The transcriptome of paired major and minor salivary gland tissue in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome
ABSTRACT: While all salivary glands (SGs) can be involved in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), their respective role in pathogenesis remains unclear. To assess immunopathway activation in paired parotid and labial gland tissue from biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients, paraffin-embedded, paired parotid and labial salivary gland tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 39 pSS and 20 non-SS sicca patients. The patients were subdivided based on fulfillment of ACR-EULAR criteria and histopathology and the samples were analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The principal component analysis of SG gene expression could only separate biopsy-positive pSS from non-SS sicca patients. However, when comparing the transcriptome of biopsy-positive pSS and biopsy-negative non-SS sicca patients, 1235 and 624 DEGs (FDR<-1 or >1) were identified for parotid and labial glands, respectively. The number of DEGs between biopsy negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients was scarce. The overall, transcript expression levels correlated strongly between parotid and labial glands (R2=0.86, p‐value<0.0001). Gene signatures present in both glands of biopsy‐positive pSS patients included IFN‐α signaling, IL-12/IL-18 signaling, CD3/CD28 T-cell activation, CD40 signaling in B-cells, DN2 B-cells, and FcRL4+ B-cells. Signature scores varied considerably amongst pSS patients. In conclusion, the transcriptomes of paired major and minor SGs in pSS were overall comparable, although significant inter-individual heterogeneity in immunopathway activation existed. The SG transcriptome of biopsy-negative pSS was indistinguishable from non-SS sicca patients. The different patterns of SG immunopathway activation in pSS argue for personalized treatment approaches. Overall design: Differential expression analysis of a cohort of 39 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome and 20 non-SS sicca patients. characteristics: ACR EULAR = positive -> patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome characteristics: ACR EULAR = negative -> non-SS sicca patients
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>While all salivary glands (SGs) can be involved in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), their respective role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Our objective was to assess immunopathway activation in paired parotid and labial gland tissue from biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Paraffin-embedded, paired parotid and labial salivary gland tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 39 pSS and 20 non-SS sicca patients. RNA was extracted, complementary DNA libraries were prepared and sequenced. For analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), patients were subdivided based on fulfillment of ACR-EULAR criteria and histopathology.<h4>Results</h4>With principal component analysis, only biopsy-positive pSS could be separated from non-SS sicca patients based on SG gene expression. When comparing the transcriptome of biopsy-positive pSS and biopsy-negative non-SS sicca patients, 1235 and 624 DEGs (FDR<0.05, log2FC<-1 or >1) were identified for parotid and labial glands, respectively. The number of DEGs between biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients was scarce. Overall, transcript expression levels correlated strongly between parotid and labial glands (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.86, p-value<0.0001). Gene signatures present in both glands of biopsy-positive pSS patients included IFN-α signaling, IL-12/IL-18 signaling, CD3/CD28 T-cell activation, CD40 signaling in B-cells, DN2 B-cells, and FcRL4+ B-cells. Signature scores varied considerably amongst pSS patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Transcriptomes of paired major and minor SGs in pSS were overall comparable, although significant inter-individual heterogeneity in immunopathway activation existed. The SG transcriptome of biopsy-negative pSS was indistinguishable from non-SS sicca patients. Different patterns of SG immunopathway activation in pSS argue for personalized treatment approaches.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Salivary gland (SG) progenitor cells (SGPCs) maintain SG homeostasis. We have previously shown that in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), SGPCs are likely to be senescent, and may underpin SG dysfunction. This study assessed the extent of senescence of cells in a SGPC niche in pSS patients' SGs, and its correlation with functional and clinical parameters. METHODS:The expression of p16 and p21 as markers of senescence in both total SG epithelium and a SGPC niche (basal striated duct cells, BSD) was examined in SGs of pSS (n?