Gene expression profiling of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following an acute exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposure to a sequentially treated pulp and paper mill effluent affects gene expression in the liver of male and female fathead minnows. Overall design: Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to either river water, which served as our control (C), 10% untreated kraft effluent (UTK), 25% treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% final effluent (CMO) from a multiprocess pulp and paper mill for 6 days. A total of 4 treatments. Each exposure aquarium consisted of a 42.1 L column that contained individual 5.3 L chambers. Each chamber contained a FHM breeding pair. A total of 3 biological replicates for male and female FHM per treatment were sent for microarray analysis resulting in a total of 24 arrays run as a reference design with a pooled sample of the 6 river water exposed fish serving as the reference sample..
Project description:We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposure to a sequentially treated pulp and paper mill effluent affects gene expression in the liver of male and female fathead minnows. Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to either river water, which served as our control (C), 10% untreated kraft effluent (UTK), 25% treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% final effluent (CMO) from a multiprocess pulp and paper mill for 6 days. A total of 4 treatments. Each exposure aquarium consisted of a 42.1 L column that contained individual 5.3 L chambers. Each chamber contained a FHM breeding pair. A total of 3 biological replicates for male and female FHM per treatment were sent for microarray analysis resulting in a total of 24 arrays run as a reference design with a pooled sample of the 6 river water exposed fish serving as the reference sample..
Project description:We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposures to pulp and paper mill effluents gene expression in the fathead minnow hypothalamus Keywords: Toxicology Overall design: Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to 100% pulp and paper mill effluents for 5 days. Tanks contained 4 females and 2 males. A total 4 tanks per effluents were used in this experiment. TM5, TM6, and KM4 represent different pulp and paper mill effluents from different mills coded for by FPInnovations-Paprican.
Project description:We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposures to pulp and paper mill effluents gene expression in the fathead minnow hypothalamus Keywords: Toxicology Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to 100% pulp and paper mill effluents for 5 days. Tanks contained 4 females and 2 males. A total 4 tanks per effluents were used in this experiment. TM5, TM6, and KM4 represent different pulp and paper mill effluents from different mills coded for by FPInnovations-Paprican.
Project description:Microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining soil health. A multiphasic approach to assess the effect of pulp and paper mill effluent on both the structure and function of microbial soil communities is taken. Bacterial communities from agricultural soils irrigated with pulp and paper mill effluent were compared to communities form soils irrigated with well water. Samples were taken from fields in the state of Uttarakhand, India, where pulp and paper mill effluent has been used for irrigation for over 25 years. Comparisons of bacterial community structure were conducted using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and clone libraries attained from the soil. Community-level physiological profiling was used to characterize the functional diversity and catabolic profile of the bacterial communities. The multiphasic approach using both physiological and molecular techniques proved to be a powerful tool in evaluating the soil bacterial community population and population differences therein. A significant and consistent difference in the population structure and function was found for the bacterial communities from soil irrigated with effluent in comparison to fields irrigated with well water. The diversity index parameters indicated that the microbial community in pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated fields were more diverse in both structure and function. This suggests that the pulp and paper mill effluent is not having a negative effect on the soil microbial community, but in fact may have a positive influence. In terms of soil health, this finding supports the continued use of pulp and paper mill effluent for irrigation. This is however only one aspect of soil health which was evaluated. Further studies on soil resistance and robustness could be undertaken to holistically evaluate soil health in this situation.
Project description:The majority of pulp and paper mills now biotreat their combined effluents using activated sludge. On the assumption that their wood-based effluents have negligible fixed N, and that activated-sludge microorganisms will not fix significant N, these mills routinely spend large amounts adding ammonia or urea to their aeration tanks (bioreactors) to permit normal biomass growth. N(2) fixation in seven Eastern Canadian pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems was analyzed using acetylene reduction assays, quantitative nitrogenase (nifH) gene probing, and bacterial isolations. In situ N(2) fixation was undetectable in all seven bioreactors but was present in six associated primary clarifiers. One primary clarifier was studied in greater detail. Approximately 50% of all culturable cells in the clarifier contained nifH, of which >90% were Klebsiella strains. All primary-clarifier coliform bacteria growing on MacConkey agar were identified as klebsiellas, and all those probed contained nifH. In contrast, analysis of 48 random coliform isolates from other mill water system locations showed that only 24 (50%) possessed the nifH gene, and only 13 (27%) showed inducible N(2)-fixing activity. Thus, all the pulp and paper mill primary clarifiers tested appeared to be sites of active N(2) fixation (0.87 to 4.90 mg of N liter(-1) day(-1)) and a microbial community strongly biased toward this activity. This may also explain why coliform bacteria, especially klebsiellas, are indigenous in pulp and paper mill water systems.
