Gene regulation by phosphomimetic Myc and retinoic acid
ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the E-box and Max-independent functions of the oncogene Myc in gene regulation and differentiation of leukemic cells. Expression in HL60 leukemic cells of a mutant form of Myc with impaired Max and E-box interaction by replacing the phosphorylation sites of Pak2 kinase to aspartic acid (MycD), resulted in downregulation of 235 genes and, interestingly, upregulation of 586 genes. Eleven percent of the genes upregulated by MycD coincided with those stimulated by a short treatment of retinoic acid (RA) alone. When leukemic cells expressing MycD were stimulated with RA, the overlap with the RA-alone signature increased to 32% (492/1556 genes). Importantly, 320 of these 492 bona-fide direct RA target genes were specifically superactivated in presence of MycD (MycD+RA>RA), and not by MycA (MycD+RA>MycA+RA), further suggesting a synergy between the two pathways. The list of superactivated genes included important regulators of development and differentiation such as GATA6, ICAM1 and HOX genes, whose expression was validated in independent experiments by RT-qPCR. Overall design: Induced gene expression in HL60 cells was measured after a short-treatment of retinoic acid (100nM, 4 hours). Cells were either wild-type or expressing ER-tagged MycD or MycA. Four biologically independent experiments were performed at each time.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-014850 Whole Human Genome Microarray 4x44K G4112F (Feature Number version)
Project description:We aimed to investigate the E-box and Max-independent functions of the oncogene Myc in gene regulation and differentiation of leukemic cells. Expression in HL60 leukemic cells of a mutant form of Myc with impaired Max and E-box interaction by replacing the phosphorylation sites of Pak2 kinase to aspartic acid (MycD), resulted in downregulation of 235 genes and, interestingly, upregulation of 586 genes. Eleven percent of the genes upregulated by MycD coincided with those stimulated by a short treatment of retinoic acid (RA) alone. When leukemic cells expressing MycD were stimulated with RA, the overlap with the RA-alone signature increased to 32% (492/1556 genes). Importantly, 320 of these 492 bona-fide direct RA target genes were specifically superactivated in presence of MycD (MycD+RA>RA), and not by MycA (MycD+RA>MycA+RA), further suggesting a synergy between the two pathways. The list of superactivated genes included important regulators of development and differentiation such as GATA6, ICAM1 and HOX genes, whose expression was validated in independent experiments by RT-qPCR. Induced gene expression in HL60 cells was measured after a short-treatment of retinoic acid (100nM, 4 hours). Cells were either wild-type or expressing ER-tagged MycD or MycA. Four biologically independent experiments were performed at each time.
Project description:Retinoic acid is an embryonic morphogen and dietary factor that demonstrates chemotherapeutic efficacy in inducing maturation in leukemia cells. Using HL60 model human myeloid leukemia cells, where all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces granulocytic differentiation, we developed two emergent RA-resistant HL60 cell lines which are characterized by loss of RA-inducible G1/G0 arrest, CD11b expression, inducible oxidative metabolism and p47(phox) expression. However, RA-treated RA-resistant HL60 continue to exhibit sustained MEK/ERK activation, and one of the two sequentially emergent resistant lines retains RA-inducible CD38 expression. Other signaling events that define the wild-type (WT) response are compromised, including c-Raf phosphorylation and increased expression of c-Cbl, Vav1, and the Src-family kinases (SFKs) Lyn and Fgr. As shown previously in WT HL60 cells, we found that the SFK inhibitor PP2 significantly increases G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, CD38 and CD11b expression, c-Raf phosphorylation and expression of the aforementioned regulators in RA-resistant HL60. The resistant cells were potentially incapable of developing inducible oxidative metabolism. These results motivate the concept that RA resistance can occur in steps, wherein growth arrest and other differentiation events may be recovered in both emergent lines. Investigating the mechanistic anomalies in resistant cell lines is of therapeutic significance and helps to mechanistically understand the response to retinoic acid's biological effects in WT HL60 cells.