=?35), incomplete pSS (n?=?13) (patients with some signs of pSS, but not fulfilling all classification criteria) and non-SS sicca control (n?=?21) patients. This was correlated with functional and clinical parameters. RESULTS:pSS patient SGs contained significantly more p16+ cells both in the epithelium in general (P <0.01) and in the BSD layer (P <0.001), than non-SS SGs. Significant correlations were found in pSS patients between p16+ BSD cells and secretion of unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid saliva, CD45+ infiltrate, ultrasound total score and ACR-EULAR classification score, but not with EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) and EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) scores. Correlations with total epithelium p16+ cells were weaker. Incomplete pSS patients also had increased numbers of p16+ epithelial and BSD cells. Based on protein and mRNA expression, p21+ appears not to play a significant role in the SG in pSS. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest SGPC senescence may be an early feature of primary Sjögren's syndrome and may contribute to defective SG function in pSS but not to systemic disease activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether the addition of salivary gland ultrasonography (SGUS) or replacement of current criteria items by SGUS influences the performance of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome. METHODS:Included were consecutive patients with complete data on all ACR/EULAR items (n = 243) who underwent SGUS in our primary Sjögren's syndrome expertise center. Clinical diagnosis by the treating physician was used as the gold standard. Separate analyses were performed for patients who underwent labial or parotid gland biopsies. The average score for hypoechogenic areas in 1 parotid and 1 submandibular gland was determined (range 0-3). Next, performance of the ACR/EULAR criteria was evaluated after addition of SGUS or replacement of current items by SGUS. RESULTS:Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an optimal cutoff value of ?1.5 for SGUS. The optimal weight for SGUS positivity was 1. Cutoff for ACR/EULAR fulfilment remained ?4. In patients who underwent a labial gland biopsy (n = 124), the original criteria showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.965, sensitivity of 95.9%, and specificity of 92.2%. After the addition of SGUS, the AUC was 0.966, with a sensitivity of 97.3% and specificity of 90.2%. In patients who underwent a parotid gland biopsy (n = 198), similar results were found. Sensitivity of the criteria decreased substantially when SGUS replaced salivary gland biopsy or anti-SSA antibodies, while performance remained equal when SGUS replaced the ocular staining score, Schirmer's test, or unstimulated whole saliva flow. CONCLUSION:Validity of the ACR/EULAR criteria remains high after incorporation of SGUS. With SGUS, clinicians are offered a larger array of tests to evaluate fulfillment of the ACR/EULAR criteria.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Determine the presence and assess the extent of fatty infiltration of the minor salivary glands (SG) of primary SS patients (pSS) as compared to those with non-SS sicca (nSS). METHODS:Minor SG biopsy samples from 134 subjects with pSS (n?=?72) or nSS (n?=?62) were imaged. Total area and fatty replacement area for each glandular cross-section (n?=?4-6 cross-sections per subject) were measured using Image J (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). The observer was blinded to subject classification status. The average area of fatty infiltration calculated per subject was evaluated by logistic regression and general linearized models (GLM) to assess relationships between fatty infiltration and clinical exam results, extent of fibrosis and age. RESULTS:The average area of fatty infiltration for subjects with pSS (median% (range) 4.97 (0.05-30.2)) was not significantly different from that of those with nSS (3.75 (0.087-41.9). Infiltration severity varied widely, and subjects with fatty replacement greater than 6% were equivalently distributed between pSS and nSS participants (?2 p?=?.50). Age accounted for all apparent relationships between fatty infiltration and fibrosis or reduced saliva flow. The all-inclusive GLM for prediction of pSS versus non-SS classification including fibrosis, age, fatty replacement, and focus score was not significantly different from any desaturated model. In no iteration of the model did fatty replacement exert a significant effect on the capacity to predict pSS classification. CONCLUSIONS:Fatty infiltration is an age-associated phenomenon and not a selective feature of Sjögren's syndrome. Sicca patients who do not fulfil pSS criteria have similar rates of fatty infiltration of the minor SG.
