A comparative gene expression profiling of spondyloarthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis using oligonucleotide based microarrays
ABSTRACT: Comparative gene expression profiling of mononuclear cells from synovial fluid samples of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA) cases was performed. A total of 72 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in RA compared to SpA, with p-value threshold of 0.05 and using the Benjamini-Hochberg False Discovery rate multiple comparison corrections. From the list, 57 transcripts were found to be upregulated in RA as compared to SpA and 15 downregulated by a fold change cut-off of 1.5-fold. Overall design: The proposed study carried out mRNA expression profiling of mononuclear cells from synovial fluid samples of seven RA and five SpA cases. We have used 4X44K and 1X44K arrays from Agilent Technologies platform. Based on the RNA integrity, selected molecules were processed further using single-color microarray based gene expression. The raw data files obtained from this study were eventually analyzed with R package of the BioConductor suite.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-012391 Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray G4112A (Feature Number version)
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA) are chronic inflammatory disorders primarily targeting joints. Although the type of inflammatory cells present in affected joints implicated in the disease pathogenesis is the same, the diseases differ in terms of disease activity and manifestation. So to comprehend the two diseases in better terms, we carried out a comparative gene expression profiling using the inflammatory mononuclear cells from knee aspirated synovial fluid samples as this joint fluid bathes the affected region thereby giving us a closer view of the pathological site. We identified 1469 differentially regulated genes. Out of 1469 differentially regulated genes, 1366 genes were upregulated in SpA and 103 genes were downregulated in SpA versus RA. The proposed study carried out mRNA expression profiling of mononuclear cells from synovial fluid samples of seven RA and five SpA cases. We have used 4X44K and 1X44K arrays from Agilent Technologies platform. Based on the RNA integrity, selected molecules were processed further using single-color microarray based gene expression. The raw data files obtained from this study were eventually analyzed with R package of the BioConductor suite.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognise bacterial metabolites presented by MHC class I-related protein 1 (MR1). Bacterial dysbiosis has been implicated in auto-inflammatory disease development. We investigated MAIT cells in early, untreated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. METHODS:Blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells obtained from patients (SpA/RA) and controls were stimulated with fixed Escherichia coli to provide MAIT ligand. Cells were analysed by flow cytometry and MAIT cells were identified by MR1-5-OP-RU tetramers. Synovial biopsies were studied by confocal microscopy. RESULTS:Peripheral and synovial CD3+ MR1-tet+ MAIT cell frequencies were comparable in all groups. MAIT cells were detected in RA and SpA synovium based on CD3, CD161 and V?7.2 expression. Peripheral RA MAIT cells were mostly CD4+ (controls 8.3%, SpA 12.3%, RA 52.6%; p?<?0.001) and CD161 expression was strongly reduced (control mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)?=?2348, SpA MFI?=?2219, RA MFI?=?226; p?<?0.001). MAIT cells were hyporesponsive, shown by minimal upregulation of CD25 and CD69 to E. coli stimulation (control, CD25 MFI =?177, CD69 MFI?=?1307; SpA, CD25 MFI?=?95, CD69 MFI =?1257; RA, CD25 MFI?=?0, CD69 MFI =?467; p?<?0.001 and p?=?0.01 respectively). CONCLUSION:In early untreated RA patients, the peripheral MAIT cell composition was altered, with reduced levels of CD161 expression, and cells were hyporesponsive to stimulation. MAIT cell dysfunction may provide a link between the microbiome and development of RA.
