Expression data from Pou4f3-Rb1 cKO and control inner ear
ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In the Pou4f3-Cre:Rb1 flox/flox (Rb1 cKO) inner ear, utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of Rb1 cKO cochlea and utricle. Overall design: P6 or 2-month control and Rb1 cKO littermates were euthanized and the inner ear tissues were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the pooled samples. Technical duplicates of the pooled RNA were used for microarray.
Project description:Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In the Pou4f3-Cre:Rb1 flox/flox (Rb1 cKO) inner ear, utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of Rb1 cKO cochlea and utricle. P6 or 2-month control and Rb1 cKO littermates were euthanized and the inner ear tissues were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the pooled samples. Technical duplicates of the pooled RNA were used for microarray.
Project description:Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In a conditional hair cell Rb1 knockout mouse, Pou4f3-Cre-pRb(-/-), pRb(-/-) utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of pRb(-/-) cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of (pRb(-/-) cochlea and utricle. The comparative analysis shows that the core pathway shared between pRb(-/-) cochlea and utricle is centered on E2F, the key pathway that mediates pRb function. A majority of differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways are not shared but uniquely associated with pRb(-/-) cochlea or utricle. In pRb(-/-) cochlea, pathways involved in early inner ear development such as Wnt/?-catenin and Notch were enriched, whereas pathways involving in proliferation and survival are enriched in pRb(-/-) utricle. Clustering analysis showed that the pRb(-/-) inner ear has characteristics of a younger control inner ear, an indication of delayed differentiation. We created a transgenic mouse model (ER-Cre-pRb(flox/flox)) in which Rb1 can be acutely deleted postnatally. Acute Rb1 deletion in the adult mouse fails to induce proliferation or cell death in inner ear, strongly indicating that Rb1 loss in these postmitotic tissues can be effectively compensated for, or that pRb-mediated changes in the postmitotic compartment result in events that are functionally irreversible once enacted. This study thus supports the concept that pRb-regulated pathways relevant to hair cell development, encompassing proliferation, differentiation and survival, act predominantly during early development.
Project description:Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre), in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.
Project description:To understand the basic biological property of hair cells (HCs) from lower vertebrates, we examined transcriptomes of adult zebrafish HCs. GFP-labeled HCs were isolated from the utricle, saccule, and lagena, the three inner-ear sensory epithelia of a pou4f3 promoter-driven GAP-GFP line of transgenic zebrafish. 2,000 HCs and 2,000 non-sensory cells from the inner ear were individually collected by suction pipet technique. RNA sequencing was performed and the resulting sequences were mapped, analyzed, and compared. Comparisons allow us to identify enriched genes in HCs, which may underlie HC specialization. Overall design: Examination of transcriptomes of adult zebrafish inner ear hair cells and surrounding cells individually collected and sorted using pou4f3 promoter-driven GFP marking hair cells.
Project description:Hair cells are the mechanotransducing cells of the inner ear that are essential for hearing and balance. POU4F3--a POU-domain transcription factor selectively expressed by these cells--has been shown to be essential for hair cell differentiation and survival in mice and its mutation in humans underlies late-onset progressive hearing loss (DFNA15). The downstream targets of POU4F3 are required for hair cell differentiation and survival. We aimed to identify such targets in order to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in hair cell production and maintenance. The orphan thyroid nuclear receptor Nr2f2 was identified as a POU4F3 target using a subtractive hybridization strategy and EMSA analysis showed that POU4F3 binds to two sites in the Nr2f2 5' flanking region. These sites were shown to be required for POU4F3 activation as their mutation leads to a reduction in the response of an Nr2f2 5' flanking region reporter construct to POU4F3. Immunocytochemistry was carried out in the developing and adult inner ear in order to investigate the relevance of this interaction in hearing. NR2F2 expression in the postnatal mouse organ of Corti was shown to be detectable in all sensory epithelia examined and characterised. These data demonstrate that Nr2f2 is a direct target of POU4F3 in vitro and that this regulatory relationship may be relevant to hair cell development and survival.
