Transcriptional profiling of Vitis vinifera during grapevine-downy mildew interaction using cDNA microarrays
ABSTRACT: Study of gene expression during Plasmopara viticola infection in the resistant Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Regent'. The oomycete fungus Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is responsible for grapevine downy mildew disease. Most of the cultivated grapevines are sensitive to this pathogen, thus requiring intensive fungicide treatments. The molecular basis of resistance to this pathogen is poorly understood. We have carried out a cDNA microarray transcriptome analysis to identify grapevine genes associated with resistance traits. Early transcriptional changes associated with downy mildew infection in the resistant Vitis vinifera cultivar ‘Regent’, when compared to the susceptible cultivar ‘Trincadeira’, were analyzed. Transcript levels were measured at three time-points: 0, 6 and 12 hours post inoculation (hpi). Our data indicate that resistance in V. vinifera ‘Regent’ is induced after infection. This study provides the identification of several candidate genes that may be related to ‘Regent’ defense mechanisms, allowing a better understanding of this cultivar's resistance traits. Overall design: 3 time points: 0, 6 and 12 hours post inoculation by P. viticola. Two cultivars: control (Trinacedira) and test (Regent). Two biological replicates were performed at 0 hpi, and 3 biological replicates at 6 and 12hpi. At 12hpi, three technical replicates also were performed.
INSTRUMENT(S): Plant Systems Biology Lab, Vitis vinifera 3.4K cDNA microarray
Project description:Study of gene expression during Plasmopara viticola infection in the resistant Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Regent'. The oomycete fungus Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is responsible for grapevine downy mildew disease. Most of the cultivated grapevines are sensitive to this pathogen, thus requiring intensive fungicide treatments. The molecular basis of resistance to this pathogen is poorly understood. We have carried out a cDNA microarray transcriptome analysis to identify grapevine genes associated with resistance traits. Early transcriptional changes associated with downy mildew infection in the resistant Vitis vinifera cultivar ‘Regent’, when compared to the susceptible cultivar ‘Trincadeira’, were analyzed. Transcript levels were measured at three time-points: 0, 6 and 12 hours post inoculation (hpi). Our data indicate that resistance in V. vinifera ‘Regent’ is induced after infection. This study provides the identification of several candidate genes that may be related to ‘Regent’ defense mechanisms, allowing a better understanding of this cultivar's resistance traits. 3 time points: 0, 6 and 12 hours post inoculation by P. viticola. Two cultivars: control (Trinacedira) and test (Regent). Two biological replicates were performed at 0 hpi, and 3 biological replicates at 6 and 12hpi. At 12hpi, three technical replicates also were performed.
Project description:Downy mildew of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), caused by the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most serious concerns for grape production worldwide. It has been widely reported that the pathogenesis-related 4 (PR4) protein plays important roles in plant resistance to diseases. However, little is known about the role of PR4 in the defense of grapevine against P. viticola. In this study, we engineered loss-of-function mutations in the VvPR4b gene from the cultivar "Thompson Seedless" using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and evaluated the consequences for downy mildew resistance. Sequencing results showed that deletions were the main type of mutation introduced and that no off-target events occurred. Infection assays using leaf discs showed that, compared to wild-type plants, the VvPR4b knockout lines had increased susceptibility to P. viticola. This was accompanied by reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species around stomata. Measurement of the relative genomic abundance of P. viticola in VvPR4b knockout lines also demonstrated that the mutants had increased susceptibility to the pathogen. Our results confirm that VvPR4b plays an active role in the defense of grapevine against downy mildew.
Project description:The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera), an Old World species now cultivated worldwide for high-quality wine production, is extremely susceptible to the agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola. The cultivation of resistant V. vinifera varieties would be a sustainable way to reduce the damage caused by the pathogen and the impact of disease management, which involves the economic, health and environmental costs of frequent fungicide application. We report the finding of unique downy mildew resistance traits in a winemaking cultivar from the domestication center of V. vinifera, and characterize the expression of a range of genes associated with the resistance mechanism. Based on comparative experimental inoculations, confocal microscopy and transcriptomics analyses, our study shows that V. vinifera cv. Mgaloblishvili, native to Georgia (South Caucasus), exhibits unique resistance traits against P. viticola. Its defense response, leading to a limitation of P. viticola growth and sporulation, is determined by the overexpression of genes related to pathogen recognition, the ethylene signaling pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes, and the development of structural barriers. The unique resistant traits found in Mgaloblishvili highlight the presence of a rare defense system in V. vinifera against P. viticola which promises fresh opportunities for grapevine genetic improvement.
