Identification of Neuronal RNA Targets of TDP-43-Containing Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
ABSTRACT: We identify the RNA targets of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) from cortical neurons by RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (RIP-seq). We identify 4352 highly enriched RNA targets of TDP-43. We determined that the canonical TDP-43 binding site (TG)n was 55.1-fold enriched in our TDP-43 library. Moreover, our analysis shows there is often an adenine in the middle of the motif, (TG)nTA(TG)m. TDP-43 RNA targets are particularly enriched for Gene Ontology terms related to RNA metabolism, neuronal development, and synaptic function. Overall design: Examination of TDP-43 RNA targets in rat cortical neurons by RIP-seq. Chantelle F. Sephton isolated the TDP-43:RNA complexes and generated the cDNA library for deep sequencing. Email: email@example.com Phone: 214-648-4119 Fax: 214-648-1801 ULR: http://www8.utsouthwestern.edu/utsw/cda/dept120915/files/151135.html Organization name: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Department: Neuroscience Lab: Gang Yu lab Street: 6000 Harry Hines Blvd. City: Dallas State: Texas ZIP: 75390 Country: USA
Project description:We identify the RNA targets of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) from cortical neurons by RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (RIP-seq). We identify 4352 highly enriched RNA targets of TDP-43. We determined that the canonical TDP-43 binding site (TG)n was 55.1-fold enriched in our TDP-43 library. Moreover, our analysis shows there is often an adenine in the middle of the motif, (TG)nTA(TG)m. TDP-43 RNA targets are particularly enriched for Gene Ontology terms related to RNA metabolism, neuronal development, and synaptic function. Examination of TDP-43 RNA targets in rat cortical neurons by RIP-seq. Chantelle F. Sephton isolated the TDP-43:RNA complexes and generated the cDNA library for deep sequencing. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 214-648-4119 Fax: 214-648-1801 ULR: http://www8.utsouthwestern.edu/utsw/cda/dept120915/files/151135.html Organization name: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Department: Neuroscience Lab: Gang Yu lab Street: 6000 Harry Hines Blvd. City: Dallas State: Texas ZIP: 75390 Country: USA
Project description:We performed RNA immunoprecipitation (IP) and microarray (RIP-chip) analyses to identify and compare the biological mRNA targets of two RNA-binding protein (RBP), TDP-43 and FUS, associated to cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of motoneuronal NSC34 cells with the final aim to unravel their role in mRNA transport, stability, and translation in neuronal cells. To identify the transcripts contained and bound in the isolated RNP complexes, a chip analysis was performed using the recovered mRNAs from triplicate experimantal RIP samples (TDP-43-IP samples, the FUS-IP samples and the control IgG-IP sample).
Project description:Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing nuclear or cytoplasmic human TDP-43 were generated. Tg mice had motor spasticity and forebrain neurodegeneration. Human TDP-43 reduced mouse TDP-43 in nuclei of affected neurons. Tg mice showed alterations in transcripts related to chromatin assembly. Overall design: Cerebral cortex from 21 transgenic mice and controls were assayed after two weeks off doxycyline diet as described in Igaz et al.
Project description:Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing nuclear or cytoplasmic human TDP-43 were generated. Tg mice had motor spasticity and forebrain neurodegeneration. Human TDP-43 reduced mouse TDP-43 in nuclei of affected neurons. Tg mice showed alterations in transcripts related to chromatin assembly. Cerebral cortex from 21 transgenic mice and controls were assayed after two weeks off doxycyline diet as described in Igaz et al.
Project description:TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional repression and mRNA processing. Inclusions of TDP-43 are hallmarks of frontotemporal dementias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Besides aggregation of TDP-43, loss of nuclear localization is observed in disease. To identify relevant targets of TDP-43, we performed an expression profiling study. Thereby, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) downregulation was discovered upon TDP-43 silencing on mRNA and protein level in human embryonic kidney HEK293E and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This was accompanied by accumulation of the major HDAC6 substrate, acetyl-tubulin. Expression of wild-type but neither RNA-binding- nor nuclear-localization-deficient TDP-43 restored HDAC6 expression. Moreover, TDP-43 bound specifically to HDAC6 mRNA arguing for a direct functional interaction. Importantly, in vivo validation in TDP-43 knockout Drosophila melanogaster also showed HDAC6 mRNA decrease. HDAC6 is necessary for protein aggregate formation and degradation. Indeed, downregulation of HDAC6 reduced aggregate formation and increased cytotoxicity of expanded poly-glutamine ataxin-3 in TDP-43 silenced cells. This was completely restored by co-transfection with HDAC6. In conclusion, loss of functional TDP-43 causes HDAC6 downregulation and might thereby contribute to pathogenesis. Overall design: Comparison of TDP-43 knockdown in HEK293E cells against cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. 4 independend transfections per siRNA were used.