Project description:The role of Sox2 in neurosensory development is not yet fully understood. Using mice with conditional Islet1-cre mediated deletion of Sox2, we explored the function of Sox2 in neurosensory development in a model with limited cell type diversification, the inner ear. In Sox2 conditional mutants, neurons initially appear to form normally, whereas late- differentiating neurons of the cochlear apex never form. Variable numbers of hair cells differentiate in the utricle, saccule, and cochlear base but sensory epithelium formation is completely absent in the apex and all three cristae of the semicircular canal ampullae. Hair cells differentiate only in sensory epithelia known or proposed to have a lineage relationship of neurons and hair cells. All initially formed neurons lacking hair cell targets die by apoptosis days after they project toward non-existing epithelia. Therefore, late neuronal development depends directly on Sox2 for differentiation and on the survival of hair cells, possibly derived from common neurosensory precursors.
Project description:The POU4 family of transcription factors are required for survival of specific cell types in different sensory systems. Pou4f3 is essential for the survival of auditory sensory hair cells and several mutations in human POU4F3 cause hearing loss. Thus, genes regulated by Pou4f3 are likely to be essential for hair cell survival. We performed a subtractive hybridisation screen in an inner-ear-derived cell line to find genes with differential expression in response to changes in Pou4f3 levels. The screen identified the stress-granule-associated protein Caprin-1 as being downregulated by Pou4f3. We demonstrated that this regulation occurs through the direct interaction of Pou4f3 with binding sites in the Caprin-1 5' flanking sequence, and describe the expression pattern of Caprin-1 mRNA and protein in the cochlea. Moreover, we found Caprin-1-containing stress granules are induced in cochlear hair cells following aminoglycoside-induced damage. This is the first report of stress granule formation in mammalian hair cells and suggests that the formation of Caprin-1-containing stress granules is a key damage response to a clinically relevant ototoxic agent. Our results have implications for the understanding of aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss and provide further evidence that stress granule formation is a fundamental cellular stress response.
Project description:The mammalian cochlea loses its ability to regenerate new hair cells prior to the onset of hearing. In contrast, the adult vestibular system can produce new hair cells in response to damage, or by reprogramming of supporting cells with the hair cell transcription factor Atoh1. We used RNA-seq and ATAC-seq to probe the transcriptional and epigenetic responses of utricle supporting cells to damage and Atoh1 transduction. We show that the regenerative response of the utricle correlates with a more accessible chromatin structure in utricle supporting cells compared to their cochlear counterparts. We also provide evidence that Atoh1 transduction of supporting cells is able to promote increased transcriptional accessibility of some hair cell genes. Our study offers a possible explanation for regenerative differences between sensory organs of the inner ear, but shows that additional factors to Atoh1 may be required for optimal reprogramming of hair cell fate.
Project description:Inner ear development requires coordinated transformation of a uniform sheet of cells into a labyrinth with multiple cell types. While numerous regulatory proteins have been shown to play critical roles in this process, the regulatory functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have not been explored. To demonstrate the importance of miRNAs in inner ear development, we generated conditional Dicer knockout mice by the expression of Cre recombinase in the otic placode at E8.5. Otocyst-derived ganglia exhibit rapid neuron-specific miR-124 depletion by E11.5, degeneration by E12.5, and profound defects in subsequent sensory epithelial innervations by E17.5. However, the small and malformed inner ear at E17.5 exhibits residual and graded hair cell-specific miR-183 expression in the three remaining sensory epithelia (posterior crista, utricle, and cochlea) that closely corresponds to the degree of hair cell and sensory epithelium differentiation, and Fgf10 expression required for morphohistogenesis. The highest miR-183 expression is observed in near-normal hair cells of the posterior crista, whereas the reduced utricular macula demonstrates weak miR-183 expression and develops presumptive hair cells with numerous disorganized microvilli instead of ordered stereocilia. The correlation of differential and delayed depletion of mature miRNAs with the derailment of inner ear development demonstrates that miRNAs are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development and neurosensory-dependent morphogenesis.