ABSTRACT: Hybrid weakness is a type of reproductive barrier found in many plant species and is important to plant evolution. Compared with heterosis, hybrid weakness has received less attention in evolutionary genetics studies. In rice, the hybrid weakness of the F1 progenies between the Jamaica- and temperate Japonica-types has been intensively genetically surveyed, and it has been found to be controlled by two complementary genes, Hwc1 and Hwc2. The defective development of the hybrid F1 seedlings was found to be mainly due to abnormal root growth, resulting in non-continuous growth and the eventual lethality of the plants. Detailed genome-wide analyses using the hybrid F1 plant and parents showed that, in contrast to heterosis, in which photosynthesis- and starch metabolism-related genes are preferentially expressed, the abscisic acid (ABA)-response and abiotic-/biotic- and defense-related genes were significantly up-regulated in the roots of the hybrid F1, resulting in suppressed growth of the whole plant. This indicates that the mechanisms of heterosis and hybrid weakness differ and provides informative clues to facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms controlling the reproductive isolation and hybrid weakness. Overall design: Here we report the analysis of gene expression patterns between the rice hybrid and its parents, using a whole-genome microarray and 12 samples were analyzed. Our results indicate that the expressions of abscisic acid (ABA)-response genes as well as abiotic and biotic stress-response genes were also enriched in the hybrid F1 root, which may result in the poor growth of the hybrid roots.
Project description:NHL (NDR1/HIN1-like) genes play crucial roles in pathogen induced plant responses to biotic stress. Here, we report the possible function of NHL6 in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress. NHL6 was highly expressed in non-germinated seeds, and its expression was strongly induced by ABA and multiple abiotic stress signals. Loss-of-function of NHL6 decreased sensitivity to ABA in the early developmental stages including seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of the nhl6 mutants. However, overexpression of NHL6 increased sensitivity to ABA, salt and osmotic stress of the transgenic plants. Further studies indicated that the increased sensitivity in the 35S::NHL6 overexpressing plants could be a result of both ABA hypersensitivity and increased endogenous ABA accumulation under the stress conditions. It was also seen that the ABA-responsive element binding factors AREB1, AREB2 and ABF3 could regulate NHL6 expression at transcriptional level. Our results indicate that NHL6 plays an important role in the abiotic stresses-induced ABA signaling and biosynthesis, particularly during seed germination and early seedling development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital phytohormone that accumulates in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as plant growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 14 members of the ABA receptor family, which are key positive regulators involved in ABA signaling. Besides reduced drought stress tolerance, the quadruple and sextuple mutants (pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4 (1124) and pyr1pyl1pyl2pyl4pyl5pyl8 (112458) show abnormal growth phenotypes, such as decreases in yield and height, under non-stress conditions. However, it remains unknown whether ABA receptors mediate ABA signaling to regulate plant growth and development. Here, we showed the primary metabolite profiles of 1124, 112458 and wild-type (WT) plants grown under normal conditions. The metabolic changes were significantly different between ABA receptor mutants and WT. Guanosine, for the biosynthesis of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), is an important second messenger that acts to regulate the level of ABA. In addition, other amino acids were increased in the 112458 mutant, including proline. These results, together with phenotype analysis, indicated that ABA receptors are involved in ABA signaling to modulate metabolism and plant growth under normal conditions.