Project description:We examined whether exposure to municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) compromised the stress performance of laboratory-reared fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in a field setting. Adult minnows were caged at two sites upstream and three sites downstream of wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) discharging MWWE into the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. At each site one group of fish was sampled after a 26 day exposure to MWWE, while another group was subjected to 1-min air exposure followed by 60-min confinement and then sampled. Fish morphometrics and proximate composition were measured, and whole-body cortisol, glucose and lactate levels assessed as markers of the stress response. The whole-body protein, glycogen and lipid content were higher at the site closest to a WWTP outfall relative to the other downstream and upstream sites. There were no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels in minnows sampled at sites either upstream or downstream of WWTPs. Acute stressor exposure significantly elevated whole-body cortisol levels in all groups, and this response was not modified by the location of the sampling sites. The whole-body metabolite profile, including glucose and lactate levels, were significantly higher in fish caged immediately downstream from WWTP inputs relative to upstream sites. There was an acute-stressor-mediated increase in whole-body lactate, but not glucose, levels and this response was independent of sampling site. The results reveal that the capacity to evoke an acute stress response was not compromised in fathead minnows caged for 26 days downstream of WWTPs in the Bow River. However, there were changes in the whole-body proximate composition and metabolite levels immediately downstream from the WWTP outfall suggesting greater accumulation of energy stores in these fish. Taken together, our results suggest that environmental factors in addition to contaminants, including higher water temperature and nutrient availability, influence the impact of MWWEs on fish stress performance.
Project description:Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.
Project description:Municipal wastewater effluent can impact its receiving environment. In the St. Lawrence River, male fish living downstream from Montreal exhibit increased hepatic vitellogenin, intersex, delayed spermatogenesis and altered immune function. Few studies have examined genome-wide effects associated with municipal effluent exposure in fish to decipher the mechanisms of toxicity. The present objective was to identify hepatic cellular signaling pathways in fathead minnows following exposure to municipal wastewater effluent. Immature minnows were exposed for 21 days to either 0% (Control) or 20% municipal effluent, the highest concentration in the St. Lawrence River. Hepatic RNA was extracted and used to hybridize a fathead minnow oligonucleotide microarray containing approximately 15K gene sequences. Sixteen samples were examined, 8 control samples and 8 exposed samples.
Project description:Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This study was initiated to assess the ability of both targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring tools to discriminate impacts of two adjacent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Colorado's South Platte River. A cell-based estrogen assay (in vitro, targeted) determined that water samples collected downstream of the larger of the two WWTPs displayed considerable estrogenic activity in its two separate effluent streams. Hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression (in vivo, targeted) and NMR-based metabolomic analyses (in vivo, untargeted) from caged male fathead minnows also suggested estrogenic activity downstream of the larger WWTP, but detected significant differences in responses from its two effluent streams. The metabolomic results suggested that these differences were associated with oxidative stress levels. Finally, partial least squares regression was used to explore linkages between the metabolomics responses and the chemical contaminants that were detected at the sites. This analysis, along with univariate statistical approaches, identified significant covariance between the biological endpoints and estrone concentrations, suggesting the importance of this contaminant and recommending increased focus on its presence in the environment. These results underscore the benefits of a combined targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring strategy when used alongside contaminant monitoring to more effectively assess ecological impacts of exposures to complex mixtures in surface waters.
Project description:Masculinized female Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have resided downstream of paper mills in Florida since the 1980's. The potential impacts of this effluent on the mosquitofish endocrine system are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate gene expression patterns of endocrine system genes and global gene expression patterns in female G. holbrooki from a paper mill-impacted site. Masculinized female G. holbrooki were collected from a paper mill-impacted site (Fenholloway River) and from a reference site (Econfina River) and microarray analysis in livers was conducted. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes at the Fenholloway, with similarities in individual genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. These data indicate G. holbrooki from the Fenholloway may be impacted by a mixture of endocrine-active chemicals, including androgens. During the summer of 2012, G. holbrooki were captured from one site downstream of the Buckeye Pulp and Paper Mill (Taylor County, Perry, FL, USA) on the Fenholloway River (GPS coordinates: N 30 058.341’, W 83 588.569’) and one site in the Econfina conservation area (GPS coordinates: N 30 08.549', W 83 51.962') . Only sexually mature G. holbrooki (females > 15cm standard length and with the presence of the gravid spot near the vent) were collected. A 1/8 mesh seine was used for sample collection. Female G. holbrooki were transferred to 5 gallon aerated buckets filled with site water and were processed at the site immediately after collection. Fish were anesthetized using Tricaine-S (Western Chemical, Ferndale, USA) and sacrificed via spinal transection. Oocyte development was assessed upon dissection and livers were removed and stored in RNAlater (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) overnight at 4 C before storage at -80 C. RNA was isolated from the livers using TRIzol (Invitrogen, Grand Island, USA), hydrated using RNAsecure (Ambion, Grand Island, USA), and DNase treated using the Turbo DNA-free kit (Ambion, Grand Island, USA). Four oocyte-development stage-matched RNA samples per treatment were evaluated for RNA integrity using the 2100 BioAnalyzer (Agilent, Santa Clara, USA). The range of RIN values was 7.8-8.9.