Global gene expression analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under drought stress during fibre development stages.
ABSTRACT: Transcriptome analysis in cotton during fibre development stages. To study the molecular response of drought stress in cotton under field condition global gene expression analysis was carried out at fibre development stages (0, 5, 10 and 20 dpa/Days post anthesis). Gossypium hirsutum cv. Bikaneri Nerma was used for the gene expression analysis. Cotton plants were subjected to drought stress at peak flowering stage. Samples were collected when the soil moisture content was 19.5% which is 50% of the normal control plots. Gene expression profiles in drought induced and their respective control samples were analyzed using Affymertix cotton Genechip Genome arrays to study the global changes in the expression of genome. Overall design: Total RNA was isolated from 0 dpa, 5 dpa, fibre bearing ovules of 10 dpa, and fibre bearing ovules of 20 dpa. Samples were collected from both drought induced and control plants. Biotin labeled cRNA was hybridized on Affymertix cotton Genechip Genome array following the Affymetrix protocols. Three biological replicates were maintained.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis in cotton during fibre development stages. To study the molecular response of drought stress in cotton under field condition global gene expression analysis was carried out at fibre development stages (0, 5, 10 and 20 dpa/Days post anthesis). Gossypium hirsutum cv. Bikaneri Nerma was used for the gene expression analysis. Cotton plants were subjected to drought stress at peak flowering stage. Samples were collected when the soil moisture content was 19.5% which is 50% of the normal control plots. Gene expression profiles in drought induced and their respective control samples were analyzed using Affymertix cotton Genechip Genome arrays to study the global changes in the expression of genome. Total RNA was isolated from 0 dpa, 5 dpa, fibre bearing ovules of 10 dpa, and fibre bearing ovules of 20 dpa. Samples were collected from both drought induced and control plants. Biotin labeled cRNA was hybridized on Affymertix cotton Genechip Genome array following the Affymetrix protocols. Three biological replicates were maintained.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fuzzless-lintless cotton mutants are considered to be the ideal material to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fibre cell development. Although there are few reports on transcriptome and proteome analyses in cotton at fibre initiation and elongation stages, there is no comprehensive comparative transcriptome analysis of fibre-bearing and fuzzless-lintless cotton ovules covering fibre initiation to secondary cell wall (SCW) synthesis stages. In the present study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out using G. hirsutum L. cv. MCU5 wild-type (WT) and it's near isogenic fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant at fibre initiation (0 dpa/days post anthesis), elongation (5, 10 and 15 dpa) and SCW synthesis (20 dpa) stages. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy study revealed the delay in the initiation of fibre cells and lack of any further development after 2 dpa in the fl mutant. Transcriptome analysis showed major down regulation of transcripts (90%) at fibre initiation and early elongation (5 dpa) stages in the fl mutant. Majority of the down regulated transcripts at fibre initiation stage in the fl mutant represent calcium and phytohormone mediated signal transduction pathways, biosynthesis of auxin and ethylene and stress responsive transcription factors (TFs). Further, transcripts involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, mitochondrial electron transport system (mETS) and cell wall loosening and elongation were highly down-regulated at fibre elongation stage (5-15 dpa) in the fl mutant. In addition, cellulose synthases and sucrose synthase C were down-regulated at SCW biosynthesis stage (15-20 dpa). Interestingly, some of the transcripts (~50%) involved in phytohormone signalling and stress responsive transcription factors that were up-regulated at fibre initiation stage in the WT were found to be up-regulated at much later stage (15 dpa) in fl mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative transcriptome analysis of WT and its near isogenic fl mutant revealed key genes and pathways involved at various stages of fibre development. Our data implicated the significant role of mitochondria mediated energy metabolism during fibre elongation process. The delayed expression of genes involved in phytohormone signalling and stress responsive TFs in the fl mutant suggests the need for a coordinated expression of regulatory mechanisms in fibre cell initiation and differentiation.