Project description:Polyamines (PAs) constitute a group of low molecular weight aliphatic amines that have been implicated as key players in growth and development processes, as well as in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Transgenic plants overexpressing PA-biosynthetic genes show increased tolerance to abiotic stress. Therein, abscisic acid (ABA) is the hormone involved in plant responses to environmental stresses such as drought or high salinity. An increase in the level of free spermine (Spm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in increased levels of endogenous ABA and promoted, in a Spm-dependent way, transcription of different ABA inducible genes. This phenotype was only partially reversed by blocking ABA biosynthesis, indicating an ABA independent response mediated by Spm. Moreover, the phenotype was reproduced by adding Spm to Col0 wild-type Arabidopsis plants. In contrast, Spm-deficient mutants showed a lower tolerance to salt stress. These results indicate that Spm plays a key role in modulating plant stress responses.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors interact both physically and functionally in plant defense responses. However, their role in plant abiotic stress response has not been directly analyzed. RESULTS: We report that the three WRKYs are involved in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress. Through analysis of single, double, and triple mutants and overexpression lines for the WRKY genes, we have shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60 have a positive effect on plant ABA sensitivity for inhibition of seed germination and root growth. The same two WRKY genes also enhance plant sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress. WRKY40, on the other hand, antagonizes WRKY18 and WRKY60 in the effect on plant sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in germination and growth assays. Both WRKY18 and WRKY40 are rapidly induced by ABA, while induction of WRKY60 by ABA is delayed. ABA-inducible expression of WRKY60 is almost completely abolished in the wrky18 and wrky40 mutants. WRKY18 and WRKY40 recognize a cluster of W-box sequences in the WRKY60 promoter and activate WRKY60 expression in protoplasts. Thus, WRKY60 might be a direct target gene of WRKY18 and WRKY40 in ABA signaling. Using a stable transgenic reporter/effector system, we have shown that both WRKY18 and WRKY60 act as weak transcriptional activators while WRKY40 is a transcriptional repressor in plant cells. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the three related WRKY transcription factors form a highly interacting regulatory network that modulates gene expression in both plant defense and stress responses by acting as either transcription activator or repressor.
Project description:Abstract The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is the best?known stress signaling molecule in plants. ABA protects sessile land plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. The conserved pyrabactin resistance/pyrabactin resistance?like/regulatory component of ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCAR) perceives ABA and triggers a cascade of signaling events. A thorough knowledge of the sequential steps of ABA signaling will be necessary for the development of chemicals that control plant stress responses. The core components of the ABA signaling pathway have been identified with adequate characterization. The information available concerning ABA biosynthesis, transport, perception, and metabolism has enabled detailed functional studies on how the protective ability of ABA in plants might be modified to increase plant resistance to stress. Some of the significant contributions to chemical manipulation include ABA biosynthesis inhibitors, and ABA receptor agonists and antagonists. Chemical manipulation of key control points in ABA signaling is important for abiotic and biotic stress management in agriculture. However, a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of chemical manipulation of ABA signaling is lacking. Here, a thorough analysis of recent reports on small?molecule modulation of ABA signaling is provided. The challenges and prospects in the chemical manipulation of ABA signaling for the development of ABA?based agrochemicals are also discussed. Small molecules that can manipulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling events are designed, developed, and evaluated. The ABA?mediated stress adaptive responses of plants are mimicked by small molecules, and the ABA biosynthesis and catabolism events are altered by inhibitors. This approach is a novel way to gain chemical control over plant stress by using safer ABA?based agrochemicals.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key hormone regulating plant growth, development and the response to biotic and abiotic stress. ABA binding to pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of Abscisic acid Receptor (RCAR) intracellular receptors promotes the formation of stable complexes with certain protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs), leading to the activation of ABA signalling. The PYR/PYL/RCAR family contains 14 genes in Arabidopsis and is currently the largest plant hormone receptor family known; however, it is unclear what functional differentiation exists among receptors. Here, we identify two distinct classes of receptors, dimeric and monomeric, with different intrinsic affinities for ABA and whose differential properties are determined by the oligomeric state of their apo forms. Moreover, we find a residue in PYR1, H60, that is variable between family members and plays a key role in determining oligomeric state. In silico modelling of the ABA activation pathway reveals that monomeric receptors have a competitive advantage for binding to ABA and PP2Cs. This work illustrates how receptor oligomerization can modulate hormonal responses and more generally, the sensitivity of a ligand-dependent signalling system.
Project description:Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that many BdPYLs and BdPP2CAs participate in the classic ABA-PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 signaling pathway. A clade A PP2C, designated BdPP2CA6, interacted with BdPYL11 in the absence of ABA and localized in nucleus. Most clade A PP2C members from Arabidopsis showed negatively regulation in ABA signaling pathway, whereas BdPP2CA6-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis showed ABA hypersensitive phenotype, resulting in enhanced stomatal closure and salinity tolerance. Our results indicate that BdPP2CA6 positively regulates ABA and stress signal pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis plant seedlings.
Project description:Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process for turning over unwanted cellular components, thus promoting nutrient recycling and maintaining cellular homeostasis, which eventually enables plants to survive unfavorable growth conditions. In addition to plant growth and development, previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the responses to various environmental challenges through interplaying with multiple phytohormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA). In this review, we summarize the advances made in their synergistic interactions in response to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses; we also discuss the remaining issues and perspectives regarding their crosstalk.