Characterization of cell density-regulated gene expression of the grass endophyte Azoarcus sp. BH72
ABSTRACT: Azoarcus sp. BH72 is able to communicate via cell density-dependent gene regulation. Here, the impact of cell-free conditioned culture supernatants, obtained from stationary phase Azoarcus wild type cultures, on gene expression was investigated determining changes in transcript profiles when early exponential aerobic cultures were incubated with cell-free culture supernatants for one and four hours. Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) is involved in the regulation of several cellular mechanisms such as metabolic processes, microbe-host interactions or biofilm formation. The nitrogen-fixing model endophyte of grasses Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 shows density-dependent gene regulation in the absence of common hydrophobic autoinducers for pilA encoding the structural protein of type IV pili that are essential for plant colonization. Here, we used a transcriptomic approach to identify target genes differentially regulated under QS conditions in conditioned supernatants in comparison to standard growth conditions. Overall design: Analysis used RNA from the early exponential growth phase as control samples for comparison to the quorum-sensing condition samples taken at one hour and four hours after incubation with cell-free culture supernatants.
Project description:Azoarcus sp. BH72 is able to communicate via cell density-dependent gene regulation. Here, the impact of cell-free conditioned culture supernatants, obtained from stationary phase Azoarcus wild type cultures, on gene expression was investigated determining changes in transcript profiles when early exponential aerobic cultures were incubated with cell-free culture supernatants for one and four hours. Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) is involved in the regulation of several cellular mechanisms such as metabolic processes, microbe-host interactions or biofilm formation. The nitrogen-fixing model endophyte of grasses Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 shows density-dependent gene regulation in the absence of common hydrophobic autoinducers for pilA encoding the structural protein of type IV pili that are essential for plant colonization. Here, we used a transcriptomic approach to identify target genes differentially regulated under QS conditions in conditioned supernatants in comparison to standard growth conditions. Analysis used RNA from the early exponential growth phase as control samples for comparison to the quorum-sensing condition samples taken at one hour and four hours after incubation with cell-free culture supernatants.
Project description:The production of many Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors and secondary metabolites is regulated in concert with cell density by quorum sensing (QS). Therefore, strategies designed to inhibit QS are promising for the control of diseases. Here, we succeeded in isolating soil bacteria (56 out of 7,000 isolates) capable of inhibiting violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. We focused on an isolate identified as a Pseudomonas sp. based on its 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence. A partially purified inhibitor factor(s) derived from culture supernatants consisted of at least three major components by HPLC analysis. A more highly purified preparation (16 ?g/ml) specifically inhibited rhl-controlled pyocyanin and rhamnolipid production by wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1) and a QS double mutant PAO-MW1, without affecting growth. A significant inhibitory effect on elastase, protease and biofilm was also observed. These results provide compelling evidence that the inhibitor(s) interferes with the QS system. The identities of the inhibitors remain to be established.
Project description:Despite the discovery of the first N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum sensing (QS) in the marine environment, relatively little is known about the abundance, nature and diversity of AHL QS systems in this diverse ecosystem. Establishing the prevalence and diversity of AHL QS systems and how they may influence population dynamics within the marine ecosystem, may give a greater insight into the evolution of AHLs as signaling molecules in this important and largely unexplored niche. Microbiome profiling of Stelletta normani and BD1268 sponge samples identified several potential QS active genera. Subsequent biosensor-based screening of a library of 650 marine sponge bacterial isolates identified 10 isolates that could activate at least one of three AHL biosensor strains. Each was further validated and profiled by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, with AHLs being detected in 8 out of 10 isolate extracts. Co-culture of QS active isolates with S. normani marine sponge samples led to the isolation of genera such as Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus, both of which were low abundance in the S. normani microbiome. Surprisingly however, addition of AHLs to isolates harvested following co-culture did not measurably affect either growth or biofilm of these strains. Addition of supernatants from QS active strains did however impact significantly on biofilm formation of the marine Bacillus sp. CH8a sporeforming strain suggesting a role for QS systems in moderating the microbe-microbe interaction in marine sponges. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a QS positive Psychrobacter isolate identified several QS associated systems, although no classical QS synthase gene was identified. The stark contrast between the biodiverse sponge microbiome and the relatively limited diversity that was observed on standard culture media, even in the presence of QS active compounds, serves to underscore the extent of diversity that remains to be brought into culture.