Project description:TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is normally a nuclear RNA-binding protein that exhibits a range of functions including regulation of alternative splicing, RNA trafficking and RNA stability. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP), TDP-43 is abnormally phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved, and is mislocalized to the cytoplasm where it forms distinctive aggregates. We previously developed a mouse model expressing human TDP-43 with a mutation in its nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-hTDP-43) so that the protein preferentially localizes to the cytoplasm. These mice did not exhibit a significant number of cytoplasmic aggregates, but did display a loss of endogenous mouse nuclear TDP-43 as well as dramatic changes in gene expression as measured by microarray. Here, we analyze RNA-sequencing data from the ∆NLS-hTDP-43 mouse model, together with published RNA-sequencing data obtained previously from TDP-43 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown mice and High Throughput Sequencing of RNA isolated by CrossLinking ImmunoPrecipitation (HITS-CLIP) data of TDP-43’s RNA binding targets to further investigate the dysregulation of gene expression in the ∆NLS model. This analysis reveals that the transcriptomic effects of the overexpression of the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 transgene are likely due to a gain of cytoplasmic function. Moreover, cytoplasmic TDP-43 expression alters transcripts that regulate chromatin assembly, the nucleolus, lysosomal function, and histone 3’ untranslated region (UTR) processing. These transcriptomic alterations correlate with observed histologic abnormalities in heterochromatin structure and nuclear size in transgenic mouse and human brains. Overall design: RNAseq of bigenic (n=4) ∆NLS-hTDP-43 and control nontransgenic (n=4) mouse cortex
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes. Aberrant regulation of miRNA genes contributes to human diseases, including cancer. The TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a DNA/RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration, is involved in miRNA biogenesis. Here, we systematically examined miRNAs whose expression levels are regulated by TDP-43 using RNA-Seq coupled with siRNA-mediated knockdown approach. TDP-43 knocking down affected the expression of a number of miRNAs. Alterations in isomiR patterns and miRNA arm selection after TDP-43 knockdown suggest a role of TDP-43 in miRNA editing. We examined correlation of selected TDP-43 associated miRNAs and their candidate target genes in human cancers. Our data reveal highly complex roles of TDP-43 in regulating different miRNAs and their target genes. Our results suggest that TDP-43 may promote migration of lung cancer cells by regulating miR-423-3p expression. On the other hand, TDP-43 increases miR-500a-3p expression and binds to the mature miR-500a-3p sequence. Low expression of miR-500a-3p was associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients, suggesting that TDP-43 may have a suppressive role in cancer by regulating miR-500a-3p. Our experiments reveal that cancer-associated genes LIF and PAPPA may be targets of miR-500a-3p. Together with other studies, our work suggests that TDP-43-regulated miRNAs may play multi-facet roles in the pathogenesis of cancer. small RNA seq in SH-SY-5Y, SNB-19 and HT22 (TDP-43 siRNA VS Control siRNA)
Project description:Mutations in TDP-43 (an RNA binding protein) are known to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previously, our group and several other studies showed that TDP-43 binds to several RNA targets in the mammalian CNS. ALS causing mutations in the C-terminal region of TDP-43 that is involved in splicing regulation may lead to aberrant splicing of several RNA transcripts. The main aim of this study is to identify the effect of an ALS causing mutation on the splicing regulation of previously known targets of TDP-43. Mice overexpressing a mutant human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) gene were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (strain name - B6;CB-Tg(Prnp-TARDBP*A315T) 95Balo/J; Stock no:010700). Mutant hTDP43 was expressed under the control of a prion protein promoter that drives the expression mainly in the mouse CNS and the male transgenic mice developed symptoms around 12 weeks of age while the female mice develop symptoms approximately 20 weeks of age. Therefore, Tg animals that are 50 days old were considered pre-symptomatic and 100 days old (Tg) animals were considered to be in the post-symptomatic stages of the disease for exon array experiments. Age and sex matched pre and post-symptomatic transgenic animals and their wild type littermates were euthanised by cervical dislocation and tissues (brain and spinal cord) were harvested immediately for total RNA isolation experiments (n=3 per group). 