S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression
ABSTRACT: Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Overall design: Subconfluent cultures of MC38 cells were serum-starved for 16 hrs and activated with 10ug/mL S100A8/A9 for 6 hrs. Total RNA was extracted from unactivated or activated cells. 2 replicates each per stimulated cells, unstimulated cells, and control cells.
Project description:Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Subconfluent cultures of MC38 cells were serum-starved for 16 hrs and activated with 10ug/mL S100A8/A9 for 6 hrs. Total RNA was extracted from unactivated or activated cells. 2 replicates each per stimulated cells, unstimulated cells, and control cells.
Project description:To shed light on the early processes of immune response to peripheral nerve injury, we first used genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatics (Ingenuity, NextBio) pathway analyses of the proximal (P; regenerating) and distal (D; degenerating) nerve stumps at day 1 in the sciatic nerve axotomy model in rats. We identified a number of specific immunomodulatory genes and pathways that were regulated shortly post-injury in both the P and D segments, including all members of the interleukin (IL), chemokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), toll-like receptor (TLR), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), ion channel and myosin families. Immunomodulatory calcium-binding S100A8 and S100A9 were the top up-regulated genes in both the D and P segments. In cultured Schwann cells stimulated with the purified S100A8/A9 heterodimer we recorded a high level of similarity of the activated genes and pathways with that of the injured nerve, especially in the activation of the chemokine and cytokine gene networks that support agranulocyte and granulocyte chemotaxis, adhesion, transmigration and rolling signaling pathways. We also confirmed activation of multiple cell death related gene networks supporting TNFR1, natural killer cell receptor and death receptor apoptosis signaling in the D stump, and the gluconeogenesis/glycolysis and cytoskeletal motility signaling in the P stump, corroborated by activation of ERK, PI3K and JNK kinase pathways. As compared to the D segment, multiple additional pathways were more efficiently upregulated in the P stump, including the IL-6 and -17, MMP-9, calcium, activated agranulocyte, leukocyte rolling and glutathione-mediated detoxification signaling pathways. These data suggest that shortly after nerve injury, upregulation of S100A8/A9 is responsible for the expression and release of chemokines and cytokines by Schwann cells, necessary to generate the initial chemotactic gradient and guide the hematogenous immune cells into the injury site. Gene expression profiling of total RNAs extracted from injured and non-injured rat sciatic nerves, and primary rat Schwann cells stimulated with S100A8/A9 proteins
Project description:Investigation of the molecular effects of myeloid cells on cancer cells. Myeloid cells were shown to promote metastatic liver progression but the mechanisms involved is unknown. Here we examined gene expression changes in cancer cells upon myeloid cell depletion. Total RNA was isolated from FACS sorted MC38 colon cancer cells in tumor bearing livers of CD11bDTR transgenic mice after PBS (control) or DT (depletion) treatments.
Project description:Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a chronic childhood arthropathy with features of autoinflammation. Early inflammatory SJIA is associated with expansion and activation of neutrophils with a sepsis-like phenotype, but neutrophil phenotypes present in longstanding and clinically inactive disease (CID) are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine activated neutrophil subsets, S100 alarmin release, and gene expression signatures in children with a spectrum of SJIA disease activity. Methods: Highly-purified neutrophils were isolated using a two-step procedure of density-gradient centrifugation followed by magnetic-bead based negative selection prior to flow cytometry or cell culture to quantify S100 protein release. Whole transcriptome gene expression profiles were compared in neutrophils from children with both active SJIA and CID. Results: Patients with SJIA and active systemic features demonstrated a higher number of CD16+CD62Llo neutrophil population compared to controls. This neutrophil subset was not seen in patients with CID or patients with active arthritis not exhibiting systemic features. Using imaging flow cytometry, CD16+CD62Llo neutrophils from patients with active SJIA and features of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) had increased nuclear hypersegmentation compared to CD16+CD62L+ neutrophils. Serum levels of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 were strongly correlated with peripheral blood neutrophil counts. Neutrophils from active SJIA patients did not show enhanced resting S100 protein release; however, regardless of disease activity, neutrophils from SJIA patients did show enhanced S100A8/A9 release upon PMA stimulation compared to control neutrophils. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis of highly purified neutrophils from children with active SJIA identified 214 differentially expressed genes compared to neutrophils from healthy controls. The most significantly upregulated gene pathway was Immune System Process, including AIM2, IL18RAP, and NLRC4. Interestingly, this gene set showed intermediate levels of expression in neutrophils from patients with long-standing CID yet persistent serum IL-18 elevation. Indeed, all patient samples regardless of disease activity demonstrated elevated inflammatory gene expression, including inflammasome components and S100A8. Conclusion: We identify features of neutrophil activation in SJIA patients with active disease and CID, including a proinflammatory gene expression signature, reflecting persistent innate immune activation. Taken together, these studies expand understanding of neutrophil function in chronic autoinflammatory disorders such as SJIA. Overall design: Highly purified neutrophils isolated from patients with SJIA and healthy controls
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of zebrafish embryos at 28 hours post fertilization, comparing control 'unactivated' Tg(spi1::lox-eGFP-lox::NHA9) embryos with experimental 'Cre-activated' Tg(spi1::NHA9) embryos. Goal was to determine the effects of expressing NUP98-HOXA9 oncogene on global and blood cell-specific gene expression in early zebrafish development. Two-condition experiment, unactivated 'lGl' embryos vs. Cre-activated 'NHA9' embryos. Biological replicates: 2 control replicates, 2 experimental replicates.
Project description:Detection of viral RNA in the cytosol of infected cells depends on RIG-I-lilke recptors that use MAVS as an adapter protein to activate antiviral gene expression. MAVS is tail-anchored on mitochondria, mitochondria-associated membranes and peroxisomes. As peroxisomal membrane proteins can be mistargeted to mitochondria in the absence of peroxisomes, we hypothesized that MAVS-dependent antiviral gene expression is activated more efficiently in this instance. Pex19 deficient skin firoblasts derived from a Zellweger syndrome patient lack peroxisomes. We introduced wild type Pex19 into these cells to restore peroxisome formation and assessed alterations in the gene expression profile of these cells after reovirus infection. 6 samples: 9 and 16 hrs after reovirus infection at an MOI of 100 total RNA was extracted from Pex19 reconstituted and deficient cell lines. Gene expression data was compared to uninfected cells.