Genome Sequences of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 (Revised) and NZ9000 and Comparative Physiological Studies
ABSTRACT: Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and its parent MG1363 are the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria for expression and physiological studies. We noted unexpected but significant differences in the growth behaviors of both strains. We sequenced the entire genomes of the original NZ9000 and MG1363 strains using an ultradeep sequencing strategy. The analysis of the L. lactis NZ9000 genome yielded 79 differences, mostly point mutations, with the annotated genome sequence of L. lactis MG1363. Resequencing of the MG1363 strain revealed that 73 out of the 79 differences were due to errors in the published sequence. Comparative transcriptomic studies revealed several differences in the regulation of genes involved in sugar fermentation, which can be explained by two specific mutations in a region of the ptcC promoter with a key role in the regulation of cellobiose and glucose uptake. Overall design: MG1363 versus NZ9000 in 2 different culture media
INSTRUMENT(S): University of Groningen Lactococcus lactis MG1363 amplicon 5K
Project description:Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and its parent MG1363 are the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria for expression and physiological studies. We noted unexpected but significant differences in the growth behaviors of both strains. We sequenced the entire genomes of the original NZ9000 and MG1363 strains using an ultradeep sequencing strategy. The analysis of the L. lactis NZ9000 genome yielded 79 differences, mostly point mutations, with the annotated genome sequence of L. lactis MG1363. Resequencing of the MG1363 strain revealed that 73 out of the 79 differences were due to errors in the published sequence. Comparative transcriptomic studies revealed several differences in the regulation of genes involved in sugar fermentation, which can be explained by two specific mutations in a region of the ptcC promoter with a key role in the regulation of cellobiose and glucose uptake. MG1363 versus NZ9000 in 2 different culture media
Project description:Transcriptomes of L. lactis MG1363ΔcelBΔptcCΔ0963 containing either an IS905 or a gfp integrated into llmg_1239 (pseudo_39) were compared to that of MG1363 with a Pcel (llmg_0186)up-mutation An integration of IS905 into a gene coding for a transcriptional repressor led to activation of the repressed gene cluster coding for a plant sugar utilization pathway. The strain is further characterized using DNA MicroArrays. Overall design: Cellobiose-positive derivatives of L. lactis MG1363ΔcelBΔptcCΔ0963 grown in M17-cel to mid-exponential phase. Two strains with either IS905 or gfp integration in llmg_1239 were compared to the original strain.
Project description:pBL1 is a Lactococcus lactis theta-replicating 10.9-kbp plasmid that encodes the synthetic machinery of the bacteriocin Lcn972. In this work, the transcriptomes of exponentially growing L. lactis with and without pBL1 were compared. A discrete response was observed with a total of ten genes showing significantly changed expression. Up-regulation of the lactococcal oligopeptide uptake system (opp) was observed, likely linked to a higher nitrogen demand required for Lcn972 biosynthesis. Striking, celB coding for the membrane porter IIC of the cellobiose-PTS and the upstream gene llmg0186 were down-regulated. Growth profiles for L. lactis strains MG1363, MG1363/pBL1 and MG1363ΔcelB grown in CDM-cellobiose confirmed slower growth of pBL1 and ΔcelB while no differences were scored on glucose. The presence of pBL1 shifted the fermentation products towards a mixed acid profile and promoted substantial changes in intracellular pool sizes for glycolytic intermediates in cellobiose-growing cells as determined by HPLC and NMR. Overall, these data support the genetic evidence of a constriction in cellobiose uptake. Notably, several cell wall precursors accumulated, while other UDP-activated sugars pools were lower, which could reflect rerouting of precursors towards the production of structural or storage polysaccharides. Moreover, slow cellobiose-growing cells and those lacking celB were more tolerant to Lcn972 than cellobiose adapted cells. Thus, down-regulation of celB could help to build-up a response against the antimicrobial activity of Lcn972 enhancing self-immunity of the producer cells. The transcriptomes of Lactococcus lactis MG1614 with and without the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pBL1, grown under laboratory conditions, were compared using three biological replicates.
Project description:L. lactis MG1363 was evolved in 4 fermentors in glucose-containing chemically defined medium (CDMPC) for 309 generations at a dilution rate of 0.5h-1 Glycerol stocks made during the evolution experiment were revived in CDMPC and further characterized. Glycerol stocks from generation 309 were revived in CDMPC and grown to mid-exponential phase. Strains from each of the 4 fermentors were compared to the original strain (Generation 0).