Project description:Signaling from the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche formed by osteoblastic cells regulates hematopoiesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR?), a transcription factor activated by retinoic acid (RA), mediates both granulocytic and osteoblastic differentiation. This effect depends on decreased phosphorylation of serine 77 of RAR? (RAR?S77) by the cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) complex, a key cell-cycle regulator. In this article, we report that, by suppressing CAK phosphorylation of RAR?, RA induces FGF8f to mediate osteosarcoma U2OS cell differentiation in an autocrine manner. By contrast, paracrine FGF8f secreted into osteoblast-conditioned medium by U2OS cells transduced with FGF8f or a phosphorylation-defective RAR?S77 mutant, RAR?S77A, bypasses RA stimuli to cross-mediate granulocytic differentiation of different types of human leukemic myeloblasts and normal primitive hematopoietic CD34(+) cells, possibly through modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Further experiments using recombinant human FGF8f (rFGF8f) stimuli, antibody neutralization, and peptide blocking showed that paracrine FGF8f is required for mediating terminal leukemic myeloblast differentiation. These studies indicate a novel regulatory mechanism of granulocytic differentiation instigated by RA from the HSC niche, which links loss of CAK phosphorylation of RAR? with paracrine FGF8f-mediated MAPK signaling to mediate leukemic myeloblast differentiation in the absence of RA. Therefore, these findings provide a compelling molecular rationale for further investigation of paracrine FGF8f regulation, with the intent of devising HSC niche-based FGF8f therapeutics for myeloid leukemia, with or without RA-resistance.
Project description:The T-box transcription factor Tbx1 is expressed in the otic vesicle and surrounding mesoderm of the periotic mesenchyme (POM) during inner ear development. Mesenchymal Tbx1 is essential for inner ear development, with conditional mutants displaying defects in both the auditory and vestibular systems. We have previously reported that mesodermal Tbx1 loss of function mutants (Mest-KO) have reduced expression of retinoic acid (RA) metabolic genes, Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1, in the POM, consistent with other studies showing an increase in mesodermal RA reporter expression in Tbx1-/- embryos. However, putative RA effector genes whose expression is altered downstream of increased otic mesenchymal-epithelial RA signaling have remained elusive.Here we report the identification of 18 retinoic acid responsive genes altered in Mest-KO conditional mutants by microarray gene profiling. Nine were chosen for biological validation including quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (Otor, Mia, Col2a1, Clu, Adm, Myt1, Dlx3, Itgb3, and Itga2b).Here study provides a series of newly identified RA effector genes for inner ear development downstream of mesenchymal Tbx1 that may contribute to the inner ear phenotype observed in Tbx1 loss of function mouse models.
Project description:All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases expressing the t(15;17) product, PML/RARalpha, is a successful example of differentiation therapy. Uncovering RA target genes is of considerable interest in APL. This study comprehensively examines in APL cells transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the novel candidate RA target gene, G0S2, the G0/G1 switch gene. Reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and heteronuclear PCR assays performed +/- treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) revealed G0S2 induction within 3 h of RA-treatment. Treatment with the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D did not implicate G0S2 transcript stabilization in the RA-mediated increase of G0S2 mRNA expression. Promoter elements of G0S2 were cloned into a reporter plasmid and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) co-transfection assays confirmed transcriptional activation after RA-treatment. Consistent with G0S2 being a direct RA target gene, retinoic acid response element (RARE) half-sites were found in this promoter. Mutation of these sites blocked RA-transcriptional activation of G0S2. To extend analyses to the protein expression level, a polyclonal anti-G0S2 antibody was derived and detected murine and human G0S2 species. G0S2 protein was rapidly induced in cultured NB4-S1 human APL cells and in APL transgenic mice treated with RA. An RAR pan-antagonist confirmed dependence on RARs for this induction. That these findings are clinically relevant was shown by analyses of APL cells derived directly from patients. These leukemic cells induced both a prominent increase in the cellular differentiation marker nitrotetrazolium blue (NBT) staining and marked increase in G0S2 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate G0S2 is an RA target gene. The functional role of G0S2 in retinoid response of APL warrants further study.
Project description:HisH4 ChIP-chip of retinoic acid-stimulated HL60 cells at 0, 2, 8, or 32 hours using Affymetrix ENCODE tiling chip with NCBI build 35 annotation. HisH4 ChIP-chip of retinoic acid-stimulated HL60 cells at 0, 2, 8, or 32 hours.
Project description:Pol2 ChIP-chip of retinoic acid-stimulated HL60 cells at 0, 2, 8, or 32 hours using Affymetrix ENCODE tiling chip with NCBI build 35 annotation. Pol2 ChIP-chip of retinoic acid-stimulated HL60 cells at 0, 2, 8, or 32 hours.
