Lipid Metabolism (LiMe) genes and the genesis of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer [RNA-seq]
ABSTRACT: MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were exposed to fatty acids to determine if lipids engender changes in gene expression associated with malignant transformation. Overall design: MCF-12A breast epithelial cells were exposed to vehicle (PBS) or octanoic acid (OA) for 24 hours.
Project description:MCF-10A breast epithelial cells were exposed to fatty acids to determine if lipids engender changes in gene expression associated with malignant transformation. Overall design: MCF-10A breast epithelial cells were exposed to vehicle (BSA) or Linoleic acid (LA) for 24 hours.
Project description:The cytotoxicity of 27 benzanilides and dithiobenzanilides built on a stilbene scaffold and possessing various functional groups in aromatic rings previously described for their spasmolytic properties was assayed on three human cancer cell lines (A549 -lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast adenocarcinoma and MDA-MB-231 estrogen independent breast adenocarcinoma) and 2 non-tumorigenic cell lines (CCD39Lu-lung fibroblasts, MCF-12A - breast epithelial). Three compounds (6, 15 and 18) showed selective antiproliferative activity against estrogen dependent MCF-7 cancer cells and their estrogenic activity was further confirmed in MCF-7 transfected with an estrogen receptor reporter plasmid and in HEK239 cells over-expressing the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). Compound 18 is especially interesting as a potential candidate for therapy since it is highly toxic and selective towards estrogen dependent MCF7 cell lines (IC50 = 5.07 ?M versus more than 100 ?M for MDA-MB-231) and almost innocuous for normal breast cells (IC50 = 91.46 ?M for MCF-12A). Docking studies have shown that compound 18 interacts with the receptor in the same cavity as estradiol although the extra aromatic ring is involved in additional binding interactions with residue W383. The role of W383 and the extended binding mode were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.
Project description:Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), localized at the mitochondrial matrix, has the ability to protect cells against oxidative damage. It has been reported that low levels of Mn-SOD gene expression cause the development of certain kind of tumors. On the other hand, overexpression of Mn-SOD gene may play an important role in the development of cancer. In our study, we find that Mn-SOD activity was higher in nonaggressive (MCF-7) and aggressive (BT-549 and 11-9-14) breast cancer cell lines compared to that of nontumorigenic (MCF-12A and MCF-12F) mammary epithelial cell lines. We also observed an increased expression of Mn-SOD gene in cancerous cell lines. The elevated level of SOD activity in nonaggressive and aggressive breast epithelial cell lines was associated with some changes in nucleotide sequence.
Project description:To search for new targets of anticancer therapies using phytoestrogens we performed comparative metabolic profiling of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the non-tumorigenic breast cell line MCF-12A. Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed significant differences in the metabolic levels after exposure with 17ß-estradiol, genistein or a composition of phytoestrogens within a native root flax extract. We observed the metabolites 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-lactic acid, cis-aconitic acid, 11-beta-hydroxy-progesterone, chenodeoxycholic acid and triacontanoic acid with elevated levels due to estrogen action. Particularly highlighted were metabolites of the sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingosine and its dihydro derivate as well as ethanolaminephosphate were significantly altered after exposure with 1 nM 17ß-estradiol in the cell line MCF-7, while MCF-12A was not affected. Treatment with genistein and the flax extract normalized the sphingosine concentrations to the basic levels found in MCF-12A cells. We could further demonstrate that the expression levels of the sphingosine metabolizing enzymes: sphingosine-1-phosphate kinase (Sphk) and lyase (S1P lyase) were significantly influenced by estrogens as well as phytoestrogens. The isoform Sphk2 was overexpressed in the tumorigenic cell line MCF-7, while S1P lyase was predominantly expressed in the non-tumorigenic cell line MCF-12A. Importantly, in MCF-7 the weak S1P lyase expression could be significantly increased after exposure with 10 µM genistein and 1 µg/ml root flax extract. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of metabolic response of phytoestrogens to breast cancer cell lines. The contrasting regulation of sphingolipid enzymes in MCF-7 and MCF-12A render them as preferred targets for future anticancer strategies.
