EGFR Isoforms and Gene Regulation in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells
ABSTRACT: Microarrays were used to analyze differential gene expression and to help determine the efficacy of Iressa (gefitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on endometrial cancer cells. Type I Ishikawa H and type II Hec50co endometrial carcinoma cells both express EGFR and sEGFR, but differ markedly in their responsiveness to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. This difference is paralleled by differences in the expression of sEGFR and EGFR, as well as in their transcriptional response following treatment with either EGFor gefitinib. The small cluster of differently regulated genes reported here in these type I vs. type II endometrial cancer-derived cell lines may identify candidate biomarkers useful for predicting sensitivity to EGFR blockade. Overall design: Type I (Ishikawa H cells) and type II (Hec50co) derived endometrial carcinomas, were dosed with either EGF(epidermal growth factor) or Iressa (gefitinib) for 12 or 24 hours and gene expression was examined.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) constitute a principal growth-promoting pathway in endometrial cancer cells. Pre-clinical studies were undertaken to compare the expression of EGFR isoforms and the downstream effects of activating or blocking EGFR function in Ishikawa H cells, derived from a moderately differentiated type I endometrioid adenocarcinoma, or in Hec50co cells, derived from a poorly differentiated type II adenocarcinoma with papillary serous sub-differentiation.We investigated whether EGFR mutations are present in the tyrosine kinase domain (exons 18-22) of EGFR and also whether EGFR isoforms are expressed in the Ishikawa H or Hec50co cell lines. Sequence of the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain proved to be wild type in both cell lines. While both cell lines expressed full-length EGFR (isoform A), EGFR and sEGFR (isoform D) were expressed at significantly lower levels in Hec50co cells compared to Ishikawa H cells. Analysis of gene expression following EGF vs. gefitinib treatment (a small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) was performed. Early growth response 1, sphingosine kinase 2, dual specificity phosphatase 6, and glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1 are members of a cluster of genes downstream of EGFR that are differentially regulated by treatment with EGF compared to gefitinib in Ishikawa H cells, but not in Hec50co cells.Type I Ishikawa H and type II Hec50co endometrial carcinoma cells both express EGFR and sEGFR, but differ markedly in their responsiveness to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. This difference is paralleled by differences in the expression of sEGFR and EGFR, as well as in their transcriptional response following treatment with either EGF or gefitinib. The small cluster of differently regulated genes reported here in these type I vs. type II endometrial cancer-derived cell lines may identify candidate biomarkers useful for predicting sensitivity to EGFR blockade.
Project description:Microarrays were used to analyze differential gene expression and to help determine the efficacy of Iressa (gefitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on endometrial cancer cells. Type I Ishikawa H and type II Hec50co endometrial carcinoma cells both express EGFR and sEGFR, but differ markedly in their responsiveness to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. This difference is paralleled by differences in the expression of sEGFR and EGFR, as well as in their transcriptional response following treatment with either EGFor gefitinib. The small cluster of differently regulated genes reported here in these type I vs. type II endometrial cancer-derived cell lines may identify candidate biomarkers useful for predicting sensitivity to EGFR blockade. Type I (Ishikawa H cells) and type II (Hec50co) derived endometrial carcinomas, were dosed with either EGF(epidermal growth factor) or Iressa (gefitinib) for 12 or 24 hours and gene expression was examined.