Project description:Background:The aetiologies and pathogeneses of the joint diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) are still not fully elucidated. To increase our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, we analysed the protein composition of synovial fluid (SF) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. Methods:Fifty-six synovial fluid samples (RA, n?=?32; SpA, n?=?24) were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, the concentration of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the synovial fluid was measured, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined. Results:Three hundred thirty five proteins were identified within the SF. The more abundant proteins seen in RA SF were inflammatory proteins, including proteins originating from neutrophil granulocytes, while SpA SF had less inflammatory proteins and a higher concentration of haptoglobin. The concentration of cell-free DNA in the SF increased together with proteins that may have originated from neutrophils. Plasma CRP levels in both RA and SpA, correlated to other acute phase reactants. Conclusions:The proteomic results underline that neutrophils are central in the RA pathology but not in SpA, and even though inhibitors of neutrophils (migration, proteinase inhibitors) were present in the SF it was not sufficient to interrupt the disease process.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis (IMIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and spondyloarthritis (SpA). Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) target very different cellular components of the disease processes. Characterization of the pathobiological subtypes of IMIA could provide more specific treatment approaches for each disease. For example, RA has been proposed to consist of at least three synovial pathotypes (lymphoid, myeloid, and fibroid), and only a subgroup of RA patients have erosive disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various DMARDs on different synovial cell subsets using human ex vivo models of IMIA. METHODS:Synovial fluid and blood samples were obtained from a study population consisting of patients with RA, PsA, or peripheral SpA with at least one swollen joint (n = 18). The DMARDs used in this study were methotrexate, adalimumab, etanercept, tocilizumab, anakinra, ustekinumab, secukinumab, tofacitinib, and baricitinib. Paired synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLSs) were used in three different previously optimized ex vivo models. RESULTS:In SFMCs cultured for 48 hours, all DMARDs except anakinra decreased the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. In SFMCs cultured for 21 days, only the two tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) inhibitors adalimumab and etanercept decreased the secretion of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). In the FLS and PBMC 48-hour co-cultures, only tocilizumab (P < 0.001) and the two Janus kinase inhibitors tofacitinib and baricitinib (both P < 0.05) decreased the production of MCP-1 by around 50%. CONCLUSION:TNF? inhibition was effective in preventing inflammatory osteoclastogenesis, whereas tocilizumab, tofacitinib, and baricitinib had superior efficacy in cultures dominated by FLSs. Taken together, this study reveals that responses to cytokine inhibitors associate with cellular composition in models of IMIA. In particular, this study provides new evidence on the differential effect of DMARDs on leukocytes compared with stromal cells.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: We previously described the presence of nerve growth factor receptors in the inflamed synovial compartment. Here we investigated the presence of the corresponding nerve growth factors, with special focus on nerve growth factor (NGF). METHODS: mRNA expression levels of four ligands (NGF, brain derived growth factor (BDNF), neurotrophin (NT)-3, NT-4) and their four corresponding receptors (tyrosine kinase (trk) A, trkB, trkC, NGFRp75) were determined in the synovial fluid (SF) cells of 9 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 16 with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and compared with 7 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. NGF was also determined in synovial tissue (ST) biopsies of 10 RA and 10 SpA patients. The production of NGF by monocytes and lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry of SF cells, synovial tissue derived fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were assessed by ELISA on culture supernatant. RESULTS: SF cell analysis revealed a clear BDNF and NGF mRNA expression, with significantly higher NGF expression in RA and SpA patients than in the OA group. NGF expression was higher in ST samples of RA as compared to SpA. Using intracellular FACS analysis, we could demonstrate the presence of the NGF protein in the two inflammatory arthritis groups on both CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells, i.e. monocytes/macrophages, whereas cultured FLS did not produce NGF in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Neurotrophins and especially NGF are expressed in the synovial fluid and tissue of patients with peripheral synovitis. The presence of neurotrophins as well as their receptors, in particular the NGF/trkA-p75 axis in peripheral synovitis warrants further functional investigation of their active involvement in chronic inflammatory arthritis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small noncoding RNAs regulating the activities of target mRNAs and cellular processes, are present in human plasma in a stable form. In this study, we investigated whether miRNAs are also stably present in synovial fluids and whether plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs could be biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We measured concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-223 in synovial fluid from patients with RA and OA, and those in plasma from RA, OA and healthy controls (HCs) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, miRNAs in the conditioned medium of synovial tissues, monolayer fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells were examined. Correlations between miRNAs and biomarkers or disease activities of RA were statistically examined. RESULTS: Synovial fluid miRNAs were present and as stable as plasma miRNAs for storage at -20 degrees C and freeze-thawing from -20 degrees C to 4 degrees C. In RA and OA, synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, and miR-223 were significantly lower than their plasma concentrations, and there were no correlation between plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs. Interestingly, synovial tissues, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells secreted miRNAs in distinct patterns. The expression patterns of miRNAs in synovial fluid of OA were similar to miRNAs secreted by synovial tissues. Synovial fluid miRNAs of RA were likely to originate from synovial tissues and infiltrating cells. Plasma miR-132 of HC was significantly higher than that of RA or OA with high diagnosability. Synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-146a miR-155 and miR-223 of RA were significantly higher than those of OA. Plasma miRNAs or ratio of synovial fluid miRNAs to plasma miRNAs, including miR-16 and miR-146a, significantly correlated with tender joint counts and 28-joint Disease Activity Score. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma miRNAs had distinct patterns from synovial fluid miRNAs, which appeared to originate from synovial tissue. Plasma miR-132 well differentiated HCs from patients with RA or OA, while synovial fluid miRNAs differentiated RA and OA. Furthermore, plasma miRNAs correlated with the disease activities of RA. Thus, synovial fluid and plasma miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for RA and OA and as a tool for the analysis of their pathogenesis.