Project description:Major salivary gland ultrasonography (SGUS) is increasingly being recognized as having critical roles in differentiating primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) from other connective tissue disorders. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) has been reported to evaluate microvascularity of lesions in different tissues with objective angiographic index, eliminating the observer-dependent defect of ultrasonography. However, there are few relevant studies concentrating on the application of CEUS in the diagnosis and assessment for pSS, and their clinical utility prospect remains uncertain. In this study, a total of 227 eligible patients were enrolled, including 161 pSS and 66 non-pSS patients with comprehensive ultrasonographic evaluation of the parotid and submandibular glands, including grayscale ultrasonography, color Doppler sonography (CDS), and CEUS. Compared with non-pSS, pSS patients had significantly higher grayscale ultrasound (US) scores and CDS blood grades in the parotid gland and significantly higher grayscale US and CEUS scores in the submandibular glands. Diagnostic model combining ultrasonographic signatures, anti-SSA/Ro60, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) tests showed a remarkable discrimination [mean area under the curve (AUC)0.963 in submandibular glands and 0.934 in parotid glands] for pSS, and the nomogram provided excellent prediction accuracy and good calibration in individualized prediction of pSS. A combination of multiple ultrasonographical examinations of the major salivary glands (SGs) is a promising technique that may be used as a practical alternative to minor SG biopsy in the detection of pSS.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the changes over time in salivary gland (SG) abnormalities by ultrasound (US) in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Patients with pSS (n = 70) and idiopathic sicca syndrome (n = 18) underwent baseline salivary gland ultrasound (SGUS) scans, and follow-up scans two years later. The semi-quantitative SGUS score (0-48) and intraglandular power Doppler signal (PDS) were assessed. We found that in the pSS group, the SGUS scores for total SGs and bilateral parotid glands significantly increased after the median 23.4-months follow-up. SGUS scores either worsened, improved, or were stable in 18.6%, 2.9%, and 78.6% of patients with pSS, respectively. The median changes from baseline in SGUS scores for total and parotid glands were +1.0 and +0.5, respectively. None of the SGUS scores changed significantly in the controls. The variables of homogeneity and hypoechoic showed a statistically significant progression of SGUS scores. In pSS patients, the baseline and follow-up PDS scores were significantly higher in the "worsening" group than in the "no change/improvement" group. Overall, the structural abnormalities in major SGs assessed using SGUS remained stable in patients with pSS. At the 2-year follow-up, SGUS scores worsened in 18.6% of patients with pSS. Intra-glandular hypervascularity was associated with the worsening of SG abnormalities.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To elucidate the clinical values of anti-M3R in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in the largest cohort for an anti-M3R study.<h4>Methods</h4>The plasma of 361 subjects (156 primary SS [pSS], 62 non-SS-sicca [SICCA], 40 systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 50 rheumatoid arthritis [RA], and 53 healthy controls [HC]) was screened using our modified On-Cell-Western assay. Saliva from pSS (n=37) compared to SICCA (n=26) was also analysed. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-M3R and its association with comprehensive clinical and laboratory features were determined.<h4>Results</h4>Plasma-anti-M3R was higher in pSS compared to other groups, differentiating pSS with good-to-excellent diagnostic power with a specificity of 85% and a sensitivity between 75% and 98%. pSS plasma-anti-M3R was positively correlated with ocular staining scores, anti-Ro/SSA, IgG, β2-microglobulin, ESR, and ESSDAI. It was negatively correlated with WBC, C4, and salivary scintigraphic indices. Saliva-anti-M3R was 3.59 times higher in pSS than in SICCA. Interestingly, the agreement between the 2002 American European Consensus Group criteria and the criteria substituted with plasma-anti-M3R for the lip biopsy reached 92%, with a significant kappa of 0.824.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Anti-M3R enhances sensitivity and specificity for SS diagnosis, correlating with ocular dryness and glandular hypofunction, and the haematological/biological domains of the ESSDAI. Our findings also highlight the clinical significance of anti-M3R in SS diagnosis, especially where clinical assessments, such as lip biopsy, sialometry, or ocular evaluation, by multi-disciplinary specialists are limited.