Project description:This study describes a transcriptome-phenotype matching approach in which the starter L. lactis MG1363 was fermented under a variety of conditions that differed in the levels of oxygen and/or salt, as well as the fermentation pH and temperature. Samples derived from these fermentations in the exponential phase of bacterial growth were analyzed by full-genome transcriptomics and the assessment of heat and oxidative stress phenotypes. Variations in the fermentation conditions resulted in up to 1000-fold differences in survival during heat and oxidative stress. More specifically, aeration during fermentation induced protection against heat stress, whereas a relatively high fermentation temperature resulted in enhanced robustness towards oxidative stress. Concomitantly, oxygen levels and fermentation temperature induced differential expression of markedly more genes when compared with the other fermentation parameters. Correlation analysis of robustness phenotypes and gene expression levels revealed transcriptome signatures for oxidative and/or heat stress survival, including the metC-cysK operon involved in methionine and cysteine metabolism. To validate this transcriptome-phenotype association we grew L. lactis MG1363 in the absence of cysteine which led to enhanced robustness towards oxidative stress. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrated the importance of careful selection of fermentation parameters prior to industrial processing of starter cultures. Furthermore, established stress genes as well as novel genes were associated with robustness towards heat and/or oxidative stress. Assessment of the expression levels of this group of genes could function as an indicator for enhanced selection of fermentation parameters resulting in improved robustness during spray drying. The increased robustness after growth without cysteine appeared to confirm the role of expression of the metC-cysK operon as an indicator of robustness and suggests that sulfur amino acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in oxidative stress survival. two connected loops, both containing samples derived on a single day (sample 1-6, sample 7-13)
Project description:In the present study we examine the changes in the expression of genes of Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris MG1363 during growth in milk. To reveal which specific classes of genes (pathways, operons, regulons, COGs) are important, we performed a transcriptome time series experiment. Global analysis of gene expression over time showed that L. lactis adapted quickly to the environmental changes. Using upstream sequences of genes with correlated gene expression profiles, we uncovered a substantial number of putative DNA binding motifs that may be relevant for L. lactis fermentative growth in milk. All available novel and literature-derived data were integrated into network reconstruction building blocks, which were used to reconstruct and visualize the L. lactis gene regulatory network. This network enables easy mining in the chrono-transcriptomics data. A freely available website at http://milkts.molgenrug.nl gives full access to all transcriptome data, to the reconstructed network and to the individual network building blocks. 12 time points
Project description:Background Array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used to determine the genomic content of bacterial strains. In aCGH data, systematic errors are comparable to those occurring in transcriptome data. However, especially for microbes, an additional source of variation exists: differences in hybridization due to gene sequence divergence between the strains hybridized. Current normalization methods do not take this source of variation into consideration. Results We present Supervised Lowess, or S-Lowess, an application of the subset Lowess normalization method that does take difference in genomic content into account. The performance of S-Lowess was assessed on aCGH experiments in which differentially labeled genomic DNA fragments of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 and L. lactis MG1363 strains were hybridized to IL1403 microarrays. Since both genome sequences are known (they have only on average 85 % sequence identity), the success rate in detecting deletions in the MG1363 genome of different aCGH normalization methods can be compared. S-Lowess detects 97% of the deletions, whereas other aCGH normalization methods detect up to only 60% of the deletions. Conclusions S-Lowess removes systematic errors from dual-dye aCGH data in two steps: (i) determination of likely homologous genes (LHG); and (ii) estimation of correction factors for systematic errors from spots of LHG and subset Lowess normalization of the remaining spots using these correction factors. It is implemented in a user-friendly web-tool accessible from http://bioinformatics.biol.rug.nl/websoftware/s-lowess. We demonstrate that it outperforms existing normalization methods and maximizes the number of detectable genomic deletions or duplications from microbial aCGH data. Keywords: comparative genome hybridisation In this study, 4 aCGH comparisons (slides) between L. lactis MG1363 and L. lactis IL1403 were performed (including dye swap with biological replicates; see also supplementary materials). The resulting aCGH slide signals were normalized using the different 'likely homologous gene' (LHG) sets (see above) yielding ratios of signals of labelled DNA of MG1363 over those of IL1403. A maximum of 8 ratios per amplicon (gene) were obtained for the 4 hybridized slides (each with 2 replicate spots per amplicon). Only genes with at least 5 measurements were used in this study. The normalization methods evaluated in this study are: a) no normalization, b) total signal normalization, c) grid-based Lowess (implemented in PreP; f = 0.7) [García de la Nava, J et al. 2003. Bioinformatics 19:2328-2329], and d) S-Lowess using different subsets of conserved lactococcal genes (for details see above). Results with the MANOR R package (spatial normalization; standard parameters) [Neuvial P, et al. 2006. BMC Bioinformatics 7:264; Liva S, et al. 2006. Nucleic Acids Res 34:W477-W481] are shown in our supplementary materials.