proposed to contribute to oncogenic drive. In clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC) HIF pathways are upregulated by inactivation of the von-Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor. However HIF-1a and HIF-2a have contrasting effects on experimental tumour progression. To better understand this paradox we examined pan-genomic patterns of HIF DNA binding and associated gene expression in response to manipulation of HIF-1a and HIF-2a and related the findings to CCRC prognosis. Our findings reveal distinct pan-genomic organization of HIF isoform-specific DNA binding at thousands of sites. Overall associations were observed between HIF-1a-specific binding, and genes associated with favourable prognosis and between HIF-2a-specific binding and adverse prognosis. However within each isoform-specific set, individual gene associations were heterogeneous in sign and magnitude, suggesting that activation of each HIF-a isoform contributes a highly complex mix of pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects ChIP and RNASeq of HIF-1a and HIF-2a transfection in 786-O cell lines
Project description:To investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms for the regulatory role of HIF-1α in colon, microarray gene expression analysis was performed on colon RNA isolated from 6- to 8-week-old Hif-1α+/+, Hif-1αLSL/LSL mice. Background & Aims: The progression and growth of solid tumors leads to a state where tumors outgrow their capacity for efficient oxygenation and nutrient uptake and an increase in tumor hypoxia. Tumor hypoxic response is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a and HIF-2a. These transcription factors regulate a battery of genes that are critical for tumor oxygenation, tumor metabolism, and cell proliferation and survival. Therefore, inhibitors of HIF have been sought for as anti-neoplastic agents in several different kinds of cancers. Interestingly, in ischemic and inflammatory diseases of the intestine, activation of HIF-1a is beneficial, and can reduce intestinal inflammation. The efficacy of pharmacological agents that chronically activate HIF-1a are decreased due to the tumorigenic potential of HIF. However, recent advance in understanding HIF signaling have identified mechanisms, which could allow for isoform specific activators. Activation of HIF-2a increases colon carcinogenesis and progression in mouse models. However, the role of chronic HIF-1a activation is unclear in the progression in colon cancer. The present data demonstrates that activation of HIF-1a in epithelial cells does not increase colon carcinogens or progression in two mouse models of colon cancer, and provides the proof of principle that HIF-1a activation maybe safe as therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Global gene expression profiling in colon RNAs isolated from 6- to 8-week-old Hif-1α+/+ (n=5, Shah 019) and Hif-1αLSL/LSL (n=5, Shah 020).