Project description:Mgaloblishvili, a Vitis vinifera cultivar, exhibits unique resistance traits against Plasmopara viticola, the downy mildew agent. This offers the unique opportunity of exploring the molecular responses in compatible and incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. In this study, whole transcriptomes of Mgaloblishvili, Pinot noir (a V. vinifera susceptible cultivar), and Bianca (a resistant hybrid) leaves, inoculated and non-inoculated with the pathogen, were used to identify P. viticola effector-encoding genes and plant susceptibility/resistance genes. Multiple effector-encoding genes were identified in P. viticola transcriptome, with remarkable expression differences in relation to the inoculated grapevine cultivar. Intriguingly, five apoplastic effectors specifically associated with resistance in V. vinifera. Gene coexpression network analysis identified specific modules and metabolic changes occurring during infection in the three grapevine cultivars. Analysis of these data allowed, for the first time, the detection in V. vinifera of a putative P. viticola susceptibility gene, encoding a LOB domain-containing protein. Finally, the de novo assembly of Mgaloblishvili, Pinot noir, and Bianca transcriptomes and their comparison highlighted novel candidate genes that might be at the basis of the resistant phenotype. These results open the way to functional analysis studies and to new perspectives in molecular breeding of grapevine for resistance to P. viticola.
Project description:Plasmopara viticola, the causal oomycete of grapevine downy mildew disease, secrets a series of RXLR effectors to manipulate host immunity. In this study, we characterized the role of a RXLR effector of P. viticola, PvRXLR159, in plant-microbe interaction. Transcription of PvRXLR159 in P. viticola was induced in the early stage of infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera 'Thomson Seedless'). Further results revealed that PvRXLR159 contains a functional signal peptide and its C terminus was essential to inhibit cell death by elicitors, INF1 and BAX, in Nicotiana benthamiana. Transient expression of PvRXLR159 suppressed N. benthamiana resistance to a pathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora capsici. Taken together, we propose that PvRXLR159 is induced and secreted by P. viticola to suppress host resistance.
Project description:The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1?, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1? and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1?, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1?, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola.
Project description:Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. A next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by T39 in Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir leaves. The long-term aim was to develop strategies to optimize the use of this agent for downy mildew control. RESULTS: More than 14.8 million paired-end reads were obtained for each biological replicate of T39-treated and control leaf samples collected before and 24 h after P. viticola inoculation. RNA-Seq analysis resulted in the identification of 7,024 differentially expressed genes, highlighting the complex transcriptional reprogramming of grapevine leaves during resistance induction and in response to pathogen inoculation. Our data show that T39 has a dual effect: it directly modulates genes related to the microbial recognition machinery, and it enhances the expression of defence-related processes after pathogen inoculation. Whereas several genes were commonly affected by P. viticola in control and T39-treated plants, opposing modulation of genes related to responses to stress and protein metabolism was found. T39-induced resistance partially inhibited some disease-related processes and specifically activated defence responses after P. viticola inoculation, causing a significant reduction of downy mildew symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The global transcriptional analysis revealed that defence processes known to be implicated in the reaction of resistant genotypes to downy mildew were partially activated by T39-induced resistance in susceptible grapevines. Genes identified in this work are an important source of markers for selecting novel resistance inducers and for the analysis of environmental conditions that might affect induced resistance mechanisms.
Project description:Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a crop of major economic importance. However, grapevine yield is guaranteed by the massive use of pesticides to counteract pathogen infections. Under temperate-humid climate conditions, downy mildew is a primary threat for viticulture. Downy mildew is caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola Berl. & de Toni, which can attack grapevine green tissues. In lack of treatments and with favourable weather conditions, downy mildew can devastate up to 75% of grape cultivation in one season and weaken newly born shoots, causing serious economic losses. Nevertheless, the repeated and massive use of some fungicides can lead to environmental pollution, negative impact on non-targeted organisms, development of resistance, residual toxicity and can foster human health concerns. In this manuscript, we provide an innovative approach to obtain specific pathogen protection for plants. By using the yeast two-hybrid approach and the P. viticola cellulose synthase 2 (PvCesA2), as target enzyme, we screened a combinatorial 8 amino acid peptide library with the aim to identify interacting peptides, potentially able to inhibit PvCesa2. Here, we demonstrate that the NoPv1 peptide aptamer prevents P. viticola germ tube formation and grapevine leaf infection without affecting the growth of non-target organisms and without being toxic for human cells. Furthermore, NoPv1 is also able to counteract Phytophthora infestans growth, the causal agent of late blight in potato and tomato, possibly as a consequence of the high amino acid sequence similarity between P. viticola and P. infestans cellulose synthase enzymes.
Project description:The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V. piasesezkii and V. pseudoreticulata and the suceptible V. vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. Following inoculation with sporangia of P. viticola isolate 'YL' on V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir', the infection was characterized by a rapid spread of intercellular hyphae, a high frequency of haustorium formation within the host's mesophyll cells, the production of sporangia and by the absence of host-cell necrosis. In contrast zoospores were collapsed in the resistant V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1', or secretions appeared arround stomata at the beginning of the infection period in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8'. The main characteristics of the resistance responses were the rapid depositions of callose and the appearance of empty hyphae and the plasmolysis of penetrated tissue. Moreover, collapsed haustoria were observed in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' at 5 days post inoculation (dpi) and in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' at 7 dpi. Lastly, necrosis extended beyond the zone of restricted colonization in all three resistant genotypes. Sporangia were absent in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' and greatly decreased in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and in V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1' compared with in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. Overall, these results provide insights into the cellular biological basis of the incompatible interactions between the pathogen and the host. They indicate a number of several resistant Chinese wild species that could be used in developing new cultivars having good levels of downy mildew resistance.