Project description:Arthritis refers to inflammation of joints and includes common disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathies (SpAs). These diseases differ mainly in terms of their clinical manifestations and the underlying pathogenesis. Glycoproteins in synovial fluid might reflect the disease activity status in the joints affected by arthritis; yet they have not been systematically studied previously. Although markers have been described for assisting in the diagnosis of RA, there are currently no known biomarkers for SpA.We sought to determine the relative abundance of glycoproteins in RA and SpA by lectin affinity chromatography coupled to iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis. We also used ELISA to validate the overexpression of VCAM-1, one of the candidate proteins identified in this study, in synovial fluid from RA patients.We identified proteins that were previously reported to be overexpressed in RA including metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and several S100 proteins. In addition, we discovered several novel candidates that were overexpressed in SpA including Apolipoproteins C-II and C-III and the SUN domain-containing protein 3 (SUN3). Novel molecules found overexpressed in RA included extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and lumican (LUM). We validated one of the candidate biomarkers, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), in 20 RA and SpA samples using ELISA and confirmed its overexpression in RA (p-value <0.01). Our quantitative glycoproteomic approach to study arthritic disorders should open up new avenues for additional proteomics-based discovery studies in rheumatological disorders.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory synovitis whose pathogenesis may involve autoimmune mechanisms. Anergy is a state of T-cell nonresponsiveness characterized by downregulated IL-2 production. Paradoxically, RA T cells are hyporesponsive and proliferate poorly to antigens and mitogens, thus sharing some characteristics with anergic T cells. We analyzed the molecular basis of anergy in cloned human CD4+ T cells using differential display RT-PCR and subsequently examined the levels of differentially expressed transcripts in RA and, as control, reactive arthritis (ReA) synovium. Several transcriptional events were common to anergic T cells and RA synovium. These included downregulation of CALMODULIN:, which is critical to T-cell activation, and of cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, which may mediate resistance to apoptosis in RA. Transcription of CALMODULIN: in RA synovium was less than 1% of that in ReA and was lower in RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells than in paired PBMCs. Following anti-TNF-alpha therapy in vivo, RA PBMC CALMODULIN: transcripts increased five- to tenfold. Pharmacological calmodulin blockade in vitro impaired antigen-specific proliferation. These data provide a link between reduced CALMODULIN: transcription and impaired T-cell responsiveness in RA. The identification of transcriptional changes common to anergic and RA synovial T cells should help interpret some of the characteristic RA cellular defects.
Project description:Lately it has become possible to analyze transcriptomic profiles in tissue sections with retained cellular context. We aimed to explore synovial biopsies from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients, using Spatial Transcriptomics (ST) as a proof of principle approach for unbiased mRNA studies at the site of inflammation in these chronic inflammatory diseases. Synovial tissue biopsies from affected joints were studied with ST. The transcriptome data was subjected to differential gene expression analysis (DEA), pathway analysis, immune cell type identification using Xcell analysis and validation with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The ST technology allows selective analyses on areas of interest, thus we analyzed morphologically distinct areas of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The top differentially expressed genes revealed an adaptive immune response profile and T-B cell interactions in RA, while in SpA, the profiles implicate functions associated with tissue repair. With spatially resolved gene expression data, overlaid on high-resolution histological images, we digitally portrayed pre-selected cell types in silico. The RA displayed an overrepresentation of central memory T cells, while in SpA effector memory T cells were most prominent. Consequently, ST allows for deeper understanding of cellular mechanisms and diversity in tissues from chronic inflammatory diseases.
Project description:There are a number of studies regarding to the susceptibility of A20 SNPs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, a few of these studies have shown an association between polymorphisms in the A20 gene and RA risk in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of A20 gene polymorphisms, the association between polymorphisms and clinical significance in Chinese RA patients.PCR and sequencing were used to identify A20 gene polymorphisms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (50 cases), synovial fluid (11 cases) from RA patients and PBMCs from 30 healthy individuals. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the A20 mRNA expression in 38 RA patients and 40 healthy individuals. Pearson's Chi square test and two independent-samples Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis.Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs5029937, rs3799491, rs598493, rs2307859, rs146534657, rs2230926, rs661561, and rs582757) were identified in PBMCs of RA patients. One new mutation (14284 T > A) was identified in synovial fluid mononuclear cells from one RA case. rs146534657 was identified for the first time in two RA cases. Patients with rs146534657 (12411 A > G, Asn102Ser) AG genotype or rs2230926 (12486 T > G, Phe127Cys) TG genotype had poor outcome. Significantly lower A20 mRNA expression was found in PBMCs from RA patients compared with healthy individuals (p < 0.001). There was a higher A20 mRNA expression in RA patients with rs2230926 TG genotype and rs146534657 AG genotype (11.56 ± 7.39) than patients with rs2230926 TT genotype and rs146534657 AA genotype (5.63 ± 4.37) (p = 0.031).Significantly lower A20 expression was found in RA patients. The polymorphisms of A20 were characterized in RA patients. We detected rs146534657 for the first time and identified a new A20 mutation (14284 T > A). A20 rs2230926 TG genotype and rs146534657 AG genotype may be related to poor outcome in RA patients.