Chromatin marks and matched expression in the aging Drosophila genome
ABSTRACT: It consists of Chip-chip data for H3K4, PolII (4h8), H3K36, H3K9me3 and HP1 from 10 and 40 day old female Drosophila melanogaster (Canton S), as well as expression array data taken from the same time points. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Overall design: Refer to individual Series
Project description:ChIP-chip data for activation and repressive marks collected from 10 and 40 day old dmel heads Overall design: h3k4, RNA polymerase, h3k36, h3k9me3, and hp1 Ips and input in 10day and 40day old adult fly heads
Project description:The chromatin structure of eukaryotic telomeres plays an essential role in telomere functions. However, their study might be impaired by the presence of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), which have a widespread distribution in different model systems. We have developed a simple approach to study the chromatin structure of Arabidopsis telomeres independently of ITSs by analyzing ChIP-seq data. This approach could be used to study the chromatin structure of telomeres in some other eukaryotes. The analysis of ChIP-seq experiments revealed that Arabidopsis telomeres have higher density of histone H3 than centromeres, which might reflects their short nucleosomal organization. These experiments also revealed that Arabidopsis telomeres have lower levels of heterochromatic marks than centromeres (H3K9(Me2) and H3K27(Me)), higher levels of some euchromatic marks (H3K4(Me2) and H3K9Ac) and similar or lower levels of other euchromatic marks (H3K4(Me3), H3K36(Me2), H3K36(Me3) and H3K18Ac). Interestingly, the ChIP-seq experiments also revealed that Arabidopsis telomeres exhibit high levels of H3K27(Me3), a repressive mark that associates with many euchromatic genes. The epigenetic profile of Arabidopsis telomeres is closely related to the previously defined chromatin state 2. This chromatin state is found in 23% of Arabidopsis genes, many of which are repressed or lowly expressed. At least, in part, this scenario is similar in rice.
Project description:PRDM9 (PR domain-containing protein 9) is a meiosis-specific protein that trimethylates H3K4 and controls the activation of recombination hot spots. It is an essential enzyme in the progression of early meiotic prophase. Disruption of the PRDM9 gene results in sterility in mice. In human, several PRDM9 SNPs have been implicated in sterility as well. Here we report on kinetic studies of H3K4 methylation by PRDM9 in vitro indicating that PRDM9 is a highly active histone methyltransferase catalyzing mono-, di-, and trimethylation of the H3K4 mark. Screening for other potential histone marks, we identified H3K36 as a second histone residue that could also be mono-, di-, and trimethylated by PRDM9 as efficiently as H3K4. Overexpression of PRDM9 in HEK293 cells also resulted in a significant increase in trimethylated H3K36 and H3K4 further confirming our in vitro observations. Our findings indicate that PRDM9 may play critical roles through H3K36 trimethylation in cells.
Project description:Much of euchromatin regulation occurs through reversible methylation of histone H3 lysine-4 and lysine-36 (H3K4me and H3K36me). Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we previously found that levels of H3K4me modulated temperature sensitive alleles of the transcriptional elongation complex Spt6-Spn1 through an unknown H3K4me effector pathway. Here we identify the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex as the H3K4me effector underlying these Spt6-Spn1 genetic interactions. Exploiting these Spt6-Spn1 genetic interactions, we show that H3K4me and H3K36me collaboratively impact Rpd3S function in an opposing manner. H3K36me is deposited by the histone methyltransferase Set2 and is known to promote Rpd3S function at RNA PolII transcribed open reading frames. Using genetic epistasis experiments, we find that mutations perturbing the Set2-H3K36me-Rpd3S pathway suppress the growth defects caused by temperature sensitive alleles of SPT6 and SPN1, illuminating that this pathway antagonizes Spt6-Spn1 Using these sensitive genetic assays, we also identify a role for H3K4me in antagonizing Rpd3S that functions through the Rpd3S subunit Rco1, which is known to bind H3 N-terminal tails in a manner that is prevented by H3K4me. Further genetic experiments reveal that the H3K4 and H3K36 demethylases JHD2 and RPH1 mediate this combinatorial control of Rpd3S. Finally, our studies also show that the Rpd3L complex, which acts at promoter-proximal regions of PolII transcribed genes, counters Rpd3S for genetic modulation of Spt6-Spn1, and that these two Rpd3 complexes balance the activities of each other. Our findings present the first evidence that H3K4me and H3K36me act combinatorially to control Rpd3S.
Project description:Two phosphorylation states of RNAPII in HeLa cells Keywords: ChIP-chip Study of RNAPII binding patterns to ENCODE regions. 3 arrays using 8wg16 antibody, hypophosphoryated PolII, 3 arrays using 4H8 antibody, phosphorylated PolII CTD, and 6 input DNA arrays.