Project description:Cotton fibre is an important natural fibre for the textile industry. The number of fibre initials determines the lint percentage, which is an important factor for cotton fibre yield. Although fibre development has been described by transcriptomic analysis, the mechanism by which the long noncoding RNA manipulates the initiation of lint and fuzz fibres remains unknown. In this study, three lines with different lint percentages were developed by crossing Xu142 with its fibreless mutant Xu142 fl. We collected the epidermal cells from the ovules with attached fibres at 0 and 5 days post anthesis (DPA) from Xu142, the fibreless mutant Xu142 fl and the three lint percent diversified lines for deep transcriptome sequencing. A total of 2641 novel genes, 35 802 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 2262 circular RNAs (circRNAs) were identified, of which 645 lncRNAs were preferentially expressed in the fibreless mutant Xu142 fl and 651 lncRNAs were preferentially expressed in the fibre-attached lines. We demonstrated the functional roles of the three lncRNAs in fibre development via a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system. Our results showed that silencing XLOC_545639 and XLOC_039050 in Xu142 fl increased the number of fibre initials on the ovules, but silencing XLOC_079089 in Xu142 resulted in a short fibre phenotype. This study established the transcriptomic repertoires in cotton fibre initiation and provided evidence for the potential functions of lncRNAs in fibre development.
Project description:High-quality cotton fibre equates to a more comfortable textile. Fibre length is an important index of fibre quality. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signalling molecule in the regulation of fibre elongation. Results from in vitro ovule culture suggest that the alteration of fibre cell H2O2 levels affects fibre development. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzyme, and we found that GhAPX1AT/DT encoded one member of the previously unrealized group of cytosolic APXs (cAPXs) that were preferentially expressed during the fibre elongation stage. Transgenic cottons with up- and down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT were generated to control fibre endogenous levels of H2O2 Suppression of all cAPX (IAO) resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in H2O2 level in fibres and oxidative stress, which significantly suppressed fibre elongation. The fibre length of transgenic lines with over-expression or specific down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT did not show any obvious change. However, the fibres in the over-expression lines exhibited higher tolerance to oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fibres at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) of IAO lines identified by RNA-seq were related to redox homeostasis, signalling pathways, stress responses and cell wall synthesis, and the DEGs that were up-regulated in IAO lines were also up-regulated in the 10 DPA and 20 DPA fibres of wild cotton compared with domesticated cotton. These results suggest that optimal H2O2 levels and redox state regulated by cytosolic APX are key mechanisms regulating fibre elongation, and dysregulation of the increase in H2O2 induces oxidative stress and results in shorter fibres by initiating secondary cell wall-related gene expression.
Project description:Cotton fibre is a single cell and it is one of the best platforms for unraveling the genes express during various stages of fibre development. There are reports devoted to comparative transcriptome study on fiber cell initiation and elongation in tetraploid cultivated cotton. However, in the present investigation, comparative transcriptome study was made in diploid cultivated cotton using isogenic fuzzy-lintless (Fl) and normal fuzzy linted (FL) lines belong to Gossypium arboreum, diploid species at two stages, 0 and 10 dpa (days post anthesis), using Affymetrix cotton GeneChip genome array.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis uncovered the occurrence of few fibre cell initials in the Fl line as compared to many in Normal FL at -2 and 0 dpa. However, at 10 dpa there were no fibre cells found elongated in Fl but many elongated cells were found in FL line. Up-regulation of transcription factors, AP2-EREBP, C2H2, C3H, HB and WRKY was observed at 0 dpa whereas in 10 dpa transcription factors, AP2-EREBP, AUX/IAA, bHLH, C2H2, C3H, HB, MYB, NAC, Orphans, PLATZ and WRKY were found down regulated in Fl line. These transcription factors were mainly involved in metabolic pathways such as phytohormone signaling, energy metabolism of cell, fatty acid metabolism, secondary metabolism and other signaling pathways and are related directly or indirectly in fiber development. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to check fold up or down-regulation of these genes and transcription factors (TFs) down regulated in mutants as compared to normal at 0 and 10 dpa.This study elucidates that the up-regulation of transcription factors like AP2-EREBP, C2H2, C3H, HB, WRKY and phytohormone signaling genes at 0 dpa and their down-regulation at the 10 dpa might have constrain the fibre elongation in fuzzy-lintless line. Along with this the down-regulation of genes involved in synthesis of VLCFA chain, transcripts necessary for energy and cell wall metabolism, EXPANSINs, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), tubulin might also be the probable reason for reduced growth of fibres in the Fl. Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs), Leucine Rich Repeats) LRR- family protein and signal transduction coding for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, have been engaged in coordination of cell elongation and SCW biosynthesis, down-regulation of these might loss the function leads to reduced fibre growth.