Project description:A novel series of hybrid analogues of monastrol-1,3,5-triazine were designed and developed via one-pot synthesis using Bi(NO3)3 as a catalyst. Entire compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF 12A (normal epithelial breast cell line) using MTT assay, where they showed highest inhibitory activity against MCF-7. The molecules were also found to be non-toxic to MCF 12A cells. These molecules showed considerable inhibitory percentage against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK), in in-vitro assay. Molecular docking study was carried out on the analogs and reference compound (Erlotinib) into the ATP binding site of EGFR-TK domain (PDB ID:1M17) to elucidate vital structural residues necessary for bioactivity. The effect of most active compound 7l was also estimated in-vivo in DMBA induced mammary tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of anti-breast cancer effect of 7l was quantified on the basis of tumour incidence, body weight and tumor volume in DMBA-induced rats. Its effect on biochemical parameters, such as antioxidant status (SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH) and lipid peroxidation was also studied. The compound 7l showed inhibition of EGFR downstream signalling in the western blot analysis.
Project description:Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that both active and involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke increase the risk of breast cancer. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms by which continuous, long term exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to breast carcinogenesis because most previous studies have focused on short term treatment models. In this work we have set out to investigate the progressive transforming effects of tobacco smoke on non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells using in vitro and in vivo models of chronic cigarette smoke exposure.We show that both non-tumorigenic (MCF 10A, MCF-12A) and tumorigenic (MCF7) breast epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke acquire mesenchymal properties such as fibroblastoid morphology, increased anchorage-independent growth, and increased motility and invasiveness. Moreover, transplantation experiments in mice demonstrate that treatment with cigarette smoke extract renders MCF 10A cells more capable to survive and colonize the mammary ducts and MCF7 cells more prone to metastasize from a subcutaneous injection site, independent of cigarette smoke effects on the host and stromal environment. The extent of transformation and the resulting phenotype thus appear to be associated with the differentiation state of the cells at the time of exposure. Analysis by flow cytometry showed that treatment with CSE leads to the emergence of a CD44(hi)/CD24(low) population in MCF 10A cells and of CD44+ and CD49f + MCF7 cells, indicating that cigarette smoke causes the emergence of cell populations bearing markers of self-renewing stem-like cells. The phenotypical alterations induced by cigarette smoke are accompanied by numerous changes in gene expression that are associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis.Our results indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke leads to a more aggressive and transformed phenotype in human mammary epithelial cells and that the differentiation state of the cell at the time of exposure may be an important determinant in the phenotype of the final transformed state.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Research involving antimitotic compounds identified 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), as a promising anticancer endogenous metabolite. Owing to its low bioavailability, several in silico-designed 2ME2 analogues were synthesized. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that an already existing 17-?-estradiol analogue, namely (8R,13S,14S,17S)-2-ethyl-13-methyl-7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-decahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrane-3,17-diyl bis(sulphamate) (EMBS) to exert potential in vitro anticancer activity. METHODS:This study investigated the in vitro apoptotic influence of EMBS in an estrogen receptor-positive breast adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (MCF-7); an estrogen receptor-negative breast epithelial cell line (MDA-MB-231) and a non-tumorigenic breast cell line (MCF-12A). Cell cycle progression, a phosphatidylserine flip, caspase 6-, 7- and 8 enzyme activity levels, Bcl-2 phosphorylation status at serine 70 and Bcl-2- and p53 protein levels were investigated to identify a possible action mechanism for apoptotic induction. RESULTS:The xCELLigence real-time label-independent approach revealed that EMBS exerted antiproliferative activity in all three cell lines after 24 h of exposure. A G2M block was observed and apoptosis induction was verified by means of flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Annexin V-FITC respectively. EMBS-treated cells demonstrated a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. EMBS exposure resulted in a statistically significant increase in p53 protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 protein expression and a decrease in pBcl-2(s70) phosphorylation status in all three cell lines. Results support the notion that EMBS induces apoptosis in all three cell lines. CONCLUSION:This study includes investigation into the apoptotic hallmarks exerted by EMBS after exposure of three cell lines namely MCF-7-, MDA-MDA-231- and MCF-12A cells. Increased caspase 6-, caspase 7- and caspase 8 activities, upregulation of p53 protein expression and a decrease in phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 at serine 70 in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic lines were demonstrated.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Estrogens regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. Although the intracellular mechanisms of estrogens in the breast are largely understood, little is known about how they induce changes in the structure of the mammary epithelium, which are characteristic of breast cancer. In vitro three dimensional (3D) cultures of immortalised breast epithelial cells recapitulate features of the breast epithelium in vivo, including formation of growth arrested acini with hollow lumen and basement membrane. This model can also reproduce features of malignant transformation and breast cancer, such as increased cellular proliferation and filling of the lumen. However, a system where a connection between estrogen receptor (ER) activation and disruption of acini formation can be studied to elucidate the role of estrogens is still missing. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We describe an in vitro 3D model for breast glandular structure development, using breast epithelial MCF-12A cells cultured in a reconstituted basement membrane matrix. These cells are estrogen receptor (ER)?, ER? and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) competent, allowing the investigation of the effects of estrogens on mammary gland formation and disruption. Under normal conditions, MCF-12A cells formed organised acini, with deposition of basement membrane and hollow lumen. However, treatment with 17?-estradiol, and the exogenous estrogens bisphenol A and propylparaben resulted in deformed acini and filling of the acinar lumen. When these chemicals were combined with ER and GPER inhibitors (ICI 182,780 and G-15, respectively), the deformed acini recovered normal features, such as a spheroid shape, proliferative arrest and luminal clearing, suggesting a role for the ER and GPER in the estrogenic disruption of acinar formation. CONCLUSION:This new model offers the opportunity to better understand the role of the ER and GPER in the morphogenesis of breast glandular structure as well as the events implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression.