Project description:KAP1/TIF1beta is proposed to be a universal corepressor protein for the KRAB zinc finger protein (KRAB-zfp) superfamily of transcriptional repressors. To characterize the role of KAP1 and KAP1-interacting proteins in transcriptional repression, we investigated the regulation of stably integrated reporter transgenes by hormone-responsive KRAB and KAP1 repressor proteins. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of endogenous KAP1 levels by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited KRAB-mediated transcriptional repression of a chromatin template. Similarly, reduction in cellular levels of HP1alpha/beta/gamma and SETDB1 by siRNA attenuated KRAB-KAP1 repression. We also found that direct tethering of KAP1 to DNA was sufficient to repress transcription of an integrated transgene. This activity is absolutely dependent upon the interaction of KAP1 with HP1 and on an intact PHD finger and bromodomain of KAP1, suggesting that these domains function cooperatively in transcriptional corepression. The achievement of the repressed state by wild-type KAP1 involves decreased recruitment of RNA polymerase II, reduced levels of histone H3 K9 acetylation and H3K4 methylation, an increase in histone occupancy, enrichment of trimethyl histone H3K9, H3K36, and histone H4K20, and HP1 deposition at proximal regulatory sequences of the transgene. A KAP1 protein containing a mutation of the HP1 binding domain failed to induce any change in the histone modifications associated with DNA sequences of the transgene, implying that HP1-directed nuclear compartmentalization is required for transcriptional repression by the KRAB/KAP1 repression complex. The combination of these data suggests that KAP1 functions to coordinate activities that dynamically regulate changes in histone modifications and deposition of HP1 to establish a de novo microenvironment of heterochromatin, which is required for repression of gene transcription by KRAB-zfps.
Project description:Deacetylation of nucleosomes by the Rpd3S histone deacetylase along the path of transcribing RNA polymerase II regulates access to DNA, contributing to faithful gene transcription. The association of Rpd3S with chromatin requires its Eaf3 subunit, which binds histone H3 methylated at lysine 36 (H3K36). Eaf3 is also part of NuA4 acetyltransferase that recognizes methylated H3K4. Here we show that Eaf3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a chromo barrel-related domain that binds methylated peptides, including H3K36 and H3K4, with low specificity and millimolar-range affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure determination of Eaf3 bound to methylated H3K36 was accomplished by engineering a linked Eaf3-H3K36 molecule with a chemically incorporated methyllysine analog. Our study uncovers the molecular details of Eaf3-methylated H3K36 complex formation, and suggests that, in the cell, Eaf3 can only function within a framework of combinatorial interactions. This work also provides a general method for structure determination of low-affinity protein complexes implicated in methyllysine recognition.
Project description:Cardiac development requires coordinated and large-scale rearrangements of the epigenome. The roles and precise mechanisms through which specific epigenetic modifying enzymes control cardiac lineage specification, however, remain unclear. Here we show that the H3K4 methyltransferase SETD7 controls cardiac differentiation by reading H3K36 marks independently of its enzymatic activity. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that SETD7 targets distinct sets of genes to drive their stage-specific expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation. SETD7 associates with different co-factors at these stages, including SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling factors during mesodermal formation and the transcription factor NKX2.5 in cardiac progenitors to drive their differentiation. Further analyses revealed that SETD7 binds methylated H3K36 in the bodies of its target genes to facilitate RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription. Moreover, abnormal SETD7 expression impairs functional attributes of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. Together, these results reveal how SETD7 acts at sequential steps in cardiac lineage commitment, and they provide insights into crosstalk between dynamic epigenetic marks and chromatin-modifying enzymes.
Project description:Methylation of cytosines (5meC) is a widespread heritable DNA modification. During mammalian development, two global demethylation events are followed by waves of de novo DNA methylation. In vivo mechanisms of DNA methylation establishment are largely uncharacterized. Here we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a system lacking DNA methylation to define the chromatin features influencing the activity of the murine DNMT3B. Our data demonstrate that DNMT3B and H3K4 methylation are mutually exclusive and that DNMT3B is co-localized with H3K36 methylated regions. In support of this observation, DNA methylation analysis in yeast strains without Set1 and Set2 show an increase of relative 5meC levels at the TSS and a decrease in the gene-body, respectively. We extend our observation to the murine male germline, where H3K4me3 is strongly anti-correlated while H3K36me3 correlates with accelerated DNA methylation. These results show the importance of H3K36 methylation for gene-body DNA methylation in vivo. Yeast ChIP sequencing
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the rapid-flowering summer-annual versus the vernalization-requiring winter-annual growth habit is determined by natural variation in FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). However, the biochemical basis of how FRI confers a winter-annual habit remains elusive. Here, we show that FRI elevates FLC expression by enhancement of histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity. EARLY FLOWERING IN SHORT DAYS (EFS), which is essential for FRI function, is demonstrated to be a novel dual substrate (histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and H3K36)-specific HMT. FRI is recruited into FLC chromatin through EFS and in turn enhances EFS activity and engages additional HMTs. At FLC, the HMT activity of EFS is balanced by the H3K4/H3K36- and H3K4-specific histone demethylase (HDM) activities of autonomous-pathway components, RELATIVE OF EARLY FLOWERING 6 and FLOWERING LOCUS D, respectively. Loss of HDM activity in summer annuals results in dominant HMT activity, leading to conversion to a winter-annual habit in the absence of FRI. Thus, our study provides a model of how growth habit is determined through the balance of the H3K4/H3K36-specific HMT and HDM activities.