Project description:Comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of G. arboreum L. cv. and its fuzzy-lintless mutant (ANOI 1960) at 0 and 10 dpa. Cotton is one of the most commercially important fibre crops in the world and used as a source for natural textile fibre and cottonseed oil. The fuzzy-lintless ovules of cotton mutants are ideal source for identifying genes involved in fibre development by comparing with fibre bearing ovules of wild-type. To decipher molecular mechanisms involved in fibre cell development, transcriptome analysis has been carried out by comparing G. arboreum cv. (wild-type) with its fuzzy-lintless mutant (ANOI 1960). Fuzzed-lintless mutant line was generated by back cross breeding between FL and Fl (recurrent parent) lines (personal communication by Dr. I. S. Katageri). Basically Fibre less type was a RIL, first recovered from cross between G.arboreum (linted) and G. anomalum (lint less). This RIL was used as donor parent and crossed with normal arboreum (as recurrent parent) to develop G. arboreum FL and G. arboreum Fl isogenic lines. This G. arboreum Fl line is named as ANOI 1960. Cotton bolls were collected at fibre initiation (0 dpa/days post anthesis) and elongation (10 dpa) and gene expression profiles were analyzed in wild-type and ANOI 1960 mutant using Affymetrix cotton GeneChip Genome array. Cotton plants were grown under field condition. Flowers were tagged and cotton bolls were collected during fibre development stages. Total RNA was isolated from fibre bearing ovules of wild-type (WT) and fuzzy-lintless ovules of mutant (ANOI 1960) collected at various (0 and 10 dpa) fibre development stages using SpectrumTM Plant Total RNA kit (Sigma, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Affymetrix cotton GeneChip Genome array (Affymetrix, USA) having 23,977 probe sets representing 21,854 cotton transcripts was used for transcriptome analysis. Three biological replicates were maintained to test the reproducibility and quality of the chip hybridization. cDNA labeling, array hybridization, staining and washing procedures were carried out as described in the Affymetrix protocols. CEL files having estimated probe intensity values were analyzed with GeneSpring GX-11.5 software (Agilent Technologies, USA) to get differentially expressed transcripts. The Robust Multiarray Average (RMA) algorithm was used for the back ground correction, quantile normalization and median polished probe set summarization to generate single expression value for each probe set. Normalized expression values were log2-transformed and differential expression analysis was performed using unpaired t-test. The p-values were corrected by applying the false discovery rate (FDR) correction (Benjamini and Hochberg, 2000).
Project description:Pectin, a major component of the primary cell walls of dicot plants, is synthesized in Golgi, secreted into the wall as methylesters and subsequently de-esterified by pectin methylesterase (PME). Pectin remodelling by PMEs is known to be important in regulating cell expansion in plants, but has been poorly studied in cotton. In this study, genome-wide analysis showed that PMEs are a large multi-gene family (81 genes) in diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii), an expansion over the 66 in Arabidopsis and suggests the evolution of new functions in cotton. Relatively few PME genes are expressed highly in fibres based on EST abundance and the five most abundant in fibres were cloned and sequenced from two cotton species. Their significant sequence differences and their stage-specific expression in fibres within a species suggest sub-specialisation during fibre development. We determined the transcript abundance of the five fibre PMEs, total PME enzyme activity, pectin content and extent of de-methylesterification of the pectin in fibre walls of the two cotton species over the first 25-30 days of fibre growth. There was a higher transcript abundance of fibre-PMEs and a higher total PME enzyme activity in G. barbadense (Gb) than in G. hirsutum (Gh) fibres, particularly during late fibre elongation. Total pectin was high, but de-esterified pectin was low during fibre elongation (5-12 dpa) in both Gh and Gb. De-esterified pectin levels rose thereafter when total PME activity increased and this occurred earlier in Gb fibres resulting in a lower degree of esterification in Gb fibres between 17 and 22 dpa. Gb fibres are finer and longer than those of Gh, so differences in pectin remodelling during the transition to wall thickening may be an important factor in influencing final fibre diameter and length, two key quality attributes of cotton fibres.