Project description:Clostridium perfringens type B causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. By definition, these bacteria must produce alpha toxin (CPA), beta toxin (CPB) and epsilon toxin (ETX) although most type B strains also produce perfringolysin O (PFO) and beta2 toxin (CPB2). A recently identified Agr-like quorum-sensing (QS) system in C. perfringens controls all toxin production by surveyed type A, C, and D strains, but whether this QS is involved in regulating toxin production by type B strains has not been explored. Therefore, the current study introduced agrB null mutations into type B strains CN1795 and CN1793. Both type B agrB null mutants exhibited reduced levels of CPB, PFO, and CPA in their culture supernatants, and this effect was reversible by complementation. The reduced presence of CPB in culture supernatant involved decreased cpb transcription. In contrast, the agrB null mutants of both type B strains retained wild-type production levels of ETX and CPB2. In a Caco-2 cell model of enteritis, culture supernatants of the type B agrB null mutants were less cytotoxic than supernatants of their wild-type parents. However, in an MDCK cell in vitro model for enterotoxemic effects, supernatants from the agrB null mutants or wild-type parents were equally cytotoxic after trypsin activation. Coupling these and previous results, it is now evident that strain-dependent variations exist in Agr-like QS system regulation of C. perfringens toxin production. The cell culture results further support a role for trypsin in determining which toxins contribute to disease involving type B strains.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a key regulator of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microorganisms that inhabit soil are of strategic importance in the discovery of compounds with anti-QS properties. The objective of the study was to test the culture extract of a taxonomically novel species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI for its inhibitory effects on the QS-controlled virulence factors and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. The Paenibacillus sp. culture extract was used to test its anti-QS effects on the LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyoverdin production, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa as well as evaluate its therapeutic effects on lung bacteriology, pathology, hematological profile, and serum antibody responses of experimental animals in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Results showed significant decrease in the activities of QS-controlled LasA protease, LasB elastase pyoverdin, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa caused by the culture extract. Moreover, the extract significantly prolonged the survival times of rats and facilitated the clearance of biofilm infections from infected lungs. In conclusion, the antiquorum sensing effects of culture extract from a novel species of Paenibacillus provide new insights to combat biofilm-associated infections.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality rates due to its biofilm form. Biofilm formation is regulated via quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and provides up to 1000 times more resistance against conventional antibiotics. QS related genes are expressed according to bacterial population density via signal molecules. QS inhibitors (QSIs) from natural sources are widely studied evaluating various extracts from extreme environments. It is suggested that extremely halophilic Archaea may also produce QSI compounds. For this purpose, we tested QS inhibitory potentials of ethyl acetate extracts from cell free supernatants and cells of Natrinema versiforme against QS and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. To observe QS inhibition, all extracts were tested on P. aeruginosa lasB-gfp, rhlA-gfp, and pqsA-gfp biosensor strains and biofilm inhibition was studied using P. aeruginosa PAO1. According to our results, QS inhibition ratios of cell free supernatant extract (CFSE) were higher than cell extract (CE) on las system, whereas CE was more effective on rhl system. In addition, anti-biofilm effect of CFSE was higher than CE. Structural analysis revealed that the most abundant compound in the extracts was trans 4-(2-carboxy-vinyl) benzoic acid.
Project description:In Burkholdeira gladioli BSR3, quorum sensing (QS) signal plays a pivotal role in many bacterial behaviors, including motility, toxin production and oxalogenesis. To understand transcriptional profiling of QS-dependent genes, we carried out RNA-Seq analysis of the wild type B. gladioli BSR3, and a QS-defective mutant under different culture states (10h and 24h after incubation), representing exponential phase and stationary phase. Overall design: 2 samples examined: Burkholderia gladioli BSR3 wild type, and a QS-defective mutant, COK94 (BSR3 bglu_2g11050::lacZ). Two conditions: cultured in LB media for 10h or 24h.
Project description:Acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) controls the production of numerous intra- and extracellular products across many species of Proteobacteria. Although these cooperative activities are often costly at an individual level, they provide significant benefits to the group. Other potential roles for QS include the restriction of nutrient acquisition and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis of individual cells in a crowded but cooperative population. Under crowded conditions, QS may function to modulate and coordinate nutrient utilization and the homeostatic primary metabolism of individual cells. Here, we show that QS down-regulates glucose uptake, substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation, and de novo nucleotide biosynthesis via the activity of the QS-dependent transcriptional regulator QsmR (quorum sensing master regulator R) in the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Systematic analysis of glucose uptake and core primary metabolite levels showed that QS deficiency perturbed nutrient acquisition, and energy and nucleotide metabolism, of individuals within the group. The QS mutants grew more rapidly than the wild type at the early exponential stage and outcompeted wild-type cells in coculture. Metabolic slowing of individuals in a QS-dependent manner indicates that QS acts as a metabolic brake on individuals when cells begin to mass, implying a mechanism by which AHL-mediated QS might have evolved to ensure homeostasis of the primary metabolism of individuals under crowded conditions.
Project description:Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria employ a N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate their virulence traits. A sustainable biocontrol strategy has been developed using quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria to interfere with QS and protect plants from pathogens. Here, the prevalence and the diversity of QQ strains inhabiting tobacco leaf surfaces were explored. A total of 1177 leaf-associated isolates were screened for their ability to disrupt AHL-mediated QS, using the biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. One hundred and sixty-eight strains (14%) are capable of interfering with AHL activity. Among these, 106 strains (63%) of the culturable quenchers can enzymatically degrade AHL molecules, while the remaining strains might use other QS inhibitors to interrupt the chemical communication. Moreover, almost 79% of the QQ strains capable of inactivating AHLs enzymatically have lactonase activity. Further phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA revealed that the leaf-associated QQ bacteria can be classified as Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Myroides sp. The naturally occurring diversity of bacterial quenchers might provide opportunities to use them as effective biocontrol reagents for suppressing plant pathogen in situ.
Project description:Ruegeria sp. strain KLH11, isolated from the marine sponge Mycale laxissima, produces a complex profile of N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) molecules. The genome sequence provides insights into the genetic potential of KLH11 to maintain complex QS systems, and this is the first genome report of a cultivated symbiont from a marine sponge.