200 ng of total RNA from transgenic TDP-43 mice and wild type animals was converted to cDNA and then amplified using the Applause WT-Amp Plus ST kit (NuGEN). Amplified cDNA was then fragmented and biotin labeled using the Encore Biotin Module kit (NuGEN) according to the manufacturer's instruction manual. Labelled cDNA was then hybridised onto Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST arrays in a hybridisation oven at 45 degrees C for 20 hours at 60rpm. After hybridization, washing and staining of the arrays were carried out using Affymetrix fluidics station 450 followed by scanning using GeneChip scanner. GeneChip Command Console Software (AGCC) controlled both the fluidics station and the scanner. CEL files generated by AGCC were uploaded onto Partek software and the data analysis was carried out using the exon array analysis workflow. Exon 1.0 ST arrays contain many more probes, which are classified into three major types based on their source. They are Core, extended and full probe set annotation. Core annotation refers the probe sets that are the most reliable of the three and is derived based on evidences from Refseq and GenBank. Extended annotations refer to probe sets that are generated based on EST sequences, ENSEMBL gene collections and other databases including those used for generating core probe sets. The full annotation refers to probe sets that are purely based on computational predictions. Core probe set annotation, unlike the extended or full annotation excludes the speculative probes reducing the incidence of false positives and was employed for exon array analysis. Alt-splice Anova, a statistical tool available in Partek was used for identifying novel alternative splicing events.
Project description:In recent times, high throughput screening analyses have broadly defined the RNA cellular targets of TDP-43, a nuclear factor involved in neurodegeneration. A common outcome of all these studies is that changing the expression levels of this protein can alter the expression of several hundred RNAs within cells. What still remains to be clarified is which changes represent direct cellular targets of TDP-43 or just secondary variations due to the general role played by this protein in RNA metabolism. Using a HTS-based splicing junction analysis we have now identified 162 splicing events that are consistent with being directly controlled by TDP-43. Validation of the data, both in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines demonstrated that TDP-43 substantially alters the levels of isoform expression in four genes potentially important for neuropathology: MADD/IG20, STAG2, FNIP1, and BRD8. Most importantly, for MADD/IG20 and STAG2 these changes could also be confirmed at the protein level. These alterations were also observed in a cellular model that successfully mimics TDP-43 loss of function effects following its aggregation. These novel splicing events may represent potential biomarkers to predict disease onset, progression, and to test the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents to recover TDP-43 functional properties. We have performed an HTS-based splicing junction analysis of a series of stable cell lines that lack TDP-43, overexpress this factor, or express an RNA-binding mutant, in order to find splicing events, potentially associated with neurodegenerativce diseases, regulated by this splicing factor. Samples were analyzed in triplicate from: The following samples were analyzed in triplicate: wild-type HEK-293 cells, siTDP43-treated HEK-293 cells, siTDP43-treated HEK-293 cells overexpressing a flagged-wildtype TDP-43, siTDP43-treated HEK-293 cells overexpressing a RNA-binding deficient mutant.
Project description:Tat Activating Regulatory DNA Binding Protein (Tardbp or TDP-43), a highly conserved metazoan DNA/RNA binding protein thought to be involved in RNA transcription and splicing, has been linked to the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and is essential for early embryonic development. However, neither the physiological role of TDP-43 in the adult nor its downstream targets are well defined. To address these questions, we developed conditional Tardbp knockout mice and embryonic stem (ES) cell models. Here, we show that post-natal deletion of Tardbp in mice caused dramatic loss of body fat followed by rapid death. Moreover, conditional Tardbp knockout ES cells failed to proliferate. Importantly, high throughput DNA sequencing analysis on the transcriptome of ES cells lacking Tardbp revealed a set of downstream targets of TDP-43. We show that Tbc1d1, a gene known to mediate leanness and linked to obesity, is down-regulated in the absence of TDP-43. Collectively, our results establish that TDP-43 is critical for fat metabolism and ES cell survival. Overall design: One allele of both iTDPKO and cTDP ES cells were replaced by CAG-ErCreEr. The other allele in iTDPKO ES cells is floxed exon3 while in the cTDP ES cells is wild type.