Project description:We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of combined use of salivary gland ultrasonography (US) and the 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatic Disease (ACR/EULAR) classification criteria for improving the diagnostic efficiency in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A US-based salivary gland disease grading system was developed using a cohort comprising 213 SS or non-SS patients who fulfilled the minimum requirements for classifying SS based on the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) and ACR criteria. Using 62 SS or non-SS patients from the 213 patients and who had also undergone all the 5 examinations needed for the ACR/EULAR classification, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of various combinations of the ACR/EULAR and US classifications for diagnosing SS, using the clinical diagnosis of SS by rheumatologists as the gold standard. The ACR/EULAR criteria discriminated clinical SS patients with 77% and 79% accuracy for those with primary or secondary SS and for those with primary SS, respectively. However, the integrated score system of the ACR/EULAR and US classifications yielded 92% and 93% accuracy for these 2 SS patient groups, respectively, provided that US score of 3 was assigned to patients with US grade ?2, and then patients with integrated threshold score of ?5 were diagnosed as SS. Cross-validation also indicated improved accuracy of the integrated ACR/EULAR and US score system (91.9 and 93.0% for primary/secondary and primary SS patients, respectively) over that by the ACR/EULAR criteria alone. (74.2 and 86.0%, respectively). The integrated ACR/EULAR and US scoring system can improve the diagnosis of patients with clinical SS.
Project description:In primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells are present in inflamed salivary gland tissue, within or in close proximity to ductal epithelium. FcRL4 is also expressed by nearly all pSS-related mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B cell lymphomas, linking FcRL4 expression to lymphomagenesis. Whether glandular FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells are pathogenic, how these cells originate, and how they functionally differ from FcRL4<sup>-</sup> B cells in pSS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the phenotype and function of FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells in the periphery and parotid gland tissue of patients with pSS. First, circulating FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells from 44 pSS and 54 non-SS-sicca patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Additionally, RNA sequencing of FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells sorted from parotid gland cell suspensions of 6 pSS patients was performed. B cells were sorted from cell suspensions as mini bulk (5 cells/well) based on the following definitions: CD19<sup>+</sup>CD27<sup>-</sup>FcRL4<sup>-</sup> ('naive'), CD19<sup>+</sup>CD27<sup>+</sup>FcRL4<sup>-</sup> ('memory'), and CD19<sup>+</sup>FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells. We found that, although FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells were not enriched in blood in pSS compared with non-SS sicca patients, these cells generally exhibited a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Genes coding for CD11c (ITGAX), T-bet (TBX21), TACI (TNFRSF13B), Src tyrosine kinases and NF-κB pathway-related genes were, among others, significantly upregulated in glandular FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells versus FcRL4<sup>-</sup> B cells. Pathway analysis showed upregulation of B cell activation, cell cycle and metabolic pathways. Thus, FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells in pSS exhibit many characteristics of chronically activated, pro-inflammatory B cells and their gene expression profile suggests increased risk of lymphomagenesis. We postulate that these cells contribute significantly to the epithelial damage seen in the glandular tissue and that FcRL4<sup>+</sup> B cells are an important treatment target in pSS.
Project description:Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Here we use Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 microarray gene expression data from human parotid tissue. Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 17 pSS and 14 14 non-pSS sicca patients and 18 controls. The data were used in the following article: Nazmul-Hossain ANM, Pollard RPE, Kroese FGM, Vissink A, Kallenberg CGM, Spijkervet FKL, Bootsma H, Michie SA, Gorr SU, Peck AB, Cai C, Zhou H, Horvath S, Wong DTW (2012) Systems Analysis of Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome Pathogenesis in Salivary Glands: Comparative Pathways and Molecular Events in Humans and a Mouse Model. Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 17 pSS and 14 non-pSS sicca patients and 18 controls.