Project description:Leukemia-associated chimeric oncoproteins often act as transcriptional repressors, targeting promoters of master genes involved in hematopoiesis. We show that CRABPI (encoding cellular retinoic acid binding protein I) is a target of PLZF, which is fused to RARalpha by the t(11;17)(q23;q21) translocation associated with retinoic acid (RA)-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PLZF represses the CRABPI locus through propagation of chromatin condensation from a remote intronic binding element culminating in silencing of the promoter. Although the canonical, PLZF-RARalpha oncoprotein has no impact on PLZF-mediated repression, the reciprocal translocation product RARalpha-PLZF binds to this remote binding site, recruiting p300, inducing promoter hypomethylation and CRABPI gene up-regulation. In line with these observations, RA-resistant murine PLZF/RARalpha+RARalpha/PLZF APL blasts express much higher levels of CRABPI than standard RA-sensitive PML/RARalpha APL. RARalpha-PLZF confers RA resistance to a retinoid-sensitive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line in a CRABPI-dependent fashion. This study supports an active role for PLZF and RARalpha-PLZF in leukemogenesis, identifies up-regulation of CRABPI as a mechanism contributing to retinoid resistance, and reveals the ability of the reciprocal fusion gene products to mediate distinct epigenetic effects contributing to the leukemic phenotype.
Project description:Ubiquitin/ISG15-conjugating enzyme E2L6 (UBE2L6) is a critical enzyme in ISGylation, a post-translational protein modification that conjugates the ubiquitin-like modifier, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), to target substrates. Previous gene expression studies in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells showed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) altered the expression of many genes, including UBE2L6 (200-fold) and other members of the ISGylation pathway. Through gene expression analyses in a cohort of 98 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples and in primary neutrophils from healthy donors, we found that UBE2L6 gene expression is reduced in primary AML cells compared with normal mature granulocytes. To assess whether UBE2L6 expression is important for leukemic cell differentiation-two cell line models were employed: the human APL cell line NB4 and its ATRA-resistant NB4R counterpart, as well as the ATRA-sensitive human AML HL60 cells along with their ATRA-resistant subclone-HL60R. ATRA strongly induced UBE2L6 in NB4 APL cells and in ATRA-sensitive HL60 AML cells, but not in the ATRA-resistant NB4R and HL60R cells. Furthermore, short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated UBE2L6 depletion in NB4 cells impeded ATRA-mediated differentiation, suggesting a functional role for UBE2L6 in leukemic cell differentiation. In addition, ATRA induced ISG15 gene expression in NB4 APL cells, leading to increased levels of both free ISG15 protein and ISG15 conjugates. UBE2L6 depletion attenuated ATRA-induced ISG15 conjugation. Knockdown of ISG15 in NB4 APL cells inhibited ISGylation and also attenuated ATRA-induced differentiation. In summary, we demonstrate the functional importance of UBE2L6 in ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of APL cells and propose that this may be mediated by its catalytic role in ISGylation.
Project description:The c-Myc protein is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis though heterodimerization with Max to form a transcriptionally active sequence-specific DNA binding complex. By means of sequential immunoprecipitation of chromatin using anti-Max and anti-Myc antibodies, we have identified a Myc-regulated gene and genomic sites occupied by Myc-Max in vivo. Four of 27 sites recovered by this procedure corresponded to the highest affinity 'canonical' CACGTG sequence. However, the most common in vivo binding sites belonged to the group of 'non-canonical' E box-related binding sites previously identified by in vitro selection. Several of the genomic fragments isolated contained transcribed sequences, including one, MrDb, encoding an evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase of the DEAD box family. The corresponding mRNA was induced following activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein (Myc-ER) in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, consistent with this helicase gene being a direct target of Myc-Max. In addition, as for c-Myc, the expression of MrDb is induced upon proliferative stimulation of primary human fibroblasts as well as B cells and down-regulated during terminal differentiation of HL60 leukemia cells. Our results indicate that Myc-Max heterodimers interact in vivo with a specific set of E box-related DNA sequences and that Myc is likely to activate multiple target genes including a highly conserved DEAD box protein. Therefore, Myc may exert its effects on cell behavior through proteins that affect RNA structure and metabolism.