Project description:Endometrial tumors with non-functional p53, such as serous uterine endometrial carcinomas, are aggressive malignancies with a poor outcome, yet they have an Achilles' heel: due to loss of p53 function, these tumors may be sensitive to treatments which abrogate the G2/M checkpoint. Our objective was to exploit this weakness to induce mitotic cell death using two strategies: (1) EGFR inhibitor gefitinib combined with paclitaxel to arrest cells at mitosis, or (2) BI2536, an inhibitor of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), to block PLK1 activity.We examined the impact of combining gefitinib and paclitaxel or PLK1 inhibitor on expression of G2/M checkpoint controllers, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in endometrial cancer cells with mutant p53.In cells lacking normal p53 activity, each treatment activated CDC25C and inactivated Wee1, which in turn activated cdc2 and sent cells rapidly through the G2/M checkpoint and into mitosis. Live cell imaging demonstrated irreversible mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. Combinatorial therapy with paclitaxel and gefitinib was highly synergistic and resulted in a 10-fold reduction in the IC50 for paclitaxel, from 14nM as a single agent to 1.3nM in the presence of gefitinib. However, BI2536 alone at low concentrations (5nM) was the most effective treatment and resulted in massive mitotic cell death. In a xenograft mouse model with p53-deficient cells, low dose BI2536 significantly inhibited tumor growth.These findings reveal induction of mitotic cell death as a therapeutic strategy for endometrial tumors lacking functional p53.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dual inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with nimotuzumab (EGFR monoclonal antibody) plus gefitinib (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after platinum-based chemotherapy. An open label, randomized, phase II trial was conducted at 6 centers; 160 patients were randomized (1:1) to either gefitinib alone or nimotuzumab (200 mg, i.v. weekly) plus gefitinib (250 mg p.o. daily) until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 months. Of the total 160 enrolled patients, 155 (77: gefitinib, 78: nimotuzumab plus gefitinib) received at least one dose and could be evaluated for efficacy and toxicity. The majority had adenocarcinoma (65.2%) and ECOG performance status of 0 to 1 (83.5%). The median follow-up was 22.1 months, and the PFS rate at 3 months was 48.1% in gefitinib and 37.2% in nimotuzumab plus gefitinib (P = not significant, NS). The median PFS and OS were 2.8 and 13.2 months in gefitinib and 2.0 and 14.0 months in nimotuzumab plus gefitinib. Combined treatment was not associated with superior PFS to gefitinib alone in patients with EGFR mutation (13.5 vs. 10.2 months in gefitinib alone, P=NS) or those with wild-type EGFR (0.9 vs. 2.0 months in gefitinib alone, P=NS). Combined treatment did not increase EGFR inhibition-related adverse events with manageable toxicities. The dual inhibition of EGFR with nimotuzumab plus gefitinib was not associated with better outcomes than gefitinib alone as a second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC (NCT01498562).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The endometrial luminal epithelium is the first point of attachment of embryos during implantation. Failure of embryos to firmly adhere results in implantation failure and infertility. A receptive endometrial luminal epithelium is achieved through the expression of adhesion molecules in the mid-secretory phase and is a requirement for implantation. Cadherin 6 (CDH6) is an adhesion molecule localizing to the endometrial luminal epithelial cell surface in the mid-secretory/receptive phase and knockdown of CDH6 in the Ishikawa cells (receptive endometrial epithelial cell line) compromises cell integrity. However, there are no studies investigating the role of CDH6 on receptivity and infertility. This study aimed to investigate whether CDH6 is dysregulated in the endometrium of women with infertility during the receptive window and the effect of CDH6 on endometrial adhesion and receptivity. METHODS:The expression and the localization of CDH6 in the human endometrium were determined by immunohistochemistry. Ishikawa cells were used to investigate the functional consequences of CDH6 knockdown on endometrial adhesive capacity to HTR8/SVneo (trophoblast cell line) spheroids in vitro. CDH6 knockdown was assessed by qPCR and immunoblotting. After CDH6 knockdown, the expression of type II cadherin family members and CDH6 functional partners were assessed by qPCR. Two-tailed unpaired student's t-test or one-way ANOVA as appropriate were used for statistical analysis with a significance threshold of P?<?0.05. RESULTS:A significant reduction of CDH6 immunolocalization was recorded in the luminal and glandular epithelium of endometrium from women with infertility (P?<?0.05) compared to fertile group respective cellular compartments in the mid-secretory phase. Functional analysis using Ishikawa cells demonstrated that knockdown of CDH6 (treated with 50?nM CDH6 siRNA) significantly reduced epithelial adhesive capacity (P?<?0.05) to HTR8/SVneo spheroids compared to control and other type II cadherin family members likely failed to compensate for the loss of CDH6. The expression levels of CDH6 functional partners, catenin family members were not changed after CDH6 knockdown in Ishikawa cells. CONCLUSION:Together, our data revealed that CDH6 was dysregulated in the endometrium from women with infertility and altered Ishikawa cell adhesive capacity. Our study supports a role for CDH6 in regulating endometrial adhesion and implantation.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated the role of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. extract on embryo implantation in vitro and in vivo. A polysaccharides depleted-water extract of P. lactiflora (PL-PP) increased LIF expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells at non-cytotoxic doses. PL-PP significantly increased the adhesion of the human trophectoderm-derived JAr spheroids to endometrial Ishikawa cells. PL-PP-induced LIF expression was decreased in the presence of a p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 and an MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126. Furthermore, endometrial LIF knockdown by shRNA reduced the expression of integrins β3 and β5 and adhesion of JAr spheroids to Ishikawa cells. In vivo administration of PL-PP restored the implantation of mouse blastocysts in a mifepristone-induced implantation failure mice model. Our results demonstrate that PL-PP increases LIF expression via the p38 and MEK/ERK pathways and favors trophoblast adhesion to endometrial cells.