Project description:Secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis is an important stage of the cotton fibre development, and its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. We selected the Gossypium hirsutum GDSL (GhGDSL) lipase/hydrolase gene (CotAD_74480), which is expressed during SCW biosynthesis (19 through to 25 days postanthesis; DPA), for study. T1 -transgenic cotton lines expressing the ?-glucuronidase (gus) reporter under the control of a 1026-bp promoter fragment of GhGDSL (PGhGDSL ) showed 19 DPA stage-specific increase in GUS expression. 5' deletion indicated that the 194-bp fragment between -788 and -594 relative to the transcription start site was essential for this stage-specific expression. Site-directed mutagenesis of eight transcription factor binding sites within PGhGDSL demonstrated that the MYB1AT motif (AAACCA) at -603/-598 was critical for the 19 DPA-specific reporter gene expressions. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) analysis identified nine proteins, including GhMYB1 (CotAD_64719) that bound to the PGhGDSL promoter. Further, Y1H experiments using the 5' promoter deletions and individually mutated promoter motifs indicated that GhMYB1 interacted with PGhGDSL at MYB1AT sequence. GhMYB1 was expressed specifically in fibre from 19 DPA, overlapping with the sharp rise in GhGDSL expression, indicating that it could regulate GhGDSL during fibre development. Analysis of genes co-expressed with GhMYB1 showed that it potentially regulates a number of other 19-25 DPA-specific genes in networks including those functioning in the cell wall and precursor synthesis, but not the major polysaccharide and protein components of the fibre SCW. GhGDSL and its promoter are therefore potential tools for the improvement of cotton fibre quality traits.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE29566: Global gene expression analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under drought stress in leaf tissue. GSE29567: Global gene expression analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under drought stress during fibre development stages. Refer to individual Series
Project description:GRIM-19 (Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality 19) is a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory complex I in mammalian systems, and it has been demonstrated to be a multifunctional protein involved in the cell cycle, cell motility and innate immunity. However, little is known about the molecular functions of its homologues in plants. Here, we characterised GhMCS1, an orthologue of human GRIM-19 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and found that it was essential for maintaining complex integrity and mitochondrial function in cotton. GhMCS1 was detected in various cotton tissues, with high levels expressed in developing fibres and flowers and lower levels in leaves, roots and ovules. In fibres at different developmental stages, GhMCS1 expression peaked at 5-15 days post anthesis (dpa) and then decreased at 20 dpa and diminished at 25 dpa. By Western blot analysis, GhMCS1 was observed to be localised to the mitochondria of cotton leaves and to colocalise with complex I. In Arabidopsis, GhMCS1 overexpression enhanced the assembly of complex I and thus respiratory activity, whereas the GhMCS1 homologue (At1g04630) knockdown mutants showed significantly decreased respiratory activities. Furthermore, the mutants presented with some phenotypic changes, such as smaller whole-plant architecture, poorly developed seeds and fewer trichomes. More importantly, in the cotton fibres, both the GhMCS1 transcript and protein levels were correlated with respiratory activity and fibre developmental phase. Our results suggest that GhMCS1, a functional ortholog of the human GRIM-19, is an essential subunit of mitochondrial complex I and is involved in cotton fibre development. The present data may deepen our knowledge on the potential roles of mitochondria in fibre morphogenesis.