Project description:Many cells are cultured in media that contains an antibiotic to prevent bacterial contamination. Mycoplasma and other bacterial contamination is a serious problem for those involved in cell culture. Antibiotics in the media helps prevent this contamination and make life easier for the investigators; as performing cell culture experiments in antibiotic free media is difficult and requires vigorous sterile technique. There are many reports of antibiotics causing mitochondrial damage. In this study, we tested the effect of gentamicin in culture media on human mammary epithelial MCF-12A and breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines by real time PCR, immunofluorescent microscopy, lactate assay, DNA damage assay. We found that the addition of gentamicin in media upregulated the gene expression of hypoxia inducer factor 1 alpha (HIF1a), glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters, compared to the cells cultured in gentamicin free media. Gentamicin also increased the lactate production and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential of the cell lines. Furthermore, the antibiotics in media induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species causing DNA damage. We found an increase of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine a product of DNA oxidative damage in the media of MCF-12A, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. These results showed that normal epithelial and breast cancer cells cultured in the media with gentamicin had increased HIF1a, aerobic glycolysis and DNA oxidative damage. If we use these unhealthy cells in the experiment, all data will be different, compared to cells grown in gentamicin free media. We have studied the detrimental effects of three antibiotics on mitochondrial function in the untransformed MCF-12A human mammary cell line and two human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MB-MDA-231. The metabolic changes in all cell lines were dramatically different between those in antibiotic free media versus antibiotic containing media. There was a marked difference in gene expression of glycolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species production and effects on membrane potential. Ironically, our first studies were done in media containing gentamicin, and repeated studies were done in gentamicin free media. The results were very different. The purpose of this report is to emphasize that metabolic cell culture data may be inaccurate because experiments were performed in cell culture media containing antibiotics. We will present evidence to support this theory.
Project description:Alcoholism is associated with breast cancer incidence and progression, and moderate chronic consumption of ethanol is a risk factor. The mechanisms involved in alcohol's oncogenic effects are unknown, but it has been speculated that they may be mediated by acetaldehyde. We used the immortalized normal human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A to determine whether short- or long-term exposure to ethanol or to acetaldehyde, using in vivo compatible ethanol concentrations, induces their oncogenic transformation and/or the acquisition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cultures of MCF-12A cells were incubated with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 week, or with lower concentrations (1.0-2.5 mM for ethanol, 1.0 mM for acetaldehyde) for 4 weeks. In the 4-week incubation, cells were also tested for anchorage-independence, including isolation of soft agar selected cells (SASC) from the 2.5 mM ethanol incubations. Cells were analyzed by immunocytofluorescence, flow cytometry, western blotting, DNA microarrays, RT/PCR, and assays for miRs. We found that short-term exposure to ethanol, but not, in general, to acetaldehyde, was associated with transcriptional upregulation of the metallothionein family genes, alcohol metabolism genes, and genes suggesting the initiation of EMT, but without related phenotypic changes. Long-term exposure to the lower concentrations of ethanol or acetaldehyde induced frank EMT changes in the monolayer cultures and in SASC as demonstrated by changes in cellular phenotype, mRNA expression, and microRNA expression. This suggests that low concentrations of ethanol, with little or no mediation by acetaldehyde, induce EMT and some traits of oncogenic transformation such as anchorage-independence in normal breast epithelial cells.