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Base-resolution analyses of parent-of-origin and sequence dependent allele specific DNA methylation in the mouse genome (MRE-seq)

ABSTRACT: Allele specific DNA methylation (ASM) is crucial for genomic imprinting and mammalian development. Here we present a base-resolution, genome-wide allelic DNA methylation map for both CG and non-CG sites in the mouse brain. We found parent-of-origin dependent (imprinted) ASM at 1,952 CGs which form 55 discrete clusters. This uncovers 31 reported differentially methylated regions (DMRs), including virtually all known germline DMRs, and 24 novel candidate DMRs with some occurring at microRNA genes. In the same adult tissue we also report a surprising presence of non-CG methylation with some showing evidence of imprinting. Finally, we identified sequence dependent ASM at 131,765 CGs. Interestingly, methylation at these sites exhibits a strong dependence on the immediate adjacent bases, allowing us to define a conserved sequence preference for the mammalian DNA methylation machinery. Our genome-wide ASM map should help with understanding the epigenetic differences between two parental genomes in mammals. Overall design: The crosses of the two mouse strains 129x1/SvJ (129) and Cast/EiJ (Cast) were performed at Jackson Laboratories ( and the male mice F1 offspring and males of each of the two parental strains were shipped to investigator laboratories at 8 to 9 weeks of age. A total of 500ng genomic DNA isolated from IMR90, MEF, and the frontal cortex of F1i and F1r was digested in parallel by the DNA methylation dependent restriction enzyme FspEI. FspEI recognizes the CmC site (the second cytosine is methylated and can be in the context of CG, CHG or CHH) and creates a 5 protruding end 17 bases downstream of the methylcytosine. A similar experiment was performed by incubating the F1i genomic DNA with a DNA methylation independent restriction enzyme BstNI. The digested DNA was gel purified, size selected for fragments within 100-600bp. The resulting DNA was then prepared as genomic DNA libraries for high-throughput sequencing (Illumina).

INSTRUMENT(S): Illumina Genome Analyzer II (Homo sapiens)





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