Project description:A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gefitinib in patients with persistent/recurrent endometrial cancer.Women with histologically confirmed persistent/recurrent endometrial cancer were treated with 500mg oral gefitinib daily until progression or severe toxicity, with progression-free survival (PFS) at six months as the primary endpoint. Tumor expression of total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor A (PRA) and B (PRB), Ki67, pEGFR and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) were examined pre- and post-treatment. EGFR was sequenced, and serum concentrations of soluble EGFR (sEGFR) at baseline also were examined.Of 29 patients enrolled, 26 were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Four patients experienced PFS ?6 months, and one had a complete response which was not associated with an EGFR mutation. The concentration of sEGFR in pretreatment serum was positively correlated with overall survival (OS), but not with responsiveness to gefitinib in this small patient cohort. Expression of tumor biomarkers was not associated with PFS or OS. Co-expression of ER with PRA in primary and recurrent tumors, and pEGFR with pERK in primary tumors was observed.This treatment regimen was tolerable but lacked sufficient efficacy to warrant further evaluation in this setting. The possible association between serum sEGFR concentrations and OS, and temporal changes in expression of pEGFR and pERK and the documented CR of one patient are interesting and warrant additional investigation.
Project description:Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often over-expressed in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), a phase II trial using an EGFR inhibitor gefitinib showed a low response rate. This study identified a new secondary resistance mechanism of gefitinib in STS, and developed new strategies to improve the effectiveness of EGFR inhibition particularly by blocking the STAT3 pathway.We demonstrated that seven STS cell lines of diverse histological origin showed resistance to gefitinib despite blockade of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) and downstream signal transducers (pAKT and pERK) in PI3K/AKT and RAS/ERK pathways. Gefitinib exposure was not associated with decrease in the ratio of pSTAT3/pSTAT1. The relative STAT3 abundance and activation may be responsible for the drug resistance. We therefore hypothesized that the addition of a STAT3 inhibitor could overcome the STAT3 escape pathway.We found that the addition of STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 to gefitinib achieved synergistic anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in all three STS cell lines examined. This was confirmed in a fibrosarcoma xenografted mouse model, where the tumours from the combination group (418mm3) were significantly smaller than those from untreated (1032mm3) or single drug (912 and 798mm3) groups.Our findings may have clinical implications for optimising EGFR-targeted therapy in STS.
Project description:STAT3 is over-expressed in endometrial cancer, and diabetes is a risk factor for the development of type 1 endometrial cancer. We therefore investigated whether glucose concentrations influence STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer, and whether such STAT3 expression might be inhibited by metformin.In Ishikawa (grade 1) endometrial cancer cells subjected to media with low, normal, or high concentrations of glucose, expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ishikawa cells were treated with metformin and assessed with cell proliferation, survival, migration, and ubiquitin assays, as well as Western blot and qPCR. Expression of apoptosis proteins was evaluated with Western blot in Ishikawa cells transfected with a STAT3 overexpression plasmid and treated with metformin. A xenograft tumor model was used for studying the in vivo efficacy of metformin.Expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was increased in Ishikawa cells cultured in high glucose media. In vitro, metformin inhibited cell proliferation, survival and migration but induced apoptosis. Metformin reduced expression levels of pSTAT3 ser727, total STAT3, and its associated cell survival and anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, metformin treatment was associated with increased degradation of pSTAT3 ser727. No change in apoptotic protein expression was noticed with STAT3 overexpression in Ishikawa cells. In vivo, metformin treatment led to a decrease in tumor weight as well as reductions of STAT3, pSTAT3 ser727, its target proteins.These results suggest that STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer is stimulated by a high glucose environment and inhibited by metformin.
Project description:Estrogens and tamoxifen (an antiestrogen) exert their actions by activation of estrogen receptor (ER) through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms and are implicated in the development of endometrial cancer. Previous reports have demonstrated that estradiol and tamoxifen induce proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells through GPR30 (non-genomic ER) signaling pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in cell migration induced by estradiol, tamoxifen and G1 (a GPR30 agonist) through the transmembrane ER (GPR30) in endometrial cancer cell lines with or without ER? (Ishikawa and RL95-2). Additionally, the GPR30-mediated cell migration was further abolished by administration of either specific RNA interference targeting GPR30 or an FAK inhibitor. Moreover, we have validated that the signaling between GPR30 and phosphorylated FAK is indeed mediated by the EGFR/PI3K/ERK pathway. Clinically, a significant correlation between levels of GPR30 and phophorylated FAK (pFAK) observed in human endometrial cancer tissues with low or without ER? further suggested that estrogen-induced phosphorylation of FAK and cell migration were most likely triggered by GPR30 activation. These results provided new insights for understanding the pathophysiological functions of GPR30 in human endometrial cancers.