Chip-chip from C. glutamicum wild type expressing GlxR tagged with Strep Tag II and cyaB deletion strain expressing GlxR tagged with Strep Tag II.
ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a homolog of the cAMP receptor protein. Although over 200 GlxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the GlxR physiological function have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study comprehensively identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR binding sites. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a deletion mutant of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Overall design: To identify the direct GlxR targets, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. To investigate effect of depletion of cAMP by deletion of the cyaB gene, which encodes the sole adenylate cyclase in C. glutamicum, on GlxR binding in vivo, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a cyaB deletion strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. Three or more independent biological replicates were generated in both cases.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a homolog of the cAMP receptor protein. Although over 200 GlxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the GlxR physiological function have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study comprehensively identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR binding sites. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a deletion mutant of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. To identify the direct GlxR targets, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. To investigate effect of depletion of cAMP by deletion of the cyaB gene, which encodes the sole adenylate cyclase in C. glutamicum, on GlxR binding in vivo, we immunoprecipitated DNA from a cyaB deletion strain expressing a Strep-tag II-tagged GlxR-protein using an anti-Strep-tag II antibody. Three or more independent biological replicates were generated in both cases.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:C -terminally fused Strep -tag II is removed from rhuEPO expressed in tobacco plants. The finding suggests that direct fusion of purification tags at the C -terminus of rhuEPO should be avoided. Asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO), a desialylated form of EPO, is a potent tissue-protective agent. Recently, we and others have exploited a low-cost plant-based expression system to produce recombinant human asialo-EPO (asialo-rhuEPO(P)). To facilitate purification from plant extracts, Strep-tag II was engineered at the C-terminus of EPO. Although asialo-rhuEPO(P) was efficiently expressed in transgenic tobacco plants, affinity purification based on Strep -tag II did not result in the recovery of the protein. In this study, we investigated the stability of Strep-tag II tagged asialo-rhuEPO(P) expressed in tobacco plants to understand whether this fused tag is cleaved or inaccessible. Sequencing RT-PCR products confirmed that fused DNA sequences encoding Strep-tag II were properly transcribed, and three-dimensional protein structure model revealed that the tag must be fully accessible. However, Western blot analysis of leaf extracts and purified asialo-rhuEPO(P) revealed that the Strep-tag II was absent on the protein. Additionally, no peptide fragment containing Strep-tag II was identified in the LC-MS/MS analysis of purified protein further supporting that the affinity tag was absent on asialo-rhuEPO(P). However, Strep-tag II was detected on asialo-rhuEPO(P) that was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the Strep-tag II is removed during protein secretion or extraction. These findings together with recent reports that C-terminally fused Strep-tag II or IgG Fc domain are also removed from EPO in tobacco plants, suggest that its C-terminus may be highly susceptible to proteolysis in tobacco plants. Therefore, direct fusion of purification tags at the C-terminus of EPO should be avoided while expressing it in tobacco plants.
Project description:Fusion tags - amino acid sequences that are genetically coded to be expressed as attached moieties to a protein - have the potential to enhance the activity of native enzyme, enable specific purification of the enzyme, and promote simple and efficient immobilization of enzymes onto material supports. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of a Strep-tag II fusion tag on the properties of free and immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB). The gene encoding the mature portion of CALB was codon-optimized and cloned in pASG-IBA2 plasmid for expression in E. coli. Purified recombinant Strep-tag II CALB was immobilized to Strep-Tactin based support through affinity binding, and the immobilized and free Strep-tag II CALB were compared to a commercial CALB. Following modification, the enzyme could be selectively purified from culture media with no observable non-specific binding. The catalytic efficiency of the purified fusion-tagged enzyme was significantly greater than that of the commercial CALB in its free form. Immobilization of the fusion-tagged enzyme to Strep-Tactin modified crosslinked agarose support yielded a catalytically active enzyme; however, the kcat of the immobilized enzyme was significantly reduced compared to the free tagged enzyme. This work indicates that a C-terminus Strep-tag II fusion tag may be employed to improve the catalytic efficiency of free CALB, but may not be suitable for immobilized applications that employ binding of the enzyme to a Strep-Tactin-modified support.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum GlxR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-type regulator. Although over 200 GlxR-binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome are predicted in silico, studies on the physiological function of GlxR have been hindered by the severe growth defects of a glxR mutant. This study identified the GlxR regulon by chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray (ChIP-chip) analyses. In total, 209 regions were detected as in vivo GlxR-binding sites. In vitro binding assays and promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that GlxR directly activates expression of genes for aerobic respiration, ATP synthesis, and glycolysis and that it is required for expression of genes for cell separation and mechanosensitive channels. GlxR also directly represses a citrate uptake gene in the presence of citrate. Moreover, ChIP-chip analyses showed that GlxR was still able to interact with its target sites in a mutant with a deletion of cyaB, the sole adenylate cyclase gene in the genome, even though binding affinity was markedly decreased. Thus, GlxR is physiologically functional at the relatively low cAMP levels in the cyaB mutant, allowing the cyaB mutant to grow much better than the glxR mutant.
Project description:The worldwide emergence of the novel influenza A H5N1 and H5N8 has notably and directly impacted the poultry industry, resulting in the need for effective and cheap vaccination strategies to protect poultry worldwide. Subunit vaccines from plants can be produced for a low cost, and plant production systems are easily scaled up at low infrastructure cost. However, subunit vaccines generally induce low immunogenicity against influenza. To address this issue, we present a new and innovative method to generate highly immunogenic H5 oligomers. The method is based on specific and high-affinity interaction between engineered streptavidin (Strep-Tactin® XT) and the Strep-tag II peptide. H5-Strep-tag II-tagged trimers were produced <i>via</i> transient agroinfection in tobacco leaves and purified, and oligomers were formulated <i>in vitro</i> by adding purified homotetrameric Strep-Tactin® XT. Immunogenicity was tested by performing mouse immunizations. Haemagglutinin oligomers produced <i>in vitro</i> by combining Strep-Tactin® XT and Strep-tag II-fused haemagglutinin trimers from plants raised potentially neutralizing antibodies in mice. Vaccines based on actual H5N1 haemagglutinin can be produced by combining strep-tagged haemagglutinin trimers from plants and Strep-Tactin® XT.
Project description:The delivery of molecules into cells poses a critical problem that has to be solved for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents acting on intracellular targets. Cargos which by themselves cannot penetrate cellular membranes due to their biophysical properties can achieve cell membrane permeability by fusion to protein transduction domains (PTDs). Here, we engineered a universal delivery system based on PTD-fused Strep-Tactin, which we named Transtactin. Biochemical characterization of Transtactin variants bearing different PTDs indicated high thermal stabilities and robust secondary structures. Internalization studies demonstrated that Transtactins facilitated simple and safe transport of Strep-tag II-linked small molecules, peptides and multicomponent complexes, or biotinylated proteins into cultured human cells. Transtactin-introduced cargos were functionally active, as shown for horseradish peroxidase serving as a model protein. Our results demonstrate that Transtactin provides a universal and efficient delivery system for Strep-tag II-fused cargos.
Project description:The Strep-tag II is a nine-amino acid peptide that was developed as an affinity tool for the purification of corresponding fusion proteins on streptavidin columns. The peptide recognizes the same pocket of streptavidin where the natural ligand is normally bound so that biotin or its chemical derivatives can be used for competitive elution. We report here the crystal structures of the streptavidin mutants '1' and '2,' which had been engineered for 10-fold higher affinity towards the Strep-tag II. Both streptavidin mutants carry mutations at positions 44, 45, and 47, that is, in a flexible loop region close to the binding site. The crystal structures of the two apo-proteins and their complexes with the Strep-tag II peptide were refined at resolutions below 2 A. Both in the presence and absence of the peptide, the lid-like loop next to the ligand pocket--comprising residues 45 through 52--adopts an 'open' conformation in all four subunits within the asymmetric unit. The same loop was previously described to be disordered in the wild-type apo-streptavidin and to close over the pocket upon complexation of the natural ligand biotin. Our findings suggest that stabilization of the 'open' loop conformation in the absence of a ligand abolishes the need for conformational rearrangement prior to the docking of the voluminous peptide. Because no direct contacts between the flexible part of the loop and the peptide ligand were detected, it seems likely that the higher affinity of the two streptavidin mutants for the Strep-tag II is caused by a predominantly entropic mechanism.
Project description:In isolated perfused rat hearts, epidermal growth factor (EGF; 15 nM) increased cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) content by 9.5-fold. In rat cardiac membranes, EGF also stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal stimulation (35% above control) being observed at 10 nM-EGF. Half-maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase was observed at 40 pM-EGF. Although the beta-adrenergic-receptor antagonist propranolol markedly attenuated the isoprenaline-mediated increase in cAMP content of perfused hearts and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, it did not alter the ability of EGF to elevate tissue cAMP content and stimulate adenylate cyclase. The involvement of a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) in the activation of adenylate cyclase by EGF was indicated by the following evidence. First, the EGF-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase required the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, guanyl-5'-yl-imidodiphosphate (p[NH]ppG). Maximal stimulation was observed in the presence of 10 microM-p[NH]ppG. Secondly, in the presence of 10 microM-p[NH]ppG, the stable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate at a concentration of 10 microM blocked the stimulation of the adenylate cyclase by 1 nM- and 10 nM-EGF. Third, NaF + AlCl3-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not altered by EGF. The ability of EGF to stimulate adenylate cyclase was not affected by pertussis-toxin treatment of cardiac membranes. However, in cholera-toxin-treated cardiac membranes, when the adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by 2-fold, EGF was ineffective. Finally, PMA by itself did not alter the activity of cardiac adenylate cyclase, but abolished the EGF-mediated stimulation of this enzyme activity. The experimental evidence in the present paper demonstrates, for the first time, that EGF stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat cardiac membranes through a stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein, and this effect is manifested in elevated cellular cAMP levels in perfused hearts exposed to EGF.
Project description:Human cannabinoid receptor CB2 belongs to the class A of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). CB2 is predominantly expressed in membranes of cells of immune origin and is implicated in regulation of metabolic pathways of inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and pain sensing. High resolution structural studies of CB2 require milligram quantities of purified, structurally intact protein. While we previously reported on the methodology for expression of the recombinant CB2 and its stabilization in a functional state, here we describe an efficient protocol for purification of this protein using the Twin-Strep-tag/Strep-Tactin XT system. To improve the affinity of interaction of the recombinant CB2 with the resin, the double repeat of the Strep-tag (a sequence of eight amino acids WSHPQFEK), named the Twin-Strep-tag was attached either to the N- or C-terminus of CB2 via a short linker, and the recombinant protein was expressed in cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli as a fusion with the N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP). The CB2 was isolated at high purity from dilute solutions containing high concentrations of detergents, glycerol and salts, by capturing onto the Strep-Tactin XT resin, and was eluted from the resin under mild conditions upon addition of biotin. Surface plasmon resonance studies performed on the purified protein demonstrate the high affinity of interaction between the Twin-Strep-tag fused to the CB2 and Strep-Tactin XT with an estimated Kd in the low nanomolar range. The affinity of binding did not vary significantly in response to the position of the tag at either N- or C-termini of the fusion. The binding capacity of the resin was several-fold higher for the tag located at the N-terminus of the protein as opposed to the C-terminus- or middle of the fusion. The variation in the length of the linker between the double repeats of the Strep-tag from 6 to 12 amino acid residues did not significantly affect the binding. The novel purification protocol reported here enables efficient isolation of a recombinant GPCR expressed at low titers in host cells. This procedure is suitable for preparation of milligram quantities of stable isotope-labelled receptor for high-resolution NMR studies.
Project description:In Corynebacterium glutamicum, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) serves as an effector of the global transcriptional regulator GlxR. Synthesis of cAMP is catalyzed by the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase CyaB. In this study, we investigated the consequences of decreased intracellular cAMP levels in a ?cyaB mutant. While no growth defect of the ?cyaB strain was observed on glucose, fructose, sucrose, or gluconate alone, the addition of acetate to these growth media resulted in a severe growth inhibition, which could be reversed by plasmid-based cyaB expression or by supplementation of the medium with cAMP. The effect was concentration- and pH-dependent, suggesting a link to the uncoupling activity of acetate. In agreement, the ?cyaB mutant had an increased sensitivity to the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). The increased uncoupler sensitivity correlated with a lowered membrane potential of acetate-grown ?cyaB cells compared to wild-type cells. A reduced membrane potential affects major cellular processes, such as ATP synthesis by F1F O -ATP synthase and numerous transport processes. The impaired membrane potential of the ?cyaB mutant could be due to a decreased expression of the cytochrome bc 1-aa 3 supercomplex, which is the major contributor of proton-motive force in C. glutamicum. Expression of the supercomplex genes was previously reported to be activated by GlxR-cAMP. A suppressor mutant of the ?cyaB strain with improved growth on acetate was isolated, which carried a single mutation in the genome leading to an Ala131Thr exchange in GlxR. Introduction of this point mutation into the original ?cyaB mutant restored the growth defect on acetate. This supported the importance of GlxR for the phenotype of the ?cyaB mutant and, more generally, of the cAMP-GlxR system for the control of energy metabolism